Word Family - Arbiter

December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

Teaser

Europe, Maghreb, Arabia, Erebus

Full Text

  • Semitic *[ʕ/ġ]rb to depart, to set
    • Central Semitic
      • Arabic ġaraba
      • Northwest Semitic
        • Aramaic ערובה ʿrōbā sunset, evening, (Sabbath) eve
        • Canaanite
          • Phoenician *'irōb
            • Homeric Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē Western shore of the Aegean,\nmainland Greece\n(as opposed to Pelopennese or the islands)
              • Ancient Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē Land north of the Mediterranean Sea \nand west of the Aegean and Black Seas,\nEurope, Europa
                • Greek Ευρώπη Evrópi Europe, Europa
                • Latin Europa
                  • Western Romance
                    • French Europe
                      • English Europe
                        • Hindi यूरोप yūrop
                        • Korean 유럽 Yureop
                    • Italian Europa
                    • Portuguese Europa
                      • Japanese ヨーロッパ Yōroppa
                    • Spanish Europa
                  • Arabic أُورُوبَّا ʾūrūbbā
                  • Chinese 歐羅巴 Europa, Europe (archaic)
                    • Mandarian 歐羅巴 Ōuluóbā
                      • Mandarian 歐洲 Ōuzhōu Europe
                  • English Europa
                  • German Europa
                • Russian Европа Jevropa Europe
              • Punic *ʿarb
                • Latin arbiter
                  • Western Romance
                    • French arbitre mediator, arbitrator, referee
                      • English arbiter
                    • Italian arbitro referee, umpire, arbitrator
                    • Spanish árbitro referee
      • Central Semitic *ma-grb place of sunset, western place, the west locative
        • Arabic مَغْرِب maḡrib place or time of sunset, west, evening
          • Arabic الْمَغْرِب al-maḡrib The Maghreb, Morocco
          • English Maghreb
      • Northwest Semitic
        • Aramaic
          • Classical Syriac ܡܰܥܪܒܐ ma‑arba west, occident, sunset, western sky, west wind
        • Canaanite
          • Hebrew מַעֲרָב ma‑ārov the west, occident
      • Central Semitic ? surety, pledge (money before you leave)?
        • Arabic
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Hebrew ערבון erabon guarantee
          • Phoenician
            • Ancient Greek ἀρραβών arrabōn pledge, surety, deposit, down payment
              • Greek αρραβώνας arravónas engagement, betrothal, deposit, earnest money
              • Latin arrhabō
                • Latin arrha
                  • Western Romance
                    • French arrhes down payment, deposit
                      • English earnest
    • East Semitic
      • Akkadian 𒌅 erēbu to go down, to set, to enter
        • Akkadian Ereb night, sunset, the west in contrast to sunrise/east: Asu (Asia?
          • Arabic عَرَب ʿarab Arab
            • Aramaic
              • Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹 Arabāya Arabia
              • Ancient Greek Ἄρᾰψ Áraps Arab, Arabian
                • Greek Άραβας Áravas Arab
                • Ancient Greek Ἀρᾰβῐ́ᾱ Arabíā Arabia
                  • Greek Αραβία Aravía Arabia
                  • Latin Arabia Arabia
                    • English Arabia
                    • French Arabie
                    • Italian Arabia
                    • Spanish Arabia
                    • Yiddish אַראַביע arabye
            • Chinese 阿拉伯 Ālābó Arabia
            • Hebrew עֲרָב aráv Arabia
            • Persian عرب 'arab Arab, Arabian
              • Persian عربستان 'arabestân Arabia
                • Turkish Arabistan Arabia
            • Somali Carabiya Arabia
            • Swahili Uarabuni Arabia
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁régʷos darkness
      • Old Armenian երեկ erek evening, west, evening star (Venus)
        • Old Armenian երեկոյ erekoy evening
          • Armenian երեկո ereko evening
        • Old Armenian երէկ erēk yesterday
          • Armenian երեկ erek yesterday
      • Germanic *rekwaz darkness
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic
            • Ostrogothic 𐍂𐌹𐌵𐌹𐍃 riqis darkness
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse røkkr twilight
            • Icelandic rökkur twilight
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek Ἔρεβος Érebos primordial divinity of darkness
          • Latin Erebus
            • English Erebus
      • Indo-Iranian *Hráǰas
        • Indo-Aryan *Hráȷ́as
          • Sanskrit रजस् rájas darkness, dust, space between heaven and earth
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₁regʷesyéti to be getting dark
        • Germanic *rikwizjaną to get dark
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic
              • Ostrogothic 𐍂𐌹𐌵𐌹𐌶𐌾𐌰𐌽 riqizjan to become dark, to darken
        • Indo-Iranian *Hraǰasyáti
          • Indo-Aryan *Hraȷ́asyáti
            • Sanskrit रजस्यति rajasyáti to become dust, to be scattered

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Collected English words

Europe, Europa, Maghreb, arbiter, earnest, Arabia, Erebus