Word Family - Bid

December theme: Religion 📿

Introduction

*bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

I had to do these two at the same time just to make sure I was tracking which words go where, because the dictionaries and other sources sometimes also mix them up. Even in the rest of the Germanic langauges where the two English bids aren't complete homonyms (e.g. German bieten vs. bitten), the meanings can get awfully confusing; compare German bitten, to ask someone to do something vs. ver-bieten, to ask someone _not_ to do something (forbidden).

They probably don't have a common derivation. Probably. If they do, it's before reconstructable language.

Also, Happy Bodhi Day (Japanese Calendar variant).

Teaser

bid, forbid, Buddha

bid, bead, geas

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *bʰewdʰ- to be awake, to be aware
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰéwdʰeti being awake, being aware
      • Balto-Slavic *bljaustei
        • Slavic *bljustì to watch
          • East Slavic
            • Russian блюсти́ bljustí to guard, to keep, to watch over
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic блюсти bljusti
            • Serbo-Croatian бљу̏сти bljȕsti
      • Germanic *beudaną to offer, to bid, to command?
        • West Germanic
          • Old English bēodan to offer, to give, to announce
            • English bid to offer a price, to make an attempt
            • Old English Bīeda personal name
              • English (Saint) Bede (the Venerable)
          • Old High German biotan to offer
            • German bieten to offer, to present, to bid
        • Old Norse bjóða
          • Danish byde to order, to command, to invite, to offer
          • Icelandic bjóða to offer, to invite, to command
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *biudan
        • Germanic *furibeudaną to forbid, to command against
          • West Germanic
            • Old English forbēodan to forbid, to restrain
              • English forbid
            • Old High German firbiotan
              • German verbieten to forbid, to prohibit
          • Old Norse fyrirbjóða
            • Danish forbyde to disallow, to forbid, to ban
          • East Germanc
            • Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌱𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐌽 faurbiudan to forbid
      • Hellenic *péutʰomai
        • Ancient Greek πεύθομαι peúthomai
          • Ancient Greek πυνθάνομαι punthánomai
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बोधति bódhati)
            • Magadhi
              • Bengali বোঝা bojha to understand
        • Iranian
          • Avestan baoδaiti
          • Western Iranian
            • Persian بیدار‏ bīdār awake
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰtós one who has awoken, one who is known
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πυστός pustós known, familiar, famous
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha awoken, enlightened, the Buddha
            • Sauraseni
              • Pali Buddha the enlightened one, the Buddha
                • Thai พุทธ pút Buddha
                • Middle Chinese 佛陀 bɨutdɑ Buddha
                  • Mandarin Buddha
                  • Japanese ぶ​つだ Butsuda Buddha
                  • Korean 부처 Bucheo Buddha
                • Sogdian bwt the Buddha, statue of the Buddha
                  • Persian بت bot idol, Buddha statue
                    • Hindi बुत but idol, statue, fetish
                    • Persian بت‌خانه‏ bot-khāne temple, shrine lit. "idol-house"
                      • Hindi बुत-ख़ाना but-khānā temple, pagoda
            • English Buddha
            • Hindi बुद्ध buddh Buddha
            • Telugu బుద్ధుడు buddhuḍu wise person, sge, enlightened person, the Buddha
        • Iranian
          • Avestan busta realized, oberved
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰowdʰéyeti to make aware, to awaken causative imperfective
      • Balto-Slavic *baudeitei
        • Lithuanian báudyti incite, instigate, to encourage
        • Slavic *buditi to awaken, to rouse
          • East Slavic
            • Russian буди́ть budítʹ to wake up, to awaken
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian бу́дити búditi to awaken, to rouse, to begin (of an era, etc.)
          • West Slavic
            • Polish budzić to awaken
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बोधयति bodhayati to awaken, to restore to life or consciousness, to cause to observe
        • Iranian
          • Avestan baodaiieiti
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰis awareness, awakeness, knowledge
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बोधि bodhi perfecent knowledge, englightenment, bodhi
            • Pali बोधि bodhi perfect knowledge, englightenment, bodhi
              • Middle Chinese
                • Mandarin 菩提 pútí bodhi
                • Japanese ぼだい bodai bodhi
                • Korean 보리 bori bodhi
              • Thai โพธิ poo-tí bodhi
            • English bodhi
            • Sanskrit बोधिसत्त्व bodhi-sattva one on the way to enlightenment, Buddhist saint, bodhisattva
              • Pali bodhisatta bodhisattva
                • Arshian bodʰisattu bodhisattva
                • Middle Chinese 菩提薩埵 buo dei sɑt tuɑh bodhisattva
                  • Mandarin 菩薩 púsà bodhisattva
                  • Japanese ぼさつ bosatsu bodhisattva,
                • Thai โพธิสัตว์ poo-tí-sàt
              • English bodhisattva
              • Persian بودسف Bodisav
                • Arabic بوذسف Būdhasaf
                  • Arabic يوذسف Yūdhasaf hand writing mistake changed b to y [1]
                    • Georgian ჲოდასაფ Iodasaph [1]
                      • Greek Ιοσαφ Ioasaph [2]
                        • Latin (Sanctus) Iosaphatus
                          • English (Saint) Josaphat [2]
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰyétor
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बुध्यते búdhyate to wake, to know, to understand
            • Magadhi
              • Bengali বোঝা bojha
        • Iranian
          • Avestan būiδiiaēta they should be taught
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰéh₁yeti to be particularly awake? intensive imperfective
      • Balto-Slavic *budeʔtei
        • Lithuanian budė́ti to be awake, to watch, to be on duty
        • Slavic *bъděti
          • East Slavic бъдѣти bŭděti
            • Russian бдеть bdetʹ to keep watch, to keep vigil dated, literary
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic бъдѣти bŭděti to watch over, to keep vigil
            • Serbo-Croatian бде̏ти bdȅti to watch over, to keep vigil
          • West Slavic
            • Czech bdít to be awake, to watch over
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰowdʰos
      • Celtic *bowdos
        • Celtic *ɸrobowdos
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh rhybudd warning, advice, notice
          • Old Irish robud forenotice
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बोध bodha
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi बोध bodh insight, knowledge, perception, congition
        • Iranian
          • Avestan baoda
      • Tocharian *pāut-
        • Arshian pot- to honor, to flatter
        • Kushean paut- to honor, to flatter
          • Kushean pauto honor, flattery
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰéwdʰtis abstract action noun
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian bùsti wake up, wake
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πῠ́στῐς pústis inquiry, question, news, report
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बुद्धि buddhi intelligence, reason, intellect
            • Madhya
              • Hindi बुद्धि buddhi intelligence
        • Iranian
          • Avestan busti
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰo
      • Celtic *budos
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh bodd free will, consent
      • Germanic *budą offer, message
        • West Germanic
          • Old English bod command, order, mandate
            • English bode
        • Old Norse boð
          • Danish
          • Icelandic boð message, order, offer, omen
        • Germanic *budô messenger
          • West Germanic
            • Old English boda messenger, envoy, apostle, angel, prophet
              • English bode
            • Old High German boto messenger, envoy
              • German Bote messenger, letter carrier, apostle
                • German Botschaft news, tidings, embassy
        • Germanic *budilaz messenger, herald, bearer of an order
          • West Germanic
            • Old English bydel herald, warrant officer, announce, preacher
              • English beadle parish constable, warrant officer
              • Scots bedel attendant to a minister
            • Old High German butil
              • German Büttel court officer, policeman, menial
            • Frankish *budil
              • Dutch beul executioner, torturer, cruel person
              • Medieval Latin bedellus
                • French bedeau attendant at a church, caretaker of a church
                • Italian bidello caretaker, janitor
                • Spanish bedel janitor
        • Germanic *budōną to proclaim, to announce, to instruct
          • West Germanic
            • Old English bodian announce, foretell, preach
              • English bode
                • English forebode
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit बुध budha Mercury (planet), Puranic Hindu divinity associated with intellect, wit, communication, trade, and the planet Mercury
            • Magadhi
              • Bengali বুধ budh Mercury (planet)
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi बुध budh Mercury (planet)
              • Pali
                • Mongolian Буд Bud
                • Thai ดาวพุธ daao-put
                  • Thai วันพุธ wan pút
            • Telugu బుధుడు budhuḍu Mercury (planet)
            • Sanskrit बुधवार budhavāra Wednesday Mercury's day [3]
              • Elu
                • Sinhala බදාදා badādā
              • Magadhi
                • Bengali বুধবার budhbar
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi बुधवार budhvār
              • Telugu బుధవారము budhavāramu
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰrós wakeful
      • Balto-Slavic *budras
        • Lithuanian budrùs vigilant
        • Slavic *bъ̀drъ alert, cheerful
          • East Slavic
            • Russian бо́дрый bódryj
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian бо̏дар bȍdar
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan *budra
            • Avestan zaēnibudra
  • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰedʰ- to request, pray, ask for
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰédʰyeti to be praying, to be asking for
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian gedė́ti to mourn
          • Lithuanian gedė́jimas mourning (noun)
        • Slavic *žę̄dàti to wish, to desire
          • East Slavic жѧдати žędati
            • Russian жада́ть žadátʹ crave, thirst for (archaic)
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic жѧдати žędati to thirst, to desire
          • West Slavic
            • Polish żądać to demand
      • Celtic *gʷedyeti to pray
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh gweddïo to pray
        • Old Irish guidid to pray
          • Irish guigh to pray
      • Germanic *bidjaną to request, to ask for
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 bidjan to request, to ask, to pray, to beg
            • Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍅𐌰 bidagwa beggar
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse biðja to ask, to beg, to request, to pray
            • Danish bede to ask, to beg, to request, to pray
            • Icelandic biðja to ask, to request, to pray
        • West Germanic
          • Old English biddan to ask for, to entreat, to beg, to demand
            • English bid to issue a command, to invite, to summon, to utter a greeting
          • Frankish
            • Dutch bidden to pray
          • Old High German bitten to ask
            • German bitten to ask, to plead, to beg, to request
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan jaiδiiemi
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian 𐎩𐎮𐎡𐎹𐎠𐎷𐎡𐎹 ja-di-i-y-a-mi-i-y I pray
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰedʰeh₂ noun derivation
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *žęďa thirst, craving, wish, desire
          • East Slavic жажа žaža
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic жѩжда žjęžda
              • Russian жа́жда žážda thirst, craving
            • Serbo-Croatian же̑ђ(а) žȇđ(a) thirst
          • West Slavic
            • Polish żądza lust, craaving
      • Germanic *bedō a request, a prayer, a plea
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐌳𐌰 bida request, prayer, plea
        • West Germanic
          • Old English bedu request, prayer, religious worship
            • English bead [4]
            • Scots bede prayer, rosary
            • Old English Bīeda personal name
              • English (Saint) Bede (the Venerable)
          • Frankish
            • Dutch bede plea
          • Old High German bita request, inquiry
            • German Bitte request
        • Germanic *bedōną to pray
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German betōn to pray
              • German beten to pray
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰédʰtis abstract action noun
      • Proto-Armenian *god-i-
        • Old Armenian գոթի gotʿi worship, sorcery
      • Celtic *gʷeddis
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh gweddi prayer
        • Old Irish geis curse, taboo
          • Irish geis magical injunction, spell, prohibition, taboo
          • Scottish Gaelic geas
            • English geas
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰodʰyeh₂
      • Celtic
        • Old Irish guide prayer
          • Irish guí prayer
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰedʰos action or result noun
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πόθος póthos longing, regret, desire unrelated to páthos of similar meaning
          • Greek πόθος póthos longing, regret, desire

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

bid, (Saint) Bede (the Venerable), forbid, Buddha, bodhi, bodhisattva, (Saint) Josaphat, bode, bode, beadle, bode, forebode, bid, bead, (Saint) Bede (the Venerable), geas

Footnotes

  1. ^

    "But not till the mid-nineteenth century was it recognised that, in Josaphat, the Buddha had been venerated as a Christian saint for about a thousand years." David M. Lang's 1967 introduction to Woodward and Mattingly's 1914 translation of Barlaam and Ioasaph (http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674990388).

  2. ^

    India and Rome had a shared inheritance of Hellenistic astrology, after the conquests of Alexander the Great expanded and transformed the Persian sphere of influence. When the astrological 7-day week of planetary hours began to replace the 8-day nundinal cycle (`nundinal` was in last week: https://www.aidanem.com/word-family-diurnal.html) over the first few centuries CE, the idea spread widely through the Hellenistic world and beyond within a few hundred years.

  3. ^

    bead means "prayer", then "prayer with a rosary" -> "a rosary" -> "rosary beads" -> "beads in general"