Word Family - Bleak

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Teaser

blue, beluga, flame, bleach, black

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- to shine
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoltós
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian báltas white
        • Latin Balthae
          • Medieval Latin Balticus
            • English Baltic
      • Illyrian balta swamp
        • Albanian baltë mud
        • Balto-Slavic *balta
          • Latin Balthae
          • Slavic *bolto swamp, mud
            • East Slavic болото boloto
              • Russian боло́то bolóto bog, swamp, quagmire, marsh
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic блато blato swamp, quagmire
              • Serbo-Croatian блато blato mud
            • West Slavic
              • Polish błoto mud
        • Greek βάλτος váltos swamp, bog
        • Latin blattea swamp, muck, splatter
          • Latin blatta light-shunning insect, blood clot, purple
            • Western Romance
              • French blatte cockroach
              • Italian blatta cockroach
            • Greek βλαττα dyed purple wool
              • Greek μεταξαβλαττα spun purple fabric
        • Eastern Romance
          • Romanian baltă puddle, pond, muddy water, swamp
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥wós
      • Germanic *blēwaz blue, dark blue, blue-black
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse blár blue
            • Danish blå blue
            • Icelandic blár blue
            • Scots blae blue
        • West Germanic
          • Old English blāw
            • English blue
            • Scots blae
          • Frankish
            • Dutch blauw blue, bruised, drunk
              • Afrikaans blou blue
            • Old French blew
              • French bleu
              • English blue
              • Greek μπλε ble
              • Italian blu blue
          • Old High German blāo blue
            • German blau blue, drunk
            • Yiddish בלוי bloy blue
      • Italic
        • Latin flāvus yellow, blond, flaxen
          • Latin Flavus brother of Arminius "The Blond", probably not his real name
            • Latin Flavius family name, personal name
              • Western Romance
                • Italian Flavio personal name
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelo-s
      • Celtic *belo shining
        • Brythonic *bel
          • Brythonic *bel-? shining land?
            • Ancient Greek Βελέριον Cornwall
        • Celtic *belo-tanos shining-fire
          • Old Irish Beltaine
            • Irish Bealtaine May, Beltane
            • English Beltane
        • Celtic *belenos? shining one?
        • Gaulish Belenos divinity of the Sun
        • Brythonic *Belinos
          • Medieval Latin Belinus
          • Brythonic *Cunobelinos personal name, Hound of Belinos
            • Latin Cunobelinus
            • Old Welsh
              • English Cymbeline
              • Welsh Cynfelyn
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰolo-s?
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian balas white
          • Lithuanian balà swamp, mire, morass
      • Germanic balaz
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌱𐌰𐌻𐌰- bala- shining, grey
        • West Germanic
          • Old English *bal shining
            • Old English *balod shined? past participle
              • English bald
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥ló-s?
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit भाल bhāla splendor, lustre, forehead, brow
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek φᾰλός phalós white
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelō
      • Albanian balë white spot on forehead, badger
        • Albanian bal dog or goat (with white spot)
      • Old Armenian բալ bal fog, mist
        • Armenian բալ bal fog
      • Germanic *bēlą fire, pyre
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse bál fire
            • Danish bål fire, bonfire, pyre
            • Icelandic bál fire, bonfire, conflagration
            • Old Norse Báleygr Flaming-Eye (a name of Odin)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English bǣl pyre, bonfire, fire, flame, blaze
            • Old English bǣlfȳr sacrifical fire, funeral fire, balefire
              • English balefire
            • Welsh bal blaze
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoliko-s shiningness?
      • Italic
        • Latin fulica coot, waterfowl
          • Western Romance
            • French foulque coot
            • Italian folaga coot
          • Translingual Fulica taxonomic genus of rails, the coots
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰēlHs
      • Old Armenian
        • Armenian բիլ bil light blue
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *bě̃lъ white
          • East Slavic
            • Belarusian бе́лы bjély white
              • Belarusian Белару́сь Bjelarúsʹ Belarus lit. "White Rus/Ruthenia/Russia"
                • English Belarus
            • Russian бе́лый bélyj white
              • Russian белу́га belúga beluga
                • English beluga
          • Slavic *Bělъgordъ White-City
            • East Slavic Бѣлъгородъ Bělŭgorodŭ White-City, Belgorod
              • Russian Бе́лгород Bélgorod Belgorod
                • English Belgorod
            • South Slavic *Belgradъ White-City, Belgrade
              • Serbo-Croatian Бео̀град Beògrad Belgrade
              • Russian Белгра́д Belgrád Belgrade
                • English Belgrade
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelg-
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰélg-eti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek φλέγω phlégō I set on fire, I scorch, I kindle, I inflame
            • Ancient Greek φλέγμᾰ phlégma flame, heat, inflammation, phlegm
              • Arabic بَلْغَم balḡam phlegm, sputum
                • Ottoman Turkish بالغام balgam
                  • Turkish balgam
              • Latin phlegma
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French fleume phlegm
                    • French flegma phlegm spelling and pronunciation remodelled after Latin
                    • English phlegm
                  • Italian flemma phlegm
                    • French flemme laziness
                  • Spanish flema phlegm
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰélgey-eti
        • Italic
          • Latin fulgeō I flash, I glare, I shine
            • Western Romance
              • Italian fulgere to shine, to sparkle
              • Spanish fulgir to shine, to glow
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelgó-s
        • Indo-Iranian *bʰárgas
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit भर्ग bhárga radiance, splendor
        • Tocharian pälk- to burn, to illuminate, to see
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥gro-s
        • Italic *flagros burning
          • Latin flagrō I burn, I blaze
            • Latin flăgrāns burning
              • English flagrant
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥gmh₂-
        • Italic *flagma
          • Latin flamma
            • Western Romance
              • Old French flame
                • French flamme
                • English flame
              • Italian fiamma flame, pennant, flash
              • Spanish llama flame
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰléy-ti it shines? zero-grade deponent imperfective?
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰley- reanalyzed root
        • Proto-Indo-European *bʰleyǵ- extension
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰléyǵ-e-ti
            • Germanic *blīkaną to gleam, to shine
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blīcan to shine, to glitter, to twinkle
                • Frankish *blīcan
                  • Dutch blijken to appear, to become apparent, to turn out
                • Old High German blīhhan
              • Germanic *blikkatjaną to shine, to flash intensive verb
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blīccettan
                  • Old High German blekkezzen
                    • German blitzen to lightn, to flash
                      • German Blitz lightning, flash
                        • German Blitzkrieg blitzkrieg lit. "Lightning-War"
                          • English blitzkrieg
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlinéǵ-ti
            • Germanic *blinkaną to shine, to twinkle, to blink, to wink
              • West Germanic
                • Old English *blincan
                  • English blink
                • Frankish *blinkan
                  • Dutch blinken to shine, to glitter
                • Old Saxon *blinkan
                  • Danish blinke to blink, to wink, to glitter, to flash
                  • German blinken to blink
              • Germanic *blankaz bright, shining, white
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse blakkr
                    • Norwegian blakk faded, pale yellow or brown, muddy, bankrupt
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blanc white, greyish-white, pallid
                    • English blank
                  • Frankish *blank
                    • Dutch blank white, pale
                    • Western Romance *blancus
                      • Old French blanc
                        • French blanc white, blank
                        • English blank
                      • Italian bianco white, blank, linen
                      • Spanish blanco white
                  • Old High German blank
                    • German blank bright, clean, polished, naked, pure
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰliǵsḱé-ti iterative
            • Balto-Slavic
              • Lithuanian blizgėti to shine, to glitter, to sparkle
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰloyǵó-s
            • Germanic *blaikaz pale, white
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse bleikr
                  • Danish bleg pale, pallid
                  • Icelandic bleikur pink, pale
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blāc pale, shining, white
                  • English bleak
                • Frankish *blēk
                  • Dutch bleek pale, bleak
                • Old High German bleih
                  • German bleich pale, pallid
                  • Lombardic
                    • Italian biacca white lead, ceruse
                  • Yiddish בלייך
              • Germanic *blaikijaną to bleach, to whiten
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse bleikja
                    • Danish blege to bleach
                    • Icelandic bleikja to bleach
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blǣċan
                    • English bleach
                  • Frankish *blēken
                    • Dutch bleken to bleach
                  • Old High German bleihhen
                    • German bleichen to bleach, to fade
            • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlóyǵsko-s
              • Balto-Slavic *bloiskos
                • Latvian blaiskums spot
                • Slavic *blě̑skъ glitter, flash
                  • East Slavic блѣскъ blěskŭ
                    • Russian блеск blesk brilliance, glitter, lustre, shine
                  • South Slavic
                    • Serbo-Croatian блије̑сак blijȇsak flash, glare, shine
                  • West Slavic
                    • Polish blask brightness, brilliance, glare, shine
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlego-s
            • Germanic *blakaz burnt, black
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse blakkr dusky, black
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blæc black, ink
                  • English black
                  • Danish blæk ink
                    • Greenlandic pilikki ink
                • Frankish
                  • Old Dutch blak
                • Old High German blah

Visual

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Collected English words

Baltic, blue, Beltane, Cymbeline, bald, balefire, Fulica, Belarus, beluga, Belgorod, Belgrade, phlegm, flagrant, flame, blitzkrieg, blink, blank, bleak, bleach, black