Word Family - Bleak

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Teaser

blue, beluga, flame, bleach, black

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- to shine
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoltós
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian báltas white
        • Latin Balthae [1]
          • Medieval Latin Balticus
            • English Baltic
      • Illyrian balta swamp [2]
        • Albanian baltë mud
        • Balto-Slavic *balta
          • Latin Balthae [1]
          • Slavic *bolto swamp, mud
            • East Slavic болото boloto
              • Russian боло́то bolóto bog, swamp, quagmire, marsh
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic блато blato swamp, quagmire
              • Serbo-Croatian блато blato mud
            • West Slavic
              • Polish błoto mud
        • Greek βάλτος váltos swamp, bog
        • Latin blattea swamp, muck, splatter
          • Latin blatta light-shunning insect, blood clot, purple [3]
            • Western Romance
              • French blatte cockroach
              • Italian blatta cockroach
            • Greek βλαττα dyed purple wool
              • Greek μεταξαβλαττα spun purple fabric
        • Eastern Romance
          • Romanian baltă puddle, pond, muddy water, swamp
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥wós
      • Germanic *blēwaz blue, dark blue, blue-black
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse blár blue
            • Danish blå blue
            • Icelandic blár blue
            • Scots blae blue
        • West Germanic
          • Old English blāw
            • English blue
            • Scots blae
          • Frankish
            • Dutch blauw blue, bruised, drunk
              • Afrikaans blou blue
            • Old French blew
              • French bleu
              • English blue
              • Greek μπλε ble
              • Italian blu blue
          • Old High German blāo blue
            • German blau blue, drunk
            • Yiddish בלוי bloy blue
      • Italic
        • Latin flāvus yellow, blond, flaxen
          • Latin Flavus brother of Arminius "The Blond", probably not his real name
            • Latin Flavius family name, personal name [4]
              • Western Romance
                • Italian Flavio personal name
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelo-s
      • Celtic *belo shining
        • Brythonic *bel
          • Brythonic *bel-? shining land?
            • Ancient Greek Βελέριον Cornwall
        • Celtic *belo-tanos shining-fire
          • Old Irish Beltaine
            • Irish Bealtaine May, Beltane
            • English Beltane
        • Celtic *belenos? shining one?
        • Gaulish Belenos divinity of the Sun
        • Brythonic *Belinos
          • Medieval Latin Belinus
          • Brythonic *Cunobelinos personal name, Hound of Belinos
            • Latin Cunobelinus
            • Old Welsh
              • English Cymbeline
              • Welsh Cynfelyn
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰolo-s?
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian balas white
          • Lithuanian balà swamp, mire, morass [2]
      • Germanic balaz
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌱𐌰𐌻𐌰- bala- shining, grey
        • West Germanic
          • Old English *bal shining
            • Old English *balod shined? past participle
              • English bald
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥ló-s?
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit भाल bhāla splendor, lustre, forehead, brow
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek φᾰλός phalós white
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelō
      • Albanian balë white spot on forehead, badger
        • Albanian bal dog or goat (with white spot)
      • Old Armenian բալ bal fog, mist
        • Armenian բալ bal fog
      • Germanic *bēlą fire, pyre
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse bál fire
            • Danish bål fire, bonfire, pyre
            • Icelandic bál fire, bonfire, conflagration
            • Old Norse Báleygr Flaming-Eye (a name of Odin)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English bǣl pyre, bonfire, fire, flame, blaze
            • Old English bǣlfȳr sacrifical fire, funeral fire, balefire
              • English balefire
            • Welsh bal blaze
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoliko-s shiningness?
      • Italic
        • Latin fulica coot, waterfowl [5]
          • Western Romance
            • French foulque coot
            • Italian folaga coot
          • Translingual Fulica taxonomic genus of rails, the coots
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰēlHs
      • Old Armenian
        • Armenian բիլ bil light blue
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *bě̃lъ white
          • East Slavic
            • Belarusian бе́лы bjély white
              • Belarusian Белару́сь Bjelarúsʹ Belarus lit. "White Rus/Ruthenia/Russia"
                • English Belarus
            • Russian бе́лый bélyj white
              • Russian белу́га belúga beluga
                • English beluga
          • Slavic *Bělъgordъ White-City
            • East Slavic Бѣлъгородъ Bělŭgorodŭ White-City, Belgorod
              • Russian Бе́лгород Bélgorod Belgorod
                • English Belgorod
            • South Slavic *Belgradъ White-City, Belgrade
              • Serbo-Croatian Бео̀град Beògrad Belgrade
              • Russian Белгра́д Belgrád Belgrade
                • English Belgrade
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelg-
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰélg-eti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek φλέγω phlégō I set on fire, I scorch, I kindle, I inflame
            • Ancient Greek φλέγμᾰ phlégma flame, heat, inflammation, phlegm
              • Arabic بَلْغَم balḡam phlegm, sputum
                • Ottoman Turkish بالغام balgam
                  • Turkish balgam
              • Latin phlegma
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French fleume phlegm
                    • French flegma phlegm spelling and pronunciation remodelled after Latin
                    • English phlegm
                  • Italian flemma phlegm
                    • French flemme laziness
                  • Spanish flema phlegm
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰélgey-eti
        • Italic
          • Latin fulgeō I flash, I glare, I shine
            • Western Romance
              • Italian fulgere to shine, to sparkle
              • Spanish fulgir to shine, to glow
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰelgó-s
        • Indo-Iranian *bʰárgas
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit भर्ग bhárga radiance, splendor
        • Tocharian pälk- to burn, to illuminate, to see
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥gro-s
        • Italic *flagros burning
          • Latin flagrō I burn, I blaze
            • Latin flăgrāns burning
              • English flagrent
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰl̥gmh₂-
        • Italic *flagma
          • Latin flamma
            • Western Romance
              • Old French flame
                • French flamme
                • English flame
              • Italian fiamma flame, pennant, flash
              • Spanish llama flame
    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰléy-ti it shines? zero-grade deponent imperfective?
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰley- reanalyzed root
        • Proto-Indo-European *bʰleyǵ- extension
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰléyǵ-e-ti
            • Germanic *blīkaną to gleam, to shine
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blīcan to shine, to glitter, to twinkle
                • Frankish *blīcan
                  • Dutch blijken to appear, to become apparent, to turn out
                • Old High German blīhhan
              • Germanic *blikkatjaną to shine, to flash intensive verb
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blīccettan
                  • Old High German blekkezzen
                    • German blitzen to lightn, to flash
                      • German Blitz lightning, flash
                        • German Blitzkrieg blitzkrieg lit. "Lightning-War"
                          • English blitzkrieg
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlinéǵ-ti
            • Germanic *blinkaną to shine, to twinkle, to blink, to wink
              • West Germanic
                • Old English *blincan
                  • English blink
                • Frankish *blinkan
                  • Dutch blinken to shine, to glitter
                • Old Saxon *blinkan
                  • Danish blinke to blink, to wink, to glitter, to flash
                  • German blinken to blink
              • Germanic *blankaz bright, shining, white
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse blakkr
                    • Norwegian blakk faded, pale yellow or brown, muddy, bankrupt
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blanc white, greyish-white, pallid
                    • English blank
                  • Frankish *blank
                    • Dutch blank white, pale
                    • Western Romance *blancus
                      • Old French blanc
                        • French blanc white, blank
                        • English blank
                      • Italian bianco white, blank, linen
                      • Spanish blanco white
                  • Old High German blank
                    • German blank bright, clean, polished, naked, pure
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰliǵsḱé-ti iterative
            • Balto-Slavic
              • Lithuanian blizgėti to shine, to glitter, to sparkle
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰloyǵó-s
            • Germanic *blaikaz pale, white
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse bleikr
                  • Danish bleg pale, pallid
                  • Icelandic bleikur pink, pale
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blāc pale, shining, white
                  • English bleak
                • Frankish *blēk
                  • Dutch bleek pale, bleak
                • Old High German bleih
                  • German bleich pale, pallid
                  • Lombardic
                    • Italian biacca white lead, ceruse
                  • Yiddish בלייך bleykh pale
              • Germanic *blaikijaną to bleach, to whiten
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse bleikja
                    • Danish blege to bleach
                    • Icelandic bleikja to bleach
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English blǣċan
                    • English bleach
                  • Frankish *blēken
                    • Dutch bleken to bleach
                  • Old High German bleihhen
                    • German bleichen to bleach, to fade
            • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlóyǵsko-s
              • Balto-Slavic *bloiskos
                • Latvian blaiskums spot
                • Slavic *blě̑skъ glitter, flash
                  • East Slavic блѣскъ blěskŭ
                    • Russian блеск blesk brilliance, glitter, lustre, shine
                  • South Slavic
                    • Serbo-Croatian блије̑сак blijȇsak flash, glare, shine
                  • West Slavic
                    • Polish blask brightness, brilliance, glare, shine
          • Proto-Indo-European *bʰlego-s
            • Germanic *blakaz burnt, black
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse blakkr dusky, black
              • West Germanic
                • Old English blæc black, ink
                  • English black
                  • Danish blæk ink
                    • Greenlandic pilikki ink
                • Frankish
                  • Old Dutch blak
                • Old High German blah

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

Baltic, blue, blue, Beltane, Cymbeline, bald, balefire, Fulica, Belarus, beluga, Belgorod, Belgrade, phlegm, flagrent, flame, blitzkrieg, blink, blank, blank, bleak, bleach, black

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Two of several possible origins for Balthae (Baltic) are in this family, Baltic words for "white" and "swamp"

  2. ^

    The semantic connection between "white" and "swamp" is thought to be the reflective water, or possibly the white seed heads of cottonsedge common in marshes throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Wikimedia image

    Lithuanian balà: "swamp, mire, morass" is almost certainly an independent derivation of "swamp" from "white". The other Balto-Slavic swamp words may also be independent of the Illyrian, or may not.

    The Greek, Latin and Romanian words cannot develop natively from *bʰel- in Hellenic and Italic, which would cause them to start with ph/f instead of b/v. They must be borrowings from other branches, either late Illyrian or very early Slavic borrowings (or from Illyrian via otherwise unattested Balkan languages). Romanian baltă is also unlikely to derive directly from Latin blattea.

    Tyrian purple was associated with blod clots, probably because the most valued shade was a dark blood-clot color, or possibly the harvesting of the murex snails' hypobranchial gland was blood-clot like. Murex snails seem to have been included in the "mucky bugs" meaning of blatta?

  3. ^
  4. ^

    Flavius was originally a plebeian family in Rome, presumably named for a blond founding member of the family. The Flavian dynasty, though short, was crucial in restoring order after the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. A large number of slaves were freed during the Flavian dynasty, resulting in a large number of freedman families adopting the name. The Constantinian dynasty also universally used Flavius as a personal name, such that they are sometimes called the Neo-Flavian dynasty.

    It was later occasionally used as a title by some of the Germanic post-Roman kingdoms in Iberia and Italy.

  5. ^

    The Eurasian coot (and some other coot spp.) has a white patch on its forehead contrasting with its otherwise solid black feathers. Thus also, "bald as a coot".