Word Family - Centum

January theme: 98, 99, 100! 💯

Introduction

This is the 100th Word Family Friday in 100 weeks, and the last before I take a break for a few weeks to work on infrastructure and pad my buffer. I originally had a different idea, but then I realized I of course had to do "hundred", because it's such an important word in the history of historical linguistics. Indo-European languages have been grouped into "centum languages" and "satem languages" since Peter von Bradke in 1890.

Centum languages merge /ḱ/ with /k/, but keep /kʷ/ distinct. Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, and Italic languages are canonical centum languages. The group is named for the Latin centum: "hundred". (Note c is pronounced /k/ in Classical Latin, even before a front vowel as in centum, despite later palatalization affecting nearly all modern Romance pronunciation).

Satem languages merge /kʷ/ with /k/, but keep /ḱ/ distinct (generally becoming a sibilant: /s/, /ʃ/, or /ɕ/). Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic are canonical satem languages. The group is named for Avestan sata: "hundred" (acc. satem).

The smaller branches, Albanian, Anatolian, Armenian, and Tocharian, do not fit as neatly into either category. Some Anatolian languages preserve all three series separately, though Hittite has a later sound change which mimics centumisation. Tocharian merges all three series (as well as losing the voicing distinction, so no less than 9 PIE phonemes are all collapsed into /k/). Albanian and Armenian are both considered to show incomplete satemisation (though pretty darn complete at least in the case of Armenian).

Teaser

hand, ten, decimal, hundred, cent, thousand

Full Text

  • Pre-Proto-Indo-European **ḱemt? hand?? [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European **ḱemtos? [1]
      • Germanic *handuz hand [1]
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌿𐍃 handus
          • Crimean Gothic handa
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse hǫnd
            • Danish hånd
            • Icelandic hönd
        • West Germanic
          • Old English hand
            • English hand
          • Frankish *hant
            • Dutch hand
          • Old High German hant
            • German Hand
            • Yiddish האַנט hant
    • Pre-Proto-Indo-European **de-ḱm̥t? two hands
      • Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥ ten
        • Proto-Albanian *detsati
          • Albanian dhjetë
        • Old Armenian տասն tasn
          • Armenian տասը tasə
        • Balto-Slavic *dešimtis
          • Lithuanian dešimt
          • Slavic *desętь
            • East Slavic десѧть desętĭ
              • Russian де́сять désjatʹ
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic десѧть desętĭ
              • Serbo-Croatian десет deset
            • West Slavic
              • Polish dziesięć
        • Celtic *dekam
          • Brythonic *deg
            • Welsh deg
          • Old Irish deich
            • Irish deich
        • Germanic *tehun
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 taihun
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tíu
              • Danish ti
              • Icelandic tíu
          • West Germanic
            • Old English tīen
              • English ten
              • Scots tene
            • Frankish *tian
              • Dutch tien
            • Old High German zehan
              • German zehn
              • Yiddish צען tsen
            • Old Saxon tehan
              • Low German teihn
        • Hellenic *dékə
          • Ancient Greek δέκα déka
            • Greek δέκα déka
            • English deca-
        • Indo-Iranian *dáĉa
          • Indo-Aryan *dáśa
            • Dardic *dáša
              • Kashmiri دَہ dah
            • Sanskrit दश dáśa
              • Elu
                • Sinhala දහය dahaya
              • Magadhi 𑀤𑀰 daśa
                • Bengali দশ dôś
                • Rohingya doc
              • Maharashtri 𑀤𑀳 daha
                • Marathi दहा dahā
              • Sauraseni 𑀤𑀲 dasa
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi दस das
                • Pahari
                  • Nepali दस dasa
                  • Punjabi ਦਸ das
                • Pali dasa
          • Iranian *dáĉa
            • Avestan dasā
            • Northern Iranian
              • Saka *dasa
                • Khotani daso
              • Scythian
                • Alanian *δas
                  • Ossetian дӕс dæs
            • Pashto لس las
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish deh
                • Parthian 𐭣𐭮 ds
              • Old Persian *daθa
                • Persian ده dah
          • Nuristani *dáĉ
            • Kamviri dúć
        • Italic *dekem
          • Latin decem
            • Sardinian deghe
            • Eastern Romance
              • Dalmatian dic
              • Romanian zece
            • Western Romance
              • French dix
              • Italian dieci
              • Spanish diez
            • Latin decānus leader of a group of ten people, dean
              • Western Romance
                • Old French deien
                  • French doyen dean, doyen
                    • English doyen
                  • English dean
                  • Spanish deán dean
                • Italian decano dean, doyen
                • Spanish degano ranch administrator
            • Latin decimō
              • English decimate
            • Latin *decumo-mēnsris of/in the tenth month
              • Latin december
                • English December
            • Latin decimalis
              • English decimal
        • Tocharian *śäk [2]
          • Arshian śäk
          • Kushean śak
        • Proto-Indo-European *(d)ḱm̥tóm hundred lit. "tenth"?
          • Balto-Slavic *śimta-
            • Lithuanian šimtas
            • Slavic *sъto irregular, **sęto would be expected
              • East Slavic
                • Russian сто sto
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic съто sŭto
                • Serbo-Croatian сто̑ stȏ
              • West Slavic
                • Polish sto
              • Romanian sută
          • Celtic *kantom
            • Brythonic *kant
              • Welsh cant
            • Old Irish cét
              • Irish céad
          • Dacian
            • Romanian sută
          • Germanic *hundą hundred [3]
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌽𐌳 hund
            • West Germanic
              • Old English hund
              • Frankish *hund
                • Dutch hond old unit of land area, 100 roeden
              • Old High German hund
            • Germanic *hundaradą hundred lit. "hundred-count" [3]
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse hundrað
                  • Danish hundred
                    • Greenlandic untriti
                  • Icelandic hundrað
              • West Germanic
                • Old English hundred
                  • English hundred
                    • Hawai'ian haneli
                  • Scots hunder
                • Frankish *hundert
                  • Dutch honderd
                • Old Saxon hunderod
                  • Low German hunnert
                  • Middle High German hundert
                    • German Hundert
                    • Yiddish הונדערט hundert
          • Hellenic *he-kətón hundred lit. "one-hundred? the-hundred?"
            • Ancient Greek ἑκατόν hekatón
              • Greek εκατό ekató
              • English hecato-
            • Arcadocypriot ἑκοτόν hekotón
          • Indo-Iranian *ĉatám
            • Indo-Aryan *śatám
              • Dardic *šatá
                • Kashmiri şath
              • Sanskrit शत śatá
                • Elu
                  • Sinhala සියය siyaya
                • Magadhi 𑀰𑀢 śata
                  • Bengali শত śôt
                  • Rohingya cót
                • Maharashtri 𑀲𑀅 saä
                  • Marathi -शे -śe
                • Sauraseni 𑀲𑀤 sada
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi सौ sau
                  • Pahari
                    • Nepali सय saya
                    • Punjabi ਸੌ sau
                  • Pali sata
                • West Indo-Aryan
                  • Romani šel
            • Iranian
              • Avestan satəm
                • English satem
              • Northern Iranian
                • Scythian
                  • Alanian
                    • Ossetian сӕдӕ sædæ
              • Pashto سل sël
              • Western Iranian
                • Northwestern Iranian
                  • Kurdish sed
                • Old Persian *θata-
                  • Persian صد sad
            • Finno-Ugric *śata
              • Finnic *sata
                • Finnish sata
              • Mordvinic
                • Erzya сядо sjado
              • Permic *śod
                • Udmurt сю sju
              • Ugric
                • Hungarian száz
          • Italic *kentom
            • Latin
              • Sardinian
              • Eastern Romance
                • Dalmatian ciant
                  • Albanian qind
              • Western Romance
                • French cent
                  • English cent
                • Italian cento
                • Spanish ciento
              • Latin centuria century, 100 of anything
                • French centurie
                  • English century
                • Latin centuriō centurion, commander of 100 soldiers
                  • English centurion
              • Latin centēnārius hundredfold, containing hundred
                • English centenary
                • Arabic قِنْطَار qinṭār hundredweight, 100 riṭl
                  • Medieval Latin quintale hundredweight, 100 pounds
                    • French quintal hundredweight, 100 pounds or 100 kilograms
                      • English quintal hundredweight, 100 pounds or 100 kilograms
              • Latin centipelliō third stomach of a ruminant; psalterium, omasum lit. "hundred-skin"
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian cimpoi stomach of a ruminant, bellows, bagpipe
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian centopelle tripe
              • French centi-
                • English centi-
              • English centum
          • Tocharian *känte
            • Arshian känt
            • Kushean kante
          • Proto-Indo-European *tuh₂s-ḱm̥tóm?
            • Balto-Slavic *tūˀsantis
              • Lithuanian tūkstantis
              • Slavic *tỳsǫti
                • East Slavic
                  • Russian ты́сяча týsjača
                • South Slavic
                  • Old Church Slavonic тꙑсѧщи tysęšti
                  • Serbo-Croatian тѝсућа tìsuća
                • West Slavic
                  • Polish tysiąc
              • Finnic *tuhat
                • Finnish tuhat
            • Germanic *þūsundī
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐌸𐌿𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌹 þusundi
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse þúsund
                  • Danish tusinde
                    • Greenlandic tuusinti
                  • Icelandic þúsund
              • West Germanic
                • Old English þūsend
                  • English thousand
                    • Hawai'ian kaukani
                • Frankish *thūsunt
                  • Dutch duizend
                • Old High German thūsunt
                  • German tausend
                  • Yiddish טויזנט toyznt
                • Old Saxon thūsund
                  • Low German dusend

Visual

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Collected English words

hand, ten, deca-, doyen, dean, decimate, December, decimal, hundred, hecato-, satem, cent, century, centurion, centenary, quintal, centi-, centum, thousand

Footnotes

  1. ^

    **ḱm̥t is a possible origin for Germanic *handuz: "hand", in which case *déḱm̥ is derivable as *de-ḱm̥t: "two-hands". But *handuz has no certain cognates in other branches and is often considered of non-PIE origin.

    One of the more common PIE words for "hand", *ǵʰes-, is used in *(sm̥-)ǵʰéslom: "(one) handful, many, thousand", compare Armenian հազար hazar, Greek χίλια chília, Latin mīlle, Sanskrit सहस्र sahásra, all meaning "thousand".

    A transparent word for "ten" in Pre-PIE would not be unexpected, as PIE shows signs of a recent transition from five-based to ten-based counting.

    This is typologically common. Note the Swadesh list includes numbers 1-5, but not above.

    I wish we had more number pronunciations for Anatolian, which is the oldest distinct branch and so would provide more information about any recent changes in the PIE number system, but written Anatolian languages almost always use non-phonetic logograms for numbers. The only Anatolian numbers attested phonetically are two, three, and four. Hittie dān: "two" and tēries: "three" have expected forms, but meyawes: "four" is unexpected.

    This is not enough information to reach much of a conclusion. Though given that A) Uralic shows signs of transitioning from three-based counting to five-based counting before transitioning to ten-based, and B) there is other evidence of variation in the word "four", such as the possible derivation of *oḱtṓw: "eight" as a dual of the same root as gives Georgian ოთხი otxi: "four".

  2. ^

    Remember that Tocharian does not assibilate like the satem languages; ś here is a reflex of PIE d, not PIE .

  3. ^

    Germanic *hundą: "hundred" is gradually replaced by *hundaradą: "hundred-count", possibly because it merges phonologically with *hundaz: "dog (hound)" in most Germanic languages. *hundą still appears in some of the oldest written Germanic languages, but has effectively disappeared in all modern Germanic languages.