Word Family - Crystal

Dark Crystal 馃敭 bonus family


crystal, crust, custard, crustacean, cryo-

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *krews- to harden, to freeze
    • Proto-Indo-European *krust贸s hardened, frozen adjective
      • Hellenic *krust贸s
        • Ancient Greek 魏蟻蠉蟽蟿伪位位慰蟼 kr煤stallos ice, rock crystal [1]
          • Greek 魏蟻蠉蟽蟿伪位位慰 kr媒stallo crystal, ice
          • Latin crystallus
            • Western Romance
              • French cristal crystal
              • Spanish cristal crystal, glass, window pane
            • Old English cristalla
              • English crystal
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 饜瑧饜饜瑤饜饜瑳饜饜瑎 xruzdra hard
      • Italic
        • Latin crusta hard outer surface: rind, bark, shell, crust, scab
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian crust膬 crust
          • Western Romance
            • Old French cruste
              • French cro没te crust, scab
                • French cro没ton (bread) heel, crouton
                  • English crouton
              • English crust
              • French croustade
                • English custard
            • Italian crosta crust, scab, rind
              • Italian crostino crouton, canap茅 diminutive
                • English crostini
            • Spanish costra crust, scab, snot
          • New Latin Crustacea shelled
            • English crustacean
    • Proto-Indo-European *krusw贸s hardened, frozen adjective
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Latvian kruvesis frozen ground
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek 魏蟻峥犔佄肯 kr煤os cold, ice, frost [1]
          • English cryo-
    • Proto-Indo-European *krusm贸s adjective
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek 魏蟻蠀渭蠈蟼 krum贸s icy cold, frost [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *krus(t)茅mn胎 noun
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian kros虂s虂a虉m蹋 cold
        • Kushean kros虂ce cold
    • Proto-Indo-European *kruseh鈧 noun
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian kru拧脿 icefloe
        • Slavic
          • East Slavic
            • Ukrainian 泻褉懈虂谐邪 kr媒ha ice
      • Germanic *hrusa ground, crust, ice
        • West Germanic
          • Old English hruse earth, ground
          • Old High German rosa crust, ice


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Collected English words

crystal, crouton, crust, custard, crostini, crustacean, cryo-


  1. ^

    All of the Greek forms are problematic. 魏蟻蠀渭蠈蟼 krum贸s and 魏蟻峥犔佄肯 kr煤os both share an unexplained loss of an 's'. 魏蟻蠉蟽蟿伪位位慰蟼 kr煤stallos has the -伪位位慰- -allo- suffix, which is generally considered to mark a word borrowed from (non-Hellenic) Pre-Greek. And yet, the connection to the rest of the Indo-European words is too strong to ignore. Perhaps the word was borrowed from Hellenic into (non-Hellenic) Pre-Greek and then back into Ancient Greek??