Word Family - Crystal

Dark Crystal 🔮 bonus family


crystal, crust, custard, crustacean, cryo-

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *krews- to harden, to freeze
    • Proto-Indo-European *krustós hardened, frozen adjective
      • Hellenic *krustós
        • Ancient Greek κρύσταλλος krústallos ice, rock crystal [1]
          • Greek κρύσταλλο krýstallo crystal, ice
          • Latin crystallus
            • Western Romance
              • French cristal crystal
              • Spanish cristal crystal, glass, window pane
            • Old English cristalla
              • English crystal
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬎𐬰𐬛𐬭𐬀 xruzdra hard
      • Italic
        • Latin crusta hard outer surface: rind, bark, shell, crust, scab
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian crustă crust
          • Western Romance
            • Old French cruste
              • French croûte crust, scab
                • French croûton (bread) heel, crouton
                  • English crouton
              • English crust
              • French croustade
                • English custard
            • Italian crosta crust, scab, rind
              • Italian crostino crouton, canapé diminutive
                • English crostini
            • Spanish costra crust, scab, snot
          • New Latin Crustacea shelled
            • English crustacean
    • Proto-Indo-European *kruswós hardened, frozen adjective
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Latvian kruvesis frozen ground
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek κρῠ́ος krúos cold, ice, frost [1]
          • English cryo-
    • Proto-Indo-European *krusmós adjective
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek κρυμός krumós icy cold, frost [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *krus(t)émn̥ noun
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian krośśäṃ cold
        • Kushean krośce cold
    • Proto-Indo-European *kruseh₂ noun
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian krušà icefloe
        • Slavic
          • East Slavic
            • Ukrainian кри́га krýha ice
      • Germanic *hrusa ground, crust, ice
        • West Germanic
          • Old English hruse earth, ground
          • Old High German rosa crust, ice


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Collected English words

crystal, crouton, crust, custard, crostini, crustacean, cryo-


  1. ^

    All of the Greek forms are problematic. κρυμός krumós and κρῠ́ος krúos both share an unexplained loss of an 's'. κρύσταλλος krústallos has the -αλλο- -allo- suffix, which is generally considered to mark a word borrowed from (non-Hellenic) Pre-Greek. And yet, the connection to the rest of the Indo-European words is too strong to ignore. Perhaps the word was borrowed from Hellenic into (non-Hellenic) Pre-Greek and then back into Ancient Greek??