Word Family - Duke

January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

Introduction

Germanic really went to town with this root, creating a bunch of morphological forms that aren't attested in any other branches, and in a few cases I can't even relate them to any standard derivational forms I know in either PIE or Proto-Germanic.

Teaser

wanton, duct tape, duke, doge, dynamite, dynasty

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *dewk- to pull, to draw, to lead
    • Proto-Indo-European *déwk(n)ti pulls, draws, leads transitive imperfective?
      • Albanian *enduka
        • Albanian nduk to draw out, to pull up, to pluck
      • Celtic *duketi
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh dwyn to steal, to take, to bring to
      • Germanic *teuhanã
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍄𐌹𐌿𐌷𐌰𐌽 tiuhan to pull, to drag, to lead
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tēon to drag, to pull, to lead, to teach, to proceed
            • Old English wantogen uneducated, unrestrained
              • English wanton
          • Old High German ziohan
            • German ziehen to pull, to drag, to draw, to extract
            • Yiddish ציִען tsien to pull
      • Italic *doukō
        • Latin dūcō I lead, I guide, I pull, I consider, I prolong
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a duce to carry, to lead, to go, to die
          • Western Romance
            • Italian ducere to lead, to guide, to mold, to temper
          • Latin ductus led, guided
            • Medieval Latin ductus pipe, channel, aqueduct
              • English duct
                • English duct tape
            • Latin ductilis leadable
              • English ductile
            • Latin aquaeductus
              • English aqueduct
            • Latin condūcō I pull together
              • English conduct
            • Latin dēdūcō I pull from
              • English deduct
              • English deduce
            • Latin ēdūcō I lead, I raise up
              • English educate
            • Latin indūcō I bring in
              • English induce
            • Latin intrōdūcō I lead into
              • English introduce
            • Latin prōdūcō I bring forward, I present, I offer for sale
              • English produce
            • Latin redūcō I draw back, I lead home, I retreat
              • English reduce
            • Latin sēdūcō I lead astray, I seduce
              • English seduce
            • Latin subdūcō
              • English subdue
    • Proto-Indo-European *déwkseti
      • Indo-Iranian *dáwxšati to suck, to suckle, to milk [1]
        • Northern Iranian
          • Scythian
            • Ossetian
        • Pashto لوشل‏ lwšl to milk
        • Western Iranian
          • Kurdish dotin to milk
          • Old Persian *dáuxšatiy
            • Persian دوشیدن dušidan to milk
    • Proto-Indo-European *dowkeh₂yéti causative
      • Germanic *tugōnã to draw, to tear
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse toga
            • Icelandic toga to pull, to draw, to tug, to trawl
        • West Germanic
          • Old English togian to tug, to tow
            • English tow
            • English tug
          • Old High German zogōn to pull, to jerk
        • Germanic *tukkōnã intensive
          • West Germanic
            • Old English tucian
              • English tuck
              • Scots tuk to tuck, to fold, to gather up
            • Old High German zucchōn
              • German zucken to jerk
            • Frankish *tukkōn to touch, to hit, to knock
              • Dutch tokkelen to tap, to tick, to strum an instrument
              • Vulgar Latin *toccō I strike, I knock
                • Sardinian tocai
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian a toca to chop, to bother
                • Western Romance
                  • French toucher to touch, to affect
                    • English touch
                    • English touché
                  • French toquer to hit, to knock, to bother
                  • Italian toccare to touch
                  • Spanish tocar to touch, to knock, to play, to affect
    • Proto-Indo-European *dowkéyeti causative imperfective
      • Germanic *taugijanã to stretch, to draw
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse teygja
          • Icelandic teygja to stretch
          • Swedish töja to stretch, to delay
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tīeġan
            • English tie
            • Scots tye to tie
    • Proto-Indo-European dewkn̥t pulling? abstract action noun
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite tukkanzi- cultivation, breeding of animals
    • Proto-Indo-European *déwktis act of pulling, act of drawing
      • Germanic *tuhtiz an act of pulling, discipline
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *tauhts
            • Gothic 𐌿𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌷𐍄𐍃 ustauhts completion, result, purpose? lit. "out-pulling?" used to translate τέλος telos in Romans 10:4
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tyht training, instruction, motion, progress, manner, usage, practice
          • Old High German zuht
            • German Zucht breeding of plants or animals, breed, lineage, manners (archaic)
    • Proto-Indo-European *dukis a pull, a leading
      • Germanic *tugiz a drawing, a tug, a pull
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tyġe a tug
          • Old High German zug
            • German Zug a train, a pull, a course, a draught, move (in a game)
              • Polish cug drinking binge, team of horses
              • Serbo-Croatian цуг cug sip, gulp, draft, train
              • German Zugzwang compelled move (in a game)
                • English zugzwang
    • Proto-Indo-European *dewks puller, leader
      • Italic
        • Latin dux leader, commander, dux, ruler, duke
          • Western Romance
            • French
              • English duke
                • Irish diúc duke
              • Spanish duque duke
            • Italian duce captain, leader, tyrant
            • Venetian doxe duke, doge
              • Italian doge doge
                • English doge
          • Byzantine Greek δούξ doúx leader, dux
            • Greek δούκας doúkas duke
            • Armenian դուքս dukʿs duke
            • Coptic ⲇⲟⲩⲝ douks commander, dux
            • Italian duca duke
              • Romanian duce
          • Latin ducātus leadership, command, duchy [2]
            • Western Romance
              • French duché duchy
                • English duchy
              • Italian ducato duchy, ducat [2]
                • French ducat
                  • English ducat
                  • German Dukat
              • Spanish ducado duchy, ducat
          • English dux
    • Proto-Indo-European *déwkō
      • Germanic *tugô leader [3]
        • Germanic *harjatugô commander, general, warlord, dux, duke lit. "army-leader"
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse hertogi
              • Danish hertug duke
              • Icelandic hertogi duke
          • West Germanic
            • Old English heretoga commander, general, duke
            • Old High German herizogo commander, duke
              • German Herzog duke
                • Russian ге́рцог gércog duke
                • Hungarian herceg duke, prince
    • Proto-Indo-European ? [3]
      • Germanic *taugō cord, string, rope [3]
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse taug
            • Icelandic taug rope, line, cable, nerve
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tēag cord, band, tether, case
            • English tie
    • Proto-Indo-European ? [3]
      • Germanic *teugą handle, lever, tool, rigging, equipment, stuff [3]
        • West Germanic
          • Old High German ziug
            • German Zeug stuff, gear, material, fabric, clothing
          • Frankish *tiug
            • Dutch tuig
              • English toy
    • Proto-Indo-European *dukmós? thing that was pulled?
      • Germanic *taumaz a tie, a cord, a bridle, a leash, a team, a group, a lineage
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse taumr bridle
            • Danish tømme rein
            • Icelandic taumur rein, cord, strip
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tēam family, offspring, a team of draft animals
            • English team
              • German Team team
              • Japanese チーム chīmu team
              • Persian تیم tiim team
            • Scots team chain, especially as part of a plow harness
            • Old English tēman to give birth
              • English teem(ing)
          • Old High German zoum
            • German Zaum bridle
    • Proto-Indo-European *dewh₂ to fit, to tie, to secure
      • Proto-Indo-European *dunh₂tór
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek δύναμαι dúnamai fit, capable, prepared, equivalent, possible
            • Ancient Greek δῠ́νᾰμῐς dúnamis power, force, strength, ability, authority
              • Greek δύναμη dýnami power, force, strength
              • Translingual dyne SI unit of force: 1 g*cm/s²
              • English dynamite
              • Ancient Greek δῠνᾰμῐκός dunamikós powerful, able
                • Greek δυναμικός dynamikós dynamic, powerful, forceful
                • French dynamique dynamic, energetic
                  • English dynamic
            • Ancient Greek δῠνᾰ́στης dunástēs lord, ruler, master
              • Greek δυνάστης dynástis ruler, despot, dynast
              • Latin dynastēs ruler, prince
                • English dynast
              • Ancient Greek δῠνᾰστείᾱ dunasteíā lordship, political power, oligarchy
                • Medieval Latin dynastīa dynasty
                  • French dynastie dynasty
                  • English dynasty
        • Tocharian
          • Kushean tswetär to stick, to adhere
      • Proto-Indo-European *dowh₂os fitted, tied, secured
        • Germanic *(ga)tawaz fitted, secured, complete
          • Germanic *tawjanã to make, to complete
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 taujan
          • North Germanic ᛏᚨᚹᛁᛞᛟ tawido I made Golden Horn of Gallehus
            • Old Norse
              • Icelandic tæja to comb, to card wool
              • Norwegian teia to solve, to explain, to pick apart, to examine closely
            • West Germanic
              • Old English tawian to prepare, to make ready
                • English taw
          • Slavic *gotovъ
            • East Slavic
              • Russian гото́вый gotóvyj ready, prepared, finished, ready-made
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic готовъ gotovŭ ready, prepared
              • Serbo-Croatian го̀тов gòtov ready, finished
            • West Slavic
              • Polish gotowy ready, prepared, finished, willing, poised, ready-made
      • Proto-Indo-European *déwh₂ō?
        • Germanic *tawwã equipment, apparatus, tool, rigging, rope
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse (raw) wool
              • Icelandic wool
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *tawa
              • Old English webtawa weaving thread
              • English tow bundle of fibers such flax, hemp, or jute
                • English towhead
            • Old High German zouwa
            • Old Saxon tou
              • Middle Low German
                • German Tau strong rope
      • Proto-Indo-European *dowh₂-lo
        • Germanic *tōlã tool
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tól tools, instruments
              • Icelandic tól
              • Swedish tōl
          • West Germanic
            • Old English tōl tool, instrument
              • English tool
              • Scots tuil tool

Visual

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Collected English words

wanton, duct, duct tape, ductile, aqueduct, conduct, deduct, deduce, educate, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, seduce, subdue, tow, tug, tuck, touch, touché, tie, zugzwang, duke, doge, duchy, ducat, dux, tie, toy, team, teem(ing), dyne, dynamite, dynamic, dynast, dynasty, taw, tow, towhead, tool

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Semantic mix with Iranian *dáwgdʰi: "to milk" from Proto-Indo-European *dʰéwgʰti: "to be productive" from *dʰewgʰ-: "produce, be strong"

  2. ^

    The first "ducat" coins were those minted by Duke Roger II of Sicily, and bore the inscription Sit tibi, Christe, datus, quem tu regis iste ducatus: "To you, O Christ, is offered this duchy, which you rule").

  3. ^

    *tugô/*taugō/*teugą is a really weird triplet. *tugô Looks like its descended from normal derivational morphology in PIE, but I can't explain the other two. What they really look like is a triplet caused by inter-dialect borrowing. But their distribution borders on wide enough, that it might have to be borrowings between different dialects of Pre-Proto-Germanic.