Word Family - Father

May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

Teaser

pastor, Pan, food, pants, father, pattern

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂- to protect, to watch over, to shepherd
    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂-ti primary verb form
      • Indo-Iranian *pā́ti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit पाति pā́ti to watch, to keep, to protect, to rule
        • Iranian *pāta-
          • Avestan 𐬞𐬁𐬝 pāt̰ protects
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish payîn to wait, to anticipate
            • Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎮𐎹 p-a-di-y you protect
              • Persian پاییدن pâyidan
          • Iranian *āpāta-
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish ava built, inhabited, flourishing
              • Old Persian
                • Persian آباد ābād city, habitation, cultivated land, good
                  • Persian حیدرآباد hīdrābād Lion City, City of Caliph Ali the Lionheart, Hyderabad
                    • Hindi हैदराबाद haidrābād Hyderabad
                      • English Hyderabad
    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂s-ti se- verb form
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒊭 pa-aḫ-ša protect, guard
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *pastì to keep in pasture, to herd
          • East Slavic
            • Russian пасти́ pastí to graze, to pasture, to herd
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian па̏сти pȁsti to graze
          • West Slavic
            • Polish paść to feed, to graze
      • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂séh₁ye-ti ~to be watched over stative of se- form
        • Italic *pāzēō
          • Latin pāreō I am watched, I am visible, I appear, I obey, I am obedient to
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian a părea to look, to appear, to seem
            • Western Romance
              • French paraître to appear, to be published, to seem
              • Italian parere to look, to seem, to think (of), to sound (like)
              • Spanish parecer to seem, to believe, to think
            • Latin appāreō
              • English appear
              • Latin apparēns
                • English apparent
            • Latin compāreō
              • English compare
            • Latin trānspāreō
              • English transparent
    • Proto-Indo-European *ph₂sḱé-ti iterative
      • Albanian pashë to watch, to observe
      • Italic *pāskō to feed, to pasture
        • Latin pāscō I feed, I nourish, I support, I pasture, I attend, I supply, I cultivate, I graze, I feed, I feast
          • Sardinian paschi
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a paște to graze, to feed, to pasture
          • Western Romance
            • French paître to graze
            • Italian pascere to graze, to graze on
            • Spanish pacer to graze, to pasture, to nibble, to gnaw
        • Italic *pāstos
          • Latin pāstus fed, pastured
            • Western Romance
              • Italian pasto meal
                • Italian antipasto appetizer lit. "before-meal"
                  • English antipasto
              • Spanish pasto pasture, lawn, grass
          • Italic *pastnis
            • Latin pānis bread, loaf, food, nourishment most descendants from the accusative: panem
              • Sardinian pani bread
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian pâine bread
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French pain bread, block (of ice, soap, etc.)
                  • Old French paneterie bread-baking, storeroom for bread, sale of bread
                    • English pantry
                • Italian pane bread, block (of butter)
                • Portuguese pão bread, food
                  • Hindi पाव pāv bread
                  • Japanese パン pan bread
                    • Korean ppang bread
                  • Thai ปัง bpang bread
                • Spanish pan bread, money, work
                  • Romanian păstură pollen ball, bee bread
            • Latin pastura pasture, grazing ground
              • Eastern Romance
              • Western Romance
                • Old French pasture
                  • French pâture livestock feed, pasture
                  • English pasture
                • Italian pastura grazing, pasture, (fishing) bait
                • Spanish pastura pasture, grassland
          • Latin pāstor shepherd
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian păstor shepherd
            • Western Romance
              • French pâtre shepherd, herdsman
              • Italian pastore shepherd, minister, pastor
              • Spanish pastor shepherd, herder, pastor, priest
            • French pasteur shepherd, pastor re-borrowing
              • English pastor
              • French Pasteur
                • French pasteuriser to pasteurise after Louis Pasteur
                  • English pasteurise
          • Latin repāscō to feed regularly
            • Western Romance
              • Old French repaistre to eat
                • French repaître to feed, to eat archaic
                • Old French repast
                  • French repas meal
                  • English repast
      • Tocharian *pāsk-
        • Arshian pās- to look after, to guard, practice moral behavior
          • Arshian papāṣṣorñe (moral) behavior
    • Proto-Indo-European *poh₂téye-ti causative
      • Germanic *fōdijaną to feed
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 fōdjan
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fœða to feed, to nourish, to raise, to give birth
            • Danish føde feed, support, bear
            • Icelandic fæða to give birth to, to feed, to nourish
        • West Germanic
          • Old English fēdan to feed
            • English feed
          • Frankish *fuoden
            • Dutch voeden to feed
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πατέομαι patéomai to eat
    • Proto-Indo-European *poh₂mn̥
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πῶμα pôma lid, cover
    • Proto-Indo-European *poh₂imn̥
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian piemuõ shepherd
        • Finnish paimen shepherd
      • Hellenic
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀡𐀕 po-me shepherd
        • Ancient Greek ποιμήν poimḗn shepherd, herdsman
    • Proto-Indo-European *poh₂yus
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek πῶῠ pôu flock of sheep
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit पायु pāyú guard, protector
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬞𐬁𐬌𐬌𐬎 pāiiu shepherd, protector
    • Proto-Indo-European *Péh₂usōn possible name of a god: The Provider? The Nourisher? The Herdsman?
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek Πᾱ́ν Pā́n Pan, Greek god of shepherds and nature
          • Latin Pan Pan
            • English Pan
            • Translingual Pan taxonomic genus of chimpanzees
          • Ancient Greek πανικός
            • Greek πανικός panikós
            • Latin panicus
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian panică
              • Western Romance
                • French panique panic, panicked
                  • English panic
                    • Japanese パニック panikku panic
                  • Swedish panik panic
                    • Finnish paniikki panic
                • Italian panico panic, relating to Pan
                • Spanish pánico panic
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit पूषन Pūṣan Pushan, Vedic god of marriage, journeys, and rich pastures
    • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂tro
      • Old Armenian հաւրան hawran sheepfold, herd
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian *pāθra-
          • Avestan 𐬞𐬁𐬚𐬭𐬀 pāθra ward, protective
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian
              • Persian پاس pâs guard, watch
    • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂dʰrom instrumental
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic
          • West Slavic
            • Polish pudło box
      • Germanic *fōdrą fodder, sheath [1]
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐍂 fōdr sheath
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fóðr fodder, sheath
            • Danish for lining
            • Danish foder feed, fodder
            • Icelandic fóður fodder
          • Finnic *hootra
            • Finnish huotra sheath, scabbard
        • West Germanic
          • Old English fōdor fodder, sheath
            • English fodder
          • Frankish *fōdar
            • Dutch voer fodder, (inferior) food
            • Dutch voder lining, load, freight
            • Old French fourage
              • French feurre hay, straw
              • English forage
          • Old High German fuotar
            • German Futter fodder, lining
            • Italian fodero scabbard, sheath, holster
      • Italic
        • Latin pābulum food, sustenace, fodder, pasture, food for thought
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian plaur floating islet made of decaying grass, reeds, bent, or driftwood
          • Western Romance
            • Spanish pábulo fodder, pabulum
          • English pabulum
    • Proto-Indo-European péh₂dō
      • Germanic *fōdô food, nourishment
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fœða food merges to a homonym with fœða from *fōdijaną: "feed" in Old Norse and all descendants
            • Danish føde food
            • Icelandic fæða food
        • West Germanic
          • Old English fōda food
            • English food
            • Scots fuid food
    • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂n(e)ts [2]
      • Hellenic
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀞𐀯 pa-si all of, all
        • Ancient Greek πᾶς pâs all, every, whole [2]
          • Greek παν pan the universe, everything
          • English pan(t)-
          • Ancient Greek παντόμιμος pantómimos pantomine performer [3]
            • Latin pantomīmus pantomime performer
              • English pantomime
                • English panto
          • Byzantine Greek Παντελεήμων Panteleímon All-Compassionate name of a saint
            • English (Saint) Pantaleon
            • Italian Pantalone [4]
              • French pantalon trousers, pants
                • English pantaloon(s) Aging buffoon, pants, trousers
                  • English pants
                    • Japanese パンツ pantsu underpants, pants
                      • Mandarian 胖次 pàngcì underpants, panties
                    • English panties
                • Italian pantalone trousers, pantsuit
                • Spanish pantalón trousers, pants
      • Italic *penets
        • Latin penes stores of food, something under one's governance, something at one's disposal, concerning, within
          • Latin (Di) Penates Household Gods
          • Latin penitus inner, inward, inside, inwardly, thoroughly
            • Latin penētrō I enter into, I penetrate
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a pătrunde to penetrate, to permeate, to perceive, to understand
              • Western Romance
                • Italian penetrare to penetrate, to soak in, to permeate
                • French pénétrer to enter, to penetrate, to see through
              • English penetrate
        • Italic *pastnis
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian po all, everything, complete [2]
    • Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr father lit. "protector and/or provider"
      • Old Armenian հայր hayr
        • Armenian հայր hayr
      • Celtic *ɸatīr
        • Gaulish ater father
          • Gaulish gutuater priest (of some kind?)
        • Old Irish athir
          • Irish athair
      • Germanic *fadēr
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌳𐌰𐍂 fadar
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse faðir
            • Danish far
            • Icelandic faðir
        • West Germanic
          • Old English fæder
            • English father
            • Scots faither
          • Frankish fader
            • Dutch vader
          • Old High German fater
            • German Vater
            • Yiddish פֿאָטער foter
      • Hellenic *patḗr
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀞𐀳 pa-te
        • Ancient Greek πατήρ patḗr
          • Greek πατήρ patír
          • Ancient Greek Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Kleopátrā Glory-of-Father (personal name)
            • Latin Cleopatra
          • Ancient Greek πᾰτρῐᾰ́ρχης patriárkhēs patriarch
            • Coptic ⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏⲥ patriarkhēs patriarch
            • Latin patriarcha patriarch
              • Old English patriarcha
                • English patriarch
          • Ancient Greek πᾰτρῐ́ς patrís home land, fatherland, native city
            • Greek πατρίδα patrída fatherland, birth place
            • Ancient Greek πατριώτης patriṓtēs countryman, fellow citizen
              • Latin patriōta countryman, fellow citizen
                • Western Romance
                  • French patriote patriot
                    • English patriot
                  • Italian patriota patriot
                  • Spanish patriota patriot
                • Vulgar Latin *compatriōta
                  • Western Romance
                    • French compatriote compatriot, fellow citizen
                      • English compatriot
      • Indo-Iranian *pHtā́
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit पितृ pitṛ́
            • Sauraseni 𑀧𑀺𑀉 piu
              • Madhya
                • Hindi पिउ piu
            • Bengali পিতা pita
            • Hindi पिता pitā
            • Punjabi ਪਿਤਾ pitā
            • Telugu పిత pita
        • Iranian *pHtā́
          • Avestan 𐬞𐬌𐬙𐬀𐬭 pitar
            • Pashto پلار plār
            • Scythian
              • Ossetian фыд fyd
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish pya man
            • Old Persian 𐎱𐎡𐎫𐎠 pitā
              • Persian پدر pedar
      • Italic *patēr
        • Latin pater
          • Western Romance
            • French père
            • Italian padre
            • Spanish padre
          • Romanian pater term of address for a priest
        • Oscan 𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌝𐌓 patír
          • Latin patrōnus protector, patron, role model
            • Western Romance
              • French patron boss, employer, pattern
                • English patron
                • English pattern
              • Italian padrone master, landlord, host, employer
              • Spanish patrón protector, boss, patron, pattern
            • English patronus
            • Italian patrono patron saint, benefactor, patron
            • Spanish padrón census
            • Spanish patrono patron saint, patron, host, employer
          • Latin compater first cousin, godfather of one's child "co-father"
            • Western Romance
              • French compère partner, accomplice, godfather of one's child
                • English compere
              • Italian compare godfather of one's child, best man, old friend, accomplice
              • Spanish compadre godfather of one's child, friend
                • English compadre
      • Mysian πατριζι patrizi fathers only attested in the plural
      • Phrygian πατερης pateres fathers only attested in the plural
      • Tocharian *pācer
        • Arshian pācar
        • Kushean pācer
      • Proto-Indo-European ph₂trwós paternal uncle lit. "father-like"
        • Old Armenian յաւրայ yawray stepfather
          • Armenian հորու horu stepfather
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit पितृव्य pitṛvyá paternal uncle, older male relative
      • Proto-Indo-European ph₂trós father-like
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πάτρως pátrōs paternal uncle
        • Italic
          • Latin patruus paternal uncle

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

Hyderabad, appear, apparent, compare, transparent, antipasto, pantry, pasture, pastor, pasteurise, repast, feed, Pan, Pan, panic, fodder, forage, pabulum, food, pan(t)-, pantomime, panto, (Saint) Pantaleon, pantaloon(s), pants, panties, penetrate, father, patriarch, patriot, compatriot, patron, pattern, patronus, compere, compadre

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Though "fodder" and "sheath" are very different from each other, they are both instruments of taking care of something.

  2. ^

    If Greek pâs/pân/pánta/etc. meaning "all, universal" is related to Arshian /pone/pontaṃts/etc. meaning "all, universal" (and it's compelling to think they are) the PIE form would be *peh₂nts which is almost the same as the ancestral form *peh₂nets indicated by Latin penes/penitus meaning "store of food". The semantic ancestor would presumably be "that which is watched over", with the semantic divergence to "visible" and "feeding" that appears (ha!) throughout the family.

  3. ^

    Greek παντόμιμος pantómimos: "pantomine performer", literally "mimic/actor of all". An actor who performs a complete story by themselves, taking on different roles with masks and body posture.

  4. ^

    Pantalone is the satirical representation of the rich and powerful in commedia dell'arte, and appears as an old man who wears trousers because his legs have gotten too skinny to be able to wear the hose that a man in his prime would wear.

    For example, the "All the World's a Stage"/"The Seven Ages of Man" monologue in As You Like It (William Shakespeare) says: "The lean and slippered pantaloon [...] His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide for his shrunk shank".