Word Family - Five

Introduction

I've been doing Word Families for 5 years! In that time, I have made 150 families! So this week is *pénkʷe: "five".

The *p-kʷ sequence in *pénkʷe leads to a set highly divergent forms. *kʷ is a highly variable sound on its own, becoming /kw/, /w/, /ʍ/, /k/, /t͡ʃ/, /s/, /p/, or /t/ in various descendants; in many cases with multiple branches arriving at the same sound independently at different times.

On top of that, the *p-kʷ assimilates in Germanic (progressively), Celtic, and Italic (both regressively). The regressive assimilation *p-kʷ to *kʷ-kʷ is a regular change also seen in Celtic and Italic descendants of *pekʷ-: "to cook" and *pérkʷu-s: "oak".

This is complicated by the fact that some branches in both Celtic and Italic change *kʷ to /p/ (a merger in Italic, but following deletion of *p in Celtic). And then, Vulgar Latin changed its mind about the assimilation and regressively dissimilates to /k-kʷ/. That then allows palatalization on the /k/ leading to /t͡ʃ/ (and later /ts/, /ʃ/, or /s/ in various descendants).

Some of these specifics are discussed in more detail in the footnotes.

I've included another root, Proto-Indo-European *pewǵ-: "to punch, to fist-fight". This is not so much to claim the roots are related, as that they are close enough in both sound and meaning that there are words that can't be assigned clearly to one or the other; particularly West Germanic *fūsti: "fist". The similarity also does allow for them to be potentially related, possibly with *penkʷ- coming from a re-analysis of a nasal infix form *pewǵ-, such as the one attested in Latin pungō.

Finally, as I've said before, there are reason to believe that many of the Proto-Indo-European numbers numbers are relatively recent, with only the numbers 1-3 being clearly established in Archaic PIE/Indo-Anatolian. The numbers 5-10 all have reasonably likely derivations, either as borrowings or as morphological derivations from other PIE words.

Teaser

finger, five, punch, Ponzi scheme, Pentecost

and

poignant, punch, point, punctuate, pygmy, pugnacious

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *penkʷ- fist?, hand?, to hold in hand?
    • Proto-Indo-European *pn̥kʷstis
      • Proto-Indo-European *pn̥stis variant with simplification
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pę̑stь
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пясть pjastʹ
                • Russian запя́стье zapjástʹje wrist
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian пе̑ст pȇst fist regional
                • Serbo-Croatian пѐсница pèsnica fist regional
            • West Slavic
              • Polish pięść fist
        • Germanic *funstiz [1]
          • West Germanic *fūsti fist
            • Old English fȳst fist
              • English fist
            • Frankish *fūst
              • Dutch vuist fist
            • Old High German fūst
              • German Faust fist [2]
                • English Faust
              • Yiddish פֿויסט foyst fist
      • Proto-Indo-European *kʷn̥stis variant with metathesis and simplification
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian kum̃štis fist
          • West Baltic
            • Old Prussian kuntis fist
    • Proto-Indo-European *penkʷrós
      • Germanic *fingraz finger [1]
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍂𐍃 figgrs finger
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fingr finger
            • Danish finger finger
            • Icelandic fingur finger
        • West Germanic
          • Old English finger finger
            • English finger
          • Frankish *fingar
            • Dutch vinger finger
          • Old High German fingar
            • German Finger finger
            • Yiddish פֿינגער finger finger, toe
    • Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷe five
      • Pre-Albanian *penče
        • Albanian pesë five
      • Old Armenian հինգ hing five
        • Armenian հինգ hing five
      • Balto-Slavic *pénkti five
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian penkì five
        • Slavic *pętь five
          • East Slavic
            • Russian пять pjatʹ five
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic пѧть pętĭ five
            • Serbo-Croatian пе̑т pȇt five
          • West Slavic
            • Polish pięć five
        • West Baltic
          • Old Prussian *pentʲ five
            • Old Prussian pentninx Friday likely literally "fifth"
          • Sudovian pank five
      • Pre-Germanic *pémpe
        • Germanic *fimf five
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌼𐍆 fimf five
            • Crimean Gothic fyuf five
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse fimm five
              • Danish fem five
              • Icelandic fimm five
          • West Germanic
            • Old English fīf five
              • English five
            • Frankish *finf
              • Dutch vijf five
            • Old High German
              • German fünf five
              • Yiddish פֿינף finf five
      • Hellenic *pénkʷe
        • Ancient Greek πέντε pénte five
          • Greek πέντε pénte five
          • English penta-
        • Aeolic Greek πέμπε pémpe five
      • Indo-Iranian *pánča
        • Indo-Aryan *pánća
          • Dardic
            • Kashmiri پانٛژھ pānċh five
          • Mitanni Aryan *panća
            • Mitanni Aryan *panća-vartana for five laps Kikkuli
              • Hurrian
                • Hittite pa-an-za-wa-ar-ta-an-na for five laps Kikkuli
          • Sanskrit 𑀧𑀜𑁆𑀘𑀦𑁆 páñcan five
            • Elu
              • Dhivehi ފަހެހް faheh five
              • Sinhala පහ paha five
            • Magadhi 𑀧𑀁𑀘 paṃca five
              • Bengali পাঁচ pãcô five
              • Rohingya fañs five
            • Maharashtri 𑀧𑀁𑀘 paṃca five
              • Marathi पाच pāċ five
            • Pali pañca five
              • Malay panca five
            • Sauraseni 𑀧𑀁𑀘 paṃca five
              • Madhya
                • Hindi पाँच pā̃c five
                  • English punch
              • Pahari
                • Punjabi ਪੰਜ pañj five
            • West Indo-Aryan
              • Romani panzh five
        • Iranian *pánča
          • Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬧𐬗𐬀 paṇca five
          • Bactrian πανζο panzo five
          • Northern Iranian
            • Ossetian фондз fonʒ five
            • Sogdian 𐫛𐫗𐫝 panč five
          • Pashto پنځه pinźë́ five
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish pênc five
            • Old Persian
              • Persian پنج panj five
                • Persian پنجاب panjâb Punjab, the five rivers of Punjab lit. "five waters"
                  • Punjabi ਪੰਜਾਬ pañjāb Punjab
                    • English Punjab
      • Italo-Celtic *kʷenkʷe assimilation
        • Celtic *kʷenkʷe
          • Brythonic *pɨmp five [3]
            • Welsh pump five [3]
          • Gaulish pempe five [3]
          • Old Irish cóic five
            • Irish cúig five
        • Italic *kʷenkʷe
          • Latin quīnque five
            • Vulgar Latin *cīnque five [4]
              • Sardinian
                • Campidanese cincu
                • Logudorese chimbi five
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian cinci five
              • Western Romance
                • French cinq five
                  • Haitian Creole senk five
                • Italian cinque five
                • Spanish cinco five
                  • Tagalog singko five
                  • Spanish Cinco de Mayo
                    • English Cinco de Mayo
            • Latin quīntus fifth
              • Latin Quīntus Fifth (personal name)
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian Quinto
                • Ancient Greek Κόϊντος Kóïntos
                • Latin Quīntīnus
                  • Western Romance
                    • French Quentin
                      • English Quentin
                    • Italian Quintino
                    • Spanish Quintín
              • Latin Quīntīlis July before it was renamed after Julius Caesar
                • Latin Quīnctīlius of July (family name)
            • Latin quīndecim fifteen
              • Vulgar Latin *quindece [4]
                • Sardinian
                  • Logudorese bindighi fifteen
                • Western Romance
                  • French quinze fifteen
            • Latin quīncū̆nx five-twelfths, the five on a die
              • English quincunx
          • Oscan 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 pumpe five
            • Oscan ​​𐌐𐌏𐌌𐌐𐌕𐌖𐌔 pomptus fifth
              • Latin Pontius personal name
                • Western Romance
                  • French Ponce
                  • Italian Ponzio
                    • Italian Ponzi
                      • English Ponzi scheme
                • English Pontius
            • Oscan *Pumpeis? "of five"
              • Latin Pompeiī
                • English Pompeii
            • Latin Pompeius
              • English Pompey
          • Umbrian 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 pumpe
      • Messapian ΠΕΝΚΑΗΕΗ penkaheh five
      • Phrygian ΠΙΝΚΕ pinke five
      • Tocharian *p'äñś
        • Arshian päñ five
        • Kushean piś five
      • Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷedḱomt fifty
        • Old Armenian յիսուն yisun fifty
          • Armenian հիսուն hisun fifty
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πεντήκοντᾰ pentḗkonta fifty
            • Greek πενήντα penínta fifty
            • Ancient Greek πεντηκοστή pentēkostḗ fiftieth, Pentecost
              • Latin Pentēcostē Pentecost
                • English Pentecost
        • Indo-Iranian *pančaHćát
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀧𑀜𑁆𑀘𑀸𑀰𑀢𑁆 pañcāśát fifty
              • Elu
                • Dhivehi ފަންސާސް fan̊sās fifty
                • Sinhala පනහ panaha fifty
              • Magadhi
                • Bengali পঞ্চাশ pôncash fifty
              • Pali 𑀧𑀜𑁆𑀜𑀸𑀲 paññāsa fifty
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi पचास pacās fifty
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬧𐬗𐬁𐬯𐬀𐬙 paṇcāsat fifty
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish pêncî fifty
              • Old Persian
                • Persian پنجاه panjâh fifty
        • Italic
          • Latin quīnquāgintā fifty
            • Vulgar Latin *cīnquāgintā fifty
              • Sardinian
                • Logudorese chimbanta fifty
              • Western Romance
                • French cinquante fifty
                • Italian cinquanta fifty
                • Spanish cincuenta fifty
        • Tocharian
          • Kushean piśāka fifty
  • Proto-Indo-European *pewǵ- to punch, to fist-fight
    • Proto-Indo-European *punéǵti -n- imperfective
      • Italic
        • Latin pungō I puncture
          • Western Romance
            • French poindre to prick, to sting, to begin
            • Italian pùngere to prick, to sting, to prickle
          • Latin pungēns puncturing, stinging
            • Western Romance
              • Old French poignant pointed, pointy
                • French poignant
                • English poignant
              • Italian pungente prickly, biting, pungent
            • English pungent
          • Latin pūnctiō
            • Western Romance
              • Old French ponchon puncheon
                • French poinçon stamp, awl, punch
                • English puncheon
                • English punch
              • Italian punzone stamp
              • Spanish punzón awl
          • Latin *impungō
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian a împunge to prod, to goad, to prick
          • Latin expungō strike out, erase
            • English expunge
          • Latin pūnctus punctured, stippled, marked with points
            • Western Romance
              • Old French point
                • French point point
                • English point
              • Italian punto point
              • Spanish punto point
            • German bunt spotted, speckled, variegated
            • Vulgar Latin punctus
              • Vulgar Latin *punctiāre
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian ponzàre
            • Medieval Latin pūnctus
              • Medieval Latin pūnctuō
                • English punctuate
                • French punctuer
            • Latin pūnctūra a puncture
              • English puncture
    • Proto-Indo-European *puǵlis
      • Italic
        • Latin pugil boxer, pugilist
          • English pugilism
    • Proto-Indo-European *puǵméh
      • Hellenic *pugmā́
        • Ancient Greek πυγμή pugmḗ fist, fistfight, distance from elbow to knuckles
          • Ancient Greek πυγμαῖος pugmaîos pygmy
            • Latin pygmaeus pygmy
              • English pygmy
    • Proto-Indo-European *puǵnós
      • Italic
        • Latin pugnus a fistful, a handful, a fist
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian pumn fist, punch, handful
          • Western Romance
            • French poing fist
            • Italian pugno fist, punch, handful
              • Greek μπουνιά bouniá fist, punch
            • Spanish puño fist, handful, wristband, handle
          • Latin pugnō I fight, I oppose, I struggle
            • Western Romance
              • Italian pugnàre to fight
              • Spanish puñar to fight, to attack
            • Latin impugnō I attack, I assail
              • English impugn
            • Latin repugnō I fight against, I resist, I struggle
              • Latin repugnāns
                • English repugnant
            • Latin pugnāx tending to fight, combative, aggressive
              • Western Romance
                • French pugnace pugnacious
                  • English pugnacious
                • Italian pugnace pugnacious
                • Spanish pugnaz pugnacious
    • Proto-Indo-European *punǵstis
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *pę̑stь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian пясть pjastʹ
              • Russian запя́стье zapjástʹje wrist
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian пе̑ст pȇst fist regional
              • Serbo-Croatian пѐсница pèsnica fist regional
          • West Slavic
            • Polish pięść fist
      • Germanic *funstiz
        • West Germanic *fūsti fist
          • Old English fȳst fist
            • English fist
          • Frankish *fūst
            • Dutch vuist fist
          • Old High German fūst
            • German Faust fist [2]
              • English Faust
            • Yiddish פֿויסט foyst fist

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

fist, Faust, finger, five, penta-, punch, Punjab, Cinco de Mayo, Quentin, quincunx, Ponzi scheme, Pontius, Pompeii, Pompey, Pentecost

and

poignant, pungent, puncheon, punch, expunge, point, punctuate, puncture, pugilism, pygmy, impugn, repugnant, pugnacious, fist, Faust

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Oddly, Germanic seems to maintain several hand-related words apparently lost in most or all other branches, except in number words derived from them: hand from otherwise unattested *ḱomt, which apparently forms the basis of *déḱm̥: "ten" and *(d)ḱm̥tóm: "hundred", as well as this fist and finger from same root as *pénkʷe: "five". *pn̥kʷstis: "fist" is also attested in Balto-Slavic, but *penkʷrós: "finger" and *ḱomt: "hand" are only in Germanic.

  2. ^

    The legendary German figure "Faust", after historical figure Johann Georg Faust, is generally derived from Latin faustus: "fortunate", used in Latin as a cognomen and the name of several early Christian martyrs and bishops. It's not clear what if any influence there is from German Faust: "fist". There is evidence of the German surname previously being spelled as "Fust" and then changing to "Faust", which is the same change as the word for "fist".

  3. ^

    Note that Welsh pump (and Gaulish pempe) cannot come from the unassimalated *pénkʷe. In Proto-Celtic, all IE *p become Celtic , and then lost in all surviving descendants. A Welsh form from *pénkʷe would look something like *emp instead. So even even though they start with "p-", they are from *kʷénkʷe, with a re-emergence of the p from the regular *kʷ -> *p change in the "p-Celtic" languages such as Welsh and Gaulish.

    Oscan and Umbrian forms with p could be from either *pénkʷe or *kʷénkʷe, since they have the same *kʷ -> *p, but in their case that merges *kʷ with inherited *p. But in this case it appears to be more parsimonious to assume *p -> *kʷ -> *p, than to assume an unchanged *p, so they are assumed to come from the same Italic *kʷénkʷe as Latin quīnque.

  4. ^

    In Vulgar Latin decides it no longer likes the assimilated quīnque, and dissimilates to *cinque. But in the Latin quīndecim: "fifteen", there is no second qu, and no dissimilation occurs, leaving Vulgar Latin *quindece. This leads to the phenomenon that in most Romance languages, the words for "five" and "fifteen" start with different sounds, e.g. French cinq (/sɛ̃k/) vs. quinze (/kɛ̃z/) or Logudorese Sardinian chimbe (/kim.bɛ/) vs. bindighi (/bin.di.ɡi/). (The Sardinian shows another one of those kw- to p- type changes).

    In Eastern Romance languages, "fifteen" is re-derived from "five" as a calque of Old Church Slavonic пѧть на десѧте pętĭ na desęte: "five on (top of) ten", and so "five" and "fifteen" do match initial sounds: Aromanian tsintsi/tsisprã-dzatsi or Romanian cinci/cincisprezece.

    The derivation for "fifty": Latin quīnquāgintā keeps the second qu, so it dissimilates to *cīnquāgintā like "five".