Word Family - Four

Theme: 馃

Introduction

Note: I haven't written in the definitions for words meaning "four", "four-", or "forty" if they're in the respective section.

Teaser

four, tesseract, square, squadron, quarter, Tetris, quarantine

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *k史etw贸res oblique stem *k史etwr-, feminine stem *k史茅tesr- [1]
    • Albanian kat毛r
    • Anatolian *g史et史贸res
      • Lycian 饜姉饜妬饜姉饜妬饜姇饜妴 teteri
    • Old Armenian 展崭謤謩 膷士ork士
      • Armenian 展崭謤战 膷士ors
    • Balto-Slavic *ketures
      • Lithuanian ketur矛
      • Slavic *膷et峄硆e
        • East Slavic
          • Russian 褔械褌褘虂褉械 膷et媒re
          • Ukrainian 褔芯褌懈虂褉懈 膷ot媒ry
        • South Slavic
          • Old Church Slavonic 褔械褌隀懷械 膷etyre
          • Serbo-Croatian 褔褠褌懈褉懈 膷猫tiri
        • West Slavic
          • Polish cztery
    • Celtic *k史etwares
      • Brythonic *pedwar
        • Welsh pedwar
      • Old Irish cethair
        • Irish ceathair
    • Pre-Germanic *petw峁搑 [2]
      • Germanic *fedw艒r
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 饜崋饜尮饜尦饜崊饜崏饜崅 fidw艒r [3]
          • Crimean Gothic fyder [3]
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fj贸rir
            • Danish
            • Icelandic
        • West Germanic *feuwar
          • Old English f膿ower
            • English four
            • Scots fower
          • Frankish *fiuwar
            • Dutch vier
          • Old High German fior
            • German vier
            • Yiddish 驻挚讬专 fir
        • Germanic *fedw艒r tigwiz four decades, forty
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse fj贸rutigi
              • Danish fyrre(tyve)
              • Icelandic fj枚rut铆u
          • West Germanic
            • Old English f膿owerti摹
              • English forty
            • Frankish *fiurtig
              • Dutch veertig
            • Old High German fiorzug
              • German vierzig
              • Yiddish 驻挚注专爪讬拽 fertsik
    • Hellenic *k史茅twores
      • Ancient Greek 蟿苇蟽蟽蔚蟻蔚蟼 t茅sseres
        • Greek 蟿苇蟽蟽蔚蟻喂蟼 t茅sseris
        • English tessera-
          • English tesseract
    • Indo-Iranian *膷atw膩虂ras
      • Indo-Aryan *膰atw膩虂ras
        • Sanskrit 啶氞い啷佮ぐ啷 catur
          • Elu
            • Sinhala 喾勦董喽 hatara
          • Magadhi 饝橉憖憗嗮憖憖葛憖憗 catt膩ro
            • Bengali 唳氞唳 car
          • Maharashtri 饝橉憖憗嗮憖憖葛憖憗 catt膩ro
            • Marathi 啶氞ぞ啶 c膩r
          • Sauraseni 饝橉憖憗嗮憖憖葛憖憗 catt膩ro
            • Madhya
              • Hindi 啶氞ぞ啶 c膩r
            • Pahari
              • Nepali 啶氞ぞ啶 c膩ra
              • Punjabi 啜氞ň啜 ch膩r
          • Pali catur
            • Malay catur four, chess
          • Sanskrit 啶氞い啷佮ぐ啶權啶 c谩tur-a峁単a four limbs, four parts, army, chess
            • Pali catura峁単a
              • Malay catur four, chess
            • Middle Persian 膷atrang
              • Arabic 卮胤乇賳噩 拧a峁璻anj chess
                • English shatranj
                • Persian 卮胤乇賳噩 拧atranj
                • Spanish ajedrez chess
                • Swahili sataranji chess
              • Georgian 醿儛醿撫儬醿愥儥醿 膷蹋adra岣砳 chess
              • Mongolian 褕邪褌邪褉 拧atar chess
            • Telugu 喟氞挨啾佮鞍喟傕皸喟眮 catura峁単amu
      • Iranian *膷a胃w膩虂rah
        • Avestan 饜瑮饜瑎饜瑲饜饜瑎饜 ca胃尾ar
        • Bactrian 蟽慰蠁伪蟻慰 sofaro
        • Northern Iranian
          • Scythian
            • Ossetian 褑褘锌锌邪褉 cyppar
        • Pashto 趨賱賵乇 shal贸r
        • Western Iranian
          • Northwestern Iranian
            • Balochi 趩丕乇 c谩r
            • Kurdish 莽ar
          • Old Persian
            • Persian 趩賴丕乇 膷ah芒r
      • Nuristani *膷at膩虂ra
        • Ashkun 膰膩t膩
        • Kamviri 拧to
    • Italic *k史ettw艒r
      • Oscan 饜寪饜寗饜寱饜寱饜寜饜寲饜寭 pettiur
      • Umbrian 饜寪饜寗饜寱饜寲饜寭 petur
      • Latin quattuor
        • Sardinian bator
        • Eastern Romance
          • Romanian patru
        • Western Romance
          • French quatre
            • Haitian Creole kat
          • Italian quattro
          • Spanish cuatro
        • Latin quadrus square, four-cornered
          • Vulgar Latin *quadrellus diminutive
            • Eastern Romance
              • Dalmatian cadrial brick
            • Western Romance
              • Old French quarel
                • French carreau square, quarrel (tile, windowpane, crossbow bolt)
                • English quarrel
              • Italian quadrello quarrel, quarry tile
              • Spanish cuadrillo #
          • Latin quadr艒 I make square
            • Vulgar Latin *quadraria quarry "squaring-place"
              • Western Romance
                • Old French quarri猫re
                  • French carri猫re quarry
                  • English quarry
            • Vulgar Latin *exquadrare to make square lit. "to square out"
              • Vulgar Latin *exquadra deverbal
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French esquarre
                    • French 茅querre square (tool)
                    • English square
                  • Italian squadra square (tool), team, squad, crew
                    • French escouade squad, sqaudron
                      • English squad
                    • Italian squadrone squadron augmentative
                      • English squadron
          • Latin qu膩rtus
            • Western Romance
              • French quart fourth, quarter
                • English quart
              • Italian quarto fourth
                • English quarto
            • Latin quartarium
              • French quartier
                • English quarter
            • Latin quatern墨
              • Old French quaier
                • French cahier
                  • English cahier
                • English quire
    • Lusitanian petranioi [4]
    • Thracian 魏蔚蟿蟻喂 ketri [5]
    • Tocharian *艣菨twer
      • Arshian 艣twar
      • Kushean 艣twer
    • Proto-Indo-European *k史etwr胎- combining form
      • Old Armenian 謩铡占- k士a峁-
        • Armenian 謩铡占- k士a峁-
          • Armenian 謩铡占崭謧詹斋 k士a峁檜艂i crossroads, intersection lit. "four-way"
      • Germanic *fe镁ur-
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 饜崋饜尮饜尦饜尶饜崅- fidur-
            • Gothic 饜崋饜尮饜尦饜尶饜崅饜崋饜尠饜尰饜尭饜崈 fidurfal镁s four-fold
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse fer-
            • Icelandic fer-
              • Icelandic ferfet square foot
          • West Germanic
            • Old English fi镁er-
      • Hellenic 蟿蔚蟿蟻伪- tetra-
        • English tetra-
          • English tetrapod
        • Russian 褌械褌褉邪- tetra-
          • Russian 孝械虂褌褉懈褋 T蓻虂tris Tetris
            • English Tetris
      • Italic
        • Latin quadr(i)-
          • English quadr(i)-
            • English quad
      • Phrygian 未喂胃蠀蟻-
      • Proto-Indo-European *k史etwr胎-(d)岣眔mt forty
        • Old Armenian 謩铡占铡战崭謧斩 k士a峁檃sun
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian keturiasde拧imt
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek 蟿蔚蟽蟽峋跋佱景虂魏慰谓蟿峋 tessar谩konta
            • Greek 蟽伪蟻维谓蟿伪 sar谩nta re-bracketed, with the tes- interpreted as a definite article
        • Indo-Iranian *膷atw膩rH膰谩t
          • Indo-Aryan *膰atw膩rH艣谩t
            • Sanskrit 啶氞い啷嵿さ啶距ぐ啶苦啶多い啷 catv膩ri峁兣浢
              • Prakrit *catwali艣谩
                • Elu
                  • Sinhala 喾勦董喾呧窉喾 hata岣穒ha
                • Magadhi
                  • Bengali 唳氞Σ唰嵿Σ唳苦Χ c么lli艣
                • Sauraseni
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi 啶氞ぞ啶侧啶 c膩l墨s
          • Iranian *膷atw膩rHc谩t
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish 莽il
              • Old Persian
                • Persian 趩賴賱 chehel
        • Italic
          • Latin quadr膩gint膩
            • Western Romance
              • Italian quaranta
                • Italian quarantina about forty, forty days
              • Venetian quaranta
                • Venetian quarantena about forty, forty days [6]
                  • English quarantine

Visual

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Collected English words

four, forty, tessera-, tesseract, shatranj, quarrel, quarry, square, squad, squadron, quart, quarto, quarter, cahier, quire, tetra-, tetrapod, Tetris, quadr(i)-, quad, quarantine

Footnotes

  1. ^

    *k史etwer- is too long for a root. The feminine root suggests that there may have been an original root of just *k史et-. There are also several reasons to believe that none of this is the original word for four:

    • Hittite's word for "four", meyawes, is unrelated (Hittite is the oldest attested, and oldest split)
    • The word for "eight" *o岣眛峁搘 is a dual, suggesting a lost word for "four" *h鈧僥岣眛-, attested only in Avestan a拧ti-: "width of four fingers", and likely in Proto-Kartvelian *oxto-: "four".
  2. ^

    In Germanic *fedw艒r> (PreG *petw峁搑>) the irregular sound change from *k史- was probably influenced by the *p- in *p茅nk史e: "five".

  3. ^

    Note that both of the East Germanic forms preserve the medial *d, though it has been dropped in all North and West Germanic languages.

  4. ^

    Lusitanian petranioi is known from the Rock inscription from Lamas de Moledo:

    Rock carving with 'PETRANIOI' in Old Italic script..
    B煤a, C. 1999. 鈥淗ip贸tesis para algunas inscripciones rupestres del Occidente peninsular'
  5. ^

    Compare Thracian 魏蔚蟿蟻喂 ketri to the Lithuanian ketur矛. A connection to Balto-Slavic is one of the strong contenders for classification of Thracian.

  6. ^

    An isolation period was imposed by the Venetian Senate on ships arriving in Ragusa during the spread of the Black Death. First recorded in 1377, the waiting period was thirty days (trentena). In 1448, during the Second Plague Pandemic, the waiting period was increased to forty days: the quarantine.