Word Family - Gold

Introduction

The colors white, gold, yellow, yellow-green, green, sky blue, and navy blue in various languages. And the chemical elements chlorine, gold and arsenic in English.

Teaser

chlorine, yellow, cholera, Glasgow, lapis lazuli, gold, yield, guild, arsenic

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- yellow, green
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃yeti becomes yellow-green
      • Balto-Slavic
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian žélti to grow, to sprout
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃nos yellow-green adjective
      • Celtic *glanos clean, clear
        • Brythonic *glan
          • Welsh glân clean
        • Old Irish glan clean, pure
          • Irish glan clean, clear
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃rós yellow-green adjective
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek χλωρός khlōrós yellow-green, fresh, pale
          • English chlorine
            • Translingual Cl
          • French chlorophylle chlorophyll "green-leaf"
            • English chlorophyll
      • Phrygian ΓΛΟΥΡΟΣ glouros gold
      • Unknown
        • Etruscan garouleou chrysanthemum [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃tós yellow-green adjective
      • Balto-Slavic *giltas
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian gel̃tas yellow
        • Slavic *žь̑ltъ
          • East Slavic жьлтъ žĭltŭ
            • Russian жёлтый žóltyj yellow
            • Ukrainian жо́втий žóvtyj yellow
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic жлътъ žlŭtŭ yellow
            • Serbo-Croatian жу̑т žȗt yellow
          • West Slavic
            • Polish żółty yellow
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós
      • Balto-Slavic
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian žel̃vas
      • Germanic *gelwaz
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌲𐌹𐌻𐍅𐍃 gilws
        • West Germanic
          • Old English ġeolu yellow
            • English yellow
          • Frankish *gelo
            • Dutch geel yellow
          • Old High German gelo
            • German gelb yellow
            • Yiddish געל gel yellow
      • Italic *helwos
        • Latin helvus yellow, dun, honey-colored
          • Latin Helvius gens name
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃ós
      • Germanic *gulaz
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse gulr yellow
            • Danish gul yellow
            • Icelandic gulur yellow
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰólh₃is
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Eastern Baltic
          • Lithuanian žãlias green, young, raw
      • Indo-Iranian *ȷ́ʰárHiš
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit हरि hári yellow, green, golden, tawny, divine used as a name of various divinities, and metanymically of various animals
            • Sanskrit हरिद्वार haridvāra
              • Hindi हरिद्वार Haridwar
                • English Haridwar
            • Sanskrit हरिमन्दिर hárimandira
              • Punjabi ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ harimaⁿdar
              • English Harimandir
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 zairi yellow, tawny
            • Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra [2]
              • Persian زرتشت Zartošt
                • Arabic زَرَادُشْت Zarādušt
                • Armenian Զրադաշտ Zradašt
                • Turkish Zerdüşt
              • Sogdian 𐫉𐫡𐫇𐫢𐫝 zrwšc
                • Middle Chinese 蘇魯支
                  • Mandarin 蘇魯支 Sūlǔzhī
              • Ancient Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroástrēs
                • Greek Ζωροάστρης Zoroástris
                • Hebrew זורואסטר Zoroaster
                • Latin Zōroastrēs
                  • English Zoroaster
              • English Zarathustra
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃is
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *zèlьje vegetation, herbs, cabbage
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃os noun
      • Celtic *gelos shining, white
        • Gaulish *gelā
          • Gaulish gelasonem cotton weed, cudweed
        • Old Irish gel bright, clear, white
          • Irish geal white, bright
      • Italic *helos
        • Latin holus vegetable, greens
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰolh₃éh₂ gall, bile derivative noun
      • Balto-Slavic *zolˀa
        • Eastern Baltic
          • Lithuanian žala damage, injury, malice
        • Slavic *zolà ashes, murky water
          • East Slavic
            • Russian зола́ zolá ashes
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic зола zola ashes
        • Balto-Slavic *zolˀiti
          • Slavic *zoliti to irritate, to harm
            • East Slavic
              • Russian злить zlitʹ to provoke, to anger
      • Germanic *gallȭ gall, bile
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse gall
            • Danish galde bile, gall
            • Icelandic gall
        • West Germanic
          • Old English galla
            • English gall
          • Frankish
            • Dutch gal
          • Old High German galla
            • German Galle gall, bile
            • Yiddish גאַל gal gall, gall bladder, bile
      • Hellenic *kʰolā́
        • Ancient Greek χολή kholḗ gall, bile, bitterness, anger, disgust
          • Greek χολή cholí gall, bile, gall bladder, bitterness, anger
          • Latin cholera cholera "bile disease"
            • English cholera
            • French colère wrath
            • French choléra cholera
            • Spanish cólera anger, cholera
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian *ȷ́ʰarHáH
          • Avestan 𐬰𐬁𐬭𐬀 zāra gall
          • Western Iranian
            • Persian زهره zahre gall
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃ō?
      • Italic
        • Latin fel bile, gall, gall bladder, poison, bitterness uncertain, irregular derivation [3]
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian fiere bile, bitterness, sorrows
          • Western Romance
            • French fiel bile
            • Italian fiele bile
            • Spanish hiel bile
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃t- extended root
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃ttós adjective
        • Celtic *glastos green, blue
          • Brythonic *glas
            • Cumbric *glas
              • Cumbric *Glas Cu Glasgow, Green-Hollow (place name)
                • Old Irish
                  • Irish Glaschú Glasgow
                  • Scottish Gaelic Glaschu
                    • English Glasgow
                    • Scots Glesca
            • Welsh glas blue, inexperienced
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Iranian
            • Persian لاجورد lâjvard lapis lazuli "blue-stone"? [4]
              • Arabic لازورد lāzaward lapis lazuli, azure
                • Byzantine Greek λαζούριον lazoúrion
                  • Medieval Latin lazulum
                    • French azure azure
                      • English azure
                    • Italian azzurro azure
                    • Spanish azul blue
                    • Medieval Latin lapis lazulī
                      • English lapis lazuli
              • Armenian լաջվարդ laǰvard lapis lazuli
              • Georgian ლაჟვარდოვანი lažvardovani azure, sky blue
              • Hindi लाजवर्द lājvard lapis lazuli
              • Kurdish lacwerd
              • Turkish lacivert navy blue
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰĺ̥h₃tom noun
        • Germanic *gulþã
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌻𐌸 gulþ gold
            • Crimean Gothic goltz gold
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse gull gold, treasure, jewel
              • Danish guld
                • Greenlandic kuulti gold
          • West Germanic
            • Old English gold
              • English gold
            • Frankish *golt
              • Dutch goud
            • Old High German gold
              • German Gold
              • Yiddish גאָלד gold gold, darling
          • Finnic *kulta
            • Finnish kulta gold, darling
          • Samic *kollē
            • Nortern Sami golˈli gold
          • Germanic *gulþīnaz golden, made of gold
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌻𐌸𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 gulþeins golden
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse gullinn
            • West Germanic
              • Old English gylden
                • English golden
              • Frankish *guldīn
                • Dutch gulden golden, excellent, guilder
                  • English guilder
          • Germanic *gulþijanã to cover in gold, to gild
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse gylla
                • Icelandic gylla to gild, to make golden
            • West Germanic
              • Old English (be)gyldan
                • English gild
              • Frankish *gulden
                • Frankish *firgulden
                  • Dutch vergulden to gild
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰólh₃tos noun
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Latvian zelts gold, golden
            • Lithuanian želtas golden, blond dialectic
          • Slavic *zȏlto gold
            • East Slavic
              • Russian зо́лото zóloto gold
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic злато zlato gold
              • Serbo-Croatian зла̑то zlȃto gold
            • West Slavic
              • Polish złoto gold
    • Northwestern Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃dʰ?- extended root
      • Northwestern Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃dʰeti-
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *želsti to repay
          • East Slavic желести želesti
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic жлѣсти žlěsti to repay, to compensate
      • Germanic *geldanã to pay, to value
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse gjalda to repay, to give, to suffer on account of
            • Danish gælde to concern
            • Icelandic gjalda to pay
        • West Germanic
          • Old English ġieldan to pay, to reward, to yield
            • English yield
          • Frankish *geldan
            • Dutch gelden to apply, to be applicable, to be considered
          • Old High German geltan to pay
            • German gelten to be valid, to be applicable, to be worth
        • Germanic *geldã payment, money, gift
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌹𐌻𐌳 gild tax, tribute
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse gjald
              • Danish gæld debt
              • Icelandic gjald fee, payment
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ġild payment, tax, guild
              • English yield
              • English guild
              • Medieval Latin geldum
                • English geld
            • Frankish *geld
              • Dutch geld money
            • Old High German gelt
              • German Geld money
              • Yiddish געלט gelt money
                • English gelt
          • Germanic *geldį̄
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse gildi
                • Icelandic gildi value, worth, validity, union, guild
                • English guild
      • Celtic *geldom
        • Old Irish gell pledge, hostage, wager
          • Irish geall pledge, token, wager, asset
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃en-
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃enos
        • Balto-Slavic *źelʔenas
          • West Baltic
            • Old Prussian saligan green
          • Slavic *zelènъ
            • East Slavic зеленъ zelenŭ green
              • Russian зелёный zeljónyj green
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic зеленъ zelenŭ green
              • Serbo-Croatian зѐлен zèlen green, unripe
            • West Slavic
              • Polish zielony green
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃enyóm
        • Indo-Iranian *ȷ́ʰr̥Hanyam gold
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit हिरण्य híraṇya gold
              • Elu
                • Sinhala රන් ran gold
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬦𐬌𐬌𐬀 zarańiia
            • Northern Iranian
              • Ossetian сыгъзӕрин syǧzærin gold
            • Pashto زر zar metal
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish zêrr gold
                • Median *zə́raniyəm
                  • Elamite Za-ir-nu-iš
                • Parthian 𐫉𐫡𐫗 zrn
                  • Old Armenian զառնաւուխտ zaṙnawuxt Goldenette (personal name)
                    • Armenian Զարուհի Zaruhi
                  • Persian زر zar gold
              • Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎴𐎹 d-r-n-y gold
                • Ancient Greek δαιρεικός daireikós Persian gold coin, daric
                  • English daric
            • Iranian *jr̥Hanyakarah goldsmith
              • Western Iranian
                • Northwestern Iranian
                  • Kurdish زێڕنگەر zêrringer goldsmith
                  • Parthian 𐫉𐫡𐫗𐫃𐫡 zrngr
                    • Persian زرگر
                • Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎴𐎹𐎣𐎼 daraniya-kara goldsmith
            • Iranian *jr̥HanyakaH
              • Western Iranian
                • Medean *zaraniyakā arsenic, orpiment [5]
                  • Aramaic 𐡆𐡓𐡍𐡉𐡊𐡀 zarnīḵā arsenic, orpiment
                    • Arabic زِرْنِيخ zirnīḵ arsenic
                    • Ancient Greek ἀρσενικόν arsenikón
                      • Latin arsenicum arsenic
                        • Western Romance
                          • French arsenic
                            • English arsenic
                        • Translingual As
                  • Old Armenian զառիկ zaṙik arsenic, orpiment
                    • Armenian զառիկ zaṙik arsenic, orpiment

Visual

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Collected English words

chlorine, Cl, chlorophyll, yellow, Haridwar, Harimandir, Zoroaster, Zarathustra, gall, cholera, Glasgow, azure, lapis lazuli, gold, golden, guilder, gild, yield, yield, guild, geld, gelt, guild, daric, arsenic, As

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Discorides in his herbal describes what he calls χρυσάνθεμον chrysanthemon: "golden flower", and says the T(h)uscans call it garouleou. He also notes that the Romans called the same plant "caltha" (from this same root?), which we understand to mean "marigold". Marigold is similar to chrysanthemum both in being part of subfamily Asteroideae, and in both having English names which mean "gold".

    So it is reasonably likely that garouleou might have a morpheme meaning "gold" in it, quite possibly borrowed from something close to Greek chloros or Phrygian glouros.

    Discorides writes γαρουλέου garouléou, but Etruscan distinguishes aspiration but not voicing and used both the letter they got from Greek Γ G and the letter they got from Greek K K interchangeably for the sound /k/. Which is why Greek Γ became Latin C, and then a new letter had to be invented for G.

  2. ^

    While the second element in the name "Zarathustra" is generally agreed to be uštra: "camel", the first element is much debtated. This is one of many possibilities for the first element, "(has) golden/tawny camels".

    When borrowed into Greek, the name seems to have been eggcorned as zōrós + astḗr: "Pure-Star".

  3. ^

    Latin fel: "bile, gall" cannot be regularly derived from *ǵʰelh₃-, but is close enough to be suspicious of a dialect borrowing or something similar. Or it could be a parallel semantic development of "yellow" to "bile" from the root *bʰel-: "to shine, to burn", which gives the Latin flāvus: "yellow, blond, flaxen".

    Speaking of which, there is the word "bile" itself, from Latin bīlis: "bile, gall". This is derivable from Italic *bis(t)lo-, which is identical to Celtic *bis(t)lo- as represented by Welsh bustl: "bile, gall".

    There are two likely possibilities for this: either there is a common origin for the Latin and the Celtic, or it was borrowed from Celtic to Latin.

    If there is a common origin, a non-IE borrowing of *bistlo- rom a local substrate seems likely, due to the restriction to only Celtic and Italic, and the unusual *b- beginning.

    On the other hand if it was borrowed from Celtic into Latin, it can be derived from an initial *bʰ- (which becomes *b- in Celtic, but *f- in Latin). In that case, perhaps it is from PIE *bʰeyd-: "to split", which gives, for example, Germanic "bite" and "bitter", both of which are characteristic of bile.

    Which suggests reconsidering fel, which might be a related native Italic form from *bʰeyd-.

    (Based on de Vaan. Matosivić on the other hand does not like any borrowing option, "since words for organs and body fluids are almost never borrowed." But it's frankly difficult to find any solution for getting bīlis in Latin without borrowing from _somewhere_, much less how Latin ends up with both bīlis and fel.)

  4. ^

    The first element is almost certainly *ǵʰelh₃-. The second element is disputed, but is probably Iranian *varta-: "stone".

  5. ^

    Orpiment is an arsenic sulfide that is orange-yellow. orpiment is also from "gold", Latin auri pigmentum, "golden pigment".