Word Family - King

January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

Teaser

engine, nature, genre, king

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁- to produce, to beget, to give birth
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁ti produce, beget, give birth present
      • Celtic *gniyeti
        • Old Irish gníid to do, to work
          • Old Irish do-gní to do, to make
            • Irish déan do, make
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जनति janati to give birth, to beget, to create, to cause, to assign
        • Iranian *zan-
          • Avestan to give birth
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish zan
            • Old Persian
              • Persian زادن
          • Iranian *āzāta- born, born into the clan, freeman, noble
            • Avestan 𐬁𐬰𐬁𐬙𐬀 āzāta- noble
            • Western Iranian
              • Old Persian *āzāta-
                • Parthian 𐭀𐭆𐭀𐭕 āzāt noble
                  • Old Armenian ազատ azat noble, free, independent, affranchised
                    • Armenian ազատ azat free
                • Persian آزاد âzâd independent, unimpeded, free, liberal also a personal name
                  • Hindi आज़ाद āzād free, independent
                  • Ottoman Turkish آزاد azad independent, unimpeded, liberal, free
                    • Turkish azat free
                    • Greek αζάτι azáti unlimited, free
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵn̥h₁yétor
      • Celtic *ganyetor to be born
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh geni to be born
        • Old Irish gainithir to be born
          • Irish gin to give birth to, to germinate, to originate, to beget, to produce, to generate, birth, offspring, child
      • Hellenic *géňňomai
        • Ancient Greek γείνομαι geínomai I am born, I beget
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जायते jāyate to be born, to grow, to change
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵíǵn̥h₁eti reduplicated present
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek γίγνομαι gígnomai I am born, I am produced, I take place
      • Italic *gignō
        • Latin gignō I beget, I give birth to, I produce, I cause
          • Latin genitus begotten, produced
            • Latin genetīvus belonging by birth, native, belonging to a family or clan, genitive case
              • English genitive
            • Latin genitālis related to generation or birth, fruitful, generative
              • English genital
            • Latin progignō I beget, I produce
              • Latin prōgeniēs race, family, progeny
                • French progéniture offspring, progeny
                • English progeny
                • Italian progenie descent, lineage, descendants
            • Latin ingenuus natural, free-born, noble, upright, candid, ingenuous, tender
              • Western Romance
                • French ingénu ingenuous
                  • English ingenue
                • Italian ingenuou naive, ingenuous, candid
                • Spanish ingenuo naive, ingenuous, innocent, candid
              • English ingenuous
            • Latin -genus born of
              • Latin indigenus native, indigenous, denizen
                • English indigenous
              • Latin ingenium inborn, innate quality, talent, genius, invention, siege engine
                • Western Romance
                  • French engin machine, military equipment, gizmo, tool, apparatus
                    • English engine
                    • English gin
                • Spanish ingenio genius, mind
                • Latin ingeniōsus clever, ingenious, gifted with genius
                  • French ingénieuse ingenious
                    • English ingenious
                  • Spanish ingenioso ingenious
                • Medieval Latin ingeniator engineer, engine-user
                  • French ingénieur engineer
                    • English engineer
                    • Spanish ingeniero engineer
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵn̥h₁sḱéti
      • Italic *gnāskōr
        • Latin nāscor I am born, I arise, I grow, I am X years old
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a naște to give birth, to bear, to be born
          • Western Romance
            • French naître to be born
            • Italian nascere to be born, to sprout
            • Spanish nacer to be born, to sprout, to grow, to rise
          • Latin nāscēns
            • French naissant nascent
            • English nascent
            • Latin nascentia
            • Western Romance
              • French naissance
                • French renaissance
                  • English Renaissance
          • Latin nātīvus created, made, inborn, natural
            • Western Romance
              • French naïf naive
                • English naive
              • Italian nativo native
              • Spanish nativo native
            • French natif native, original, raw
              • English native
          • Latin nātūra nature, quality, essence, temperament, inclination, the natural world
            • Western Romance
              • French nature
                • English nature
              • Italian natura nature
              • Spanish natura nature
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵonh₁éh₂
      • Hellenic *gonā́
        • Ancient Greek γονή gonḗ offspring, family, parentage, generation, seed, genitals, womb, birth
          • English -gony
            • English glottogony
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁mn̥ offspring, seed
      • Celtic *genaman
        • Old Irish genemain
          • Irish giniúint procreation, conception, birth, germination, embryo
      • Italic *genamen
        • Latin genimen product, fruit, progeny, brood
        • Latin germen seed, bud, sprout, origin, embryo, fetus
          • Western Romance
            • French germe germ, seed
              • English germ
                • English germinate
            • Italian germe germ, seed
          • Latin germinō I sprout
            • Latin germinātus sprouted
          • Latin germānus sibling, brotherly or sisterly [1]
            • Western Romance
              • French germain full sibling
                • English germane relevant, related to a topic
                • English german full sibling
              • Italian germano full sibling, brother
              • Spanish hermano brother, sibling
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जनिमन् jániman germination, birth, origin
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵónh₁os
      • Hellenic *gónos
        • Ancient Greek γόνος gónos
          • English gon-
            • English gonad
      • Indo-Iranian *ĵánHas
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit: जन jána generating
            • Hindi -जन -jan -gen
              • Hindi उदजन udjan hydrogen [2]
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁os birth, lineage, family
      • Armenian
        • Old Armenian ծին cin birth, delivery, origin, womb
          • Armenian ծին cin birth (mostly used of animals)
      • Celtic *genos family, clan, birth
        • Brythonic *gen
          • Breton genel to bear (child)
        • Celtic *Morigenos Sea-Born (personal name) [3]
          • Brythonic *Morigenā
            • Old Welsh Morgen [3]
              • English Morgan le Fay
              • Welsh morgen water spirit, siren
          • Old Irish Muirgein [3]
        • Celtic *enigenās born-in, child of the family
          • Primitive Irish ᚔᚅᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐ inigena daughter
            • Old Irish ingen daughter, young woman, maiden [4]
              • Irish iníon daughter, girl, young woman, Miss
              • English Innogen [4]
                • English Imogen [4]
      • Hellenic *génos
        • Ancient Greek γένος génos
          • Ancient Greek -γενής -genḗs
            • French -gène -gen, -genic
              • English -gen
              • French hydrogène hydrogen [2]
                • English hydrogen [2]
          • Ancient Greek Εὐγένῐος Eugénios Well-Born (personal name)
            • Latin Eugenius
              • French Eugène
                • English Eugene
            • Russian Евге́ний Yevgeny
          • Aramaic ܓܢܣܐ gensā kind, sort, genus, family, race, nation, gender, grammatical gender
            • Arabic جِنْس jins kind, sort, species, genus, gender, grammatical gender, race, nation
              • Arabic جَنَّسَ jannasa to assimilate, to naturalize, to sort, to categorize
              • Persian جنس jens kind, genus, genre, gender, grammatical gender, goods
      • Indo-Iranian *ĵánHas
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जनस् jánas race, class of beings
        • Iranian
          • Avestan *zana race
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬎𐬎𐬋𐬰𐬀𐬥𐬀 sruuōzana of the race of horned animals
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian 𐏀𐎴 zana man, tribe, race
      • Italic *genos
        • Latin genus birth, origin, kind, type, class, species, race, set, grammatical gender
          • Western Romance
            • Old French gendre
              • English gender
              • French genre
                • English genre
          • English genus
          • Latin generis of a kind single genetive of genus
            • English sui generis
            • French générique
              • English generic
          • Latin generālis
            • Western Romance
              • French général general, usual
                • English general [5]
              • Italian generale general
              • Spanish general general
          • Latin generō I beget, I reproduce
            • French générer to generate
            • Latin generātiō
              • Western Romance
                • French génération generation
                  • English generation
                • Italian generazione generation, procreation, productio
                • Spanish generación generation
              • English generate
                • English regenerate
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁tis birth, production
      • Balto-Slavic *źénˀtis relative, new relative, son-in-law
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian žéntas son-in-law
        • Slavic *zę̀tь son-in-law
          • East Slavic
            • Russian зять zjatʹ son-in-law, brother-in-law
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian зе̏т zȅt son-in-law, brother-in-law
          • West Slavic
            • Polish zięć son-in-law
      • Germanic *kinþiz kind, race
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse kind race, kind, kin, creature, being
            • Icelandic kind race, kind, kin, sheep
        • West Germanic
          • Old English cynd generation, race
            • English kind
            • Old English ġecynd natural, native, inborn characteristics
              • English kind
      • Hellenic *génetis
        • Ancient Greek γένεσις
          • Latin genesis
            • French genèse
            • English genesis
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जाति jāti birth, production, characteristic by birth, lineage, race, caste
            • Hindi जाति jāti birth, caste, community, race, species, lineage, nationality, tribe
            • Pali ñāti
              • Thai ญาติ yâat family
            • Thai ชาติ châat birth, ancestry, nation, type
            • Telugu జాతి jāti species, nation, kind, tribe
      • Italic *gentis
        • Latin gēns
          • Western Romance
            • French gens people
            • Italian gente people, population, lineage, noble, refined, gentle
            • Spanish gente people
          • Latin gentīlis kinsman, compatriot, member of a noble clan, non-Jew [6]
            • Western Romance
              • Old French genterise
                • English gentry
            • Old French gentil high-born, noble, courtly
              • French gentil helpful, kind, pleasant, attractive, gentile
                • English gentile
                • English genteel
                • English jaunty
              • English gentle
                • English gentleman
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵn̥h₁tiHō
        • Italic *gnātiō
          • Latin nātiō birth, nation, people, race, class
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian națiune nation, country, people
            • Western Romance
            • French nation nation
              • English nation
            • Italian nazione nation
            • Spanish nación nation
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵn̥h₁tós begtton, born, produced
      • Indo-Iranian *ĵaHtás
        • Indo-Aryan *jaHtás
          • Sanskrit जात jātá begotten, produced, child, offspring
            • Sauraseni 𑀚𑀸𑀬 jāya begotten, son
        • Iranian *ĵaHtah
          • Avestan 𐬰𐬁𐬙𐬀 zāta
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian *zāta
              • Persian زاده zâde offspring, suffix forming surnames (equivalent to <-son>)
                • Persian شهرزاد
                  • Russian Шехераза́да Šexerazáda Scheherazade
                    • English Scheherazade [7]
      • Italic *gnātos
        • Latin nātus born, made, arisen
          • Western Romance
            • French born
              • English
            • Italian nato born, né
            • Spanish nato born
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁tōr begetter, producer, parent
      • Indo-Iranian: *ĵanHtŕ̥
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit जनितृ janitṛ́ father, progenitor
      • Italic *genatōr
        • Latin genitor parent, father, sire
          • French géniteur progenitor, parent
          • Italian genitore parent
          • English progenitor
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁tleh₂
      • Armenian
        • Old Armenian ծնաւղ cnawł parent, cause
          • Armenian ծնող cnoł parent
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵn̥h₁yo-
      • Germanic *kunjã kin, family
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse kyn kin
            • Icelandic kyn sex, breed, race, grammatical gender
            • Swedish køn sex, gender, grammatical gender
            • Finnic *kunnia noble family, family prestige
              • Finnish kunnia honor, glory, credit
        • West Germanic
          • Old English cynn kin, kind, tribe, people, grammatical gender
            • English kin
          • Old High German kunni gender, kind, family, tribe
        • Germanic *kuningaz member of a family, member of a ruling family, king
          • North Germanic
          • Old Norse konungr king
            • Danish konge king
            • Icelandic kóngur king
            • Slavic *kъnędzь chief, prince, petty king [8]
              • East Slavic
                • Russian князь knjazʹ duke, prince
              • South Slavic
                • Serbo-Croatian кне̑з knȇz prince
              • West Slavic
                • Polish ksiądz priest
            • Finnic *kuningas
              • Finnish kuningas king
            • Samic
              • Northern Sami gonagas king
            • Lithuanian kunigas priest
          • West Germanic
            • Old English cyning king
              • English king
                • Japanese キング kingu king, in cards or chess
            • Frankish
              • Dutch koning king
            • Old High German kuning king
              • German König king
              • Yiddish קיניג kinig king
      • Italic
        • Latin genius deity or guardian spirit of a place or person, (rarely) wits, talent, genius
          • English genius
          • English genius locii
          • French génie genius, genie [9]
            • English genie
          • Spanish genio temper, mood, genius
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁eteh₂
      • Celtic *genetā
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh geneth girl
        • Gaulish geneta
      • Germanic *kinþã child
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *-kind child only attested in compounds, mostly names
        • West Germanic
          • Old High German kind
            • German Kind child
              • German Kindergarten nursery school, kindergarten
                • English kindergarten
            • Yiddish קינד kind child
          • Frankish kint
            • Dutch kind child
              • Dutch kindeken small child
                • French quinquin small child
      • Italic
        • Oscan genetaí

Visual

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Collected English words

genitive, genital, progeny, ingenue, ingenuous, indigenous, engine, gin, ingenious, engineer, nascent, Renaissance, naive, native, nature, -gony, glottogony, germ, germinate, germane, german, gon-, gonad, Morgan le Fay, Innogen, Imogen, -gen, hydrogen, Eugene, gender, genre, genus, sui generis, generic, general, generation, generate, regenerate, kind, kind, genesis, gentry, gentile, genteel, jaunty, gentle, gentleman, nation, Scheherazade, , progenitor, kin, king, genius, genius locii, genie, kindergarten

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Latin germānus, "sibling" and Germānus, "German" are unrelated. Germānus was probably borrowed from Gaulish, and may mean either "neighbor folk" or "noisy folk".

  2. ^

    Hindi उदजन (udjan) and English hydrogen aren't just parallel constructs based on learned borrowings (Classical Sanskrit and Classical Greek, respectively), they are also formed by compounding the same two PIE roots: *wed- (water) + *ǵenh₁- (birth). https://www.aidanem.com/word-family-water.html

  3. ^

    Not the same as the other Welsh name Morgan (literally "sea-circle", figuratively "sea-defender" or "sea-chief"). But Morgan le Fay first appears as Morgen in Geoffrey of Monmouth's "The Life of Merlin".

    The Irish Muirgein especially refers to the mermaid-saint also known as Lí Ban.

    Also, I'd just like to repeat the phrase, "the Irish mermaid-saint"!

  4. ^

    First appears as the name of the king's daughter in the medieval British legendary history of "Brutus of Troy". Probably in an early form of the legend, she was identified only as the daughter of Pandrasus, and a later version then used the word meaning "daughter" as her proper name.

    The variant Imogen first appears in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. It it possible the variant already existed, but it is also very possible that Shakespeare wrote "Innogen" but it was typeset as "Imogen" instead. Shakespeare used the name Innogen in early drafts of Much Ado About Noting about 12 years earlier; adding weight to the possibility that he intended to use Innogen, not Imogen in Cymbeline.

    So, the English name Imogen is ultimately based on two compounded literary mistakes (probably).

  5. ^

    The military rank general is a shortening of earlier captain-general, i.e., the officer in charge of the army as a whole, the commander-in-chief; parallel to the surviving constructions surgeon-general or postmaster-general.

  6. ^

    The meaning of gentilis as "non-Jew" is a semantic loan from Hebrew גוי goy, literally "nation", but often used to mean "a nation other than Israel" and later "a non-Jew".

  7. ^

    Scheherazade, the character from One Thousand and One Nights. Her younger sister, Dunyazad, also fits in this family, "world-freer", see Azad.

  8. ^

    Slavic *kъnędzь: "chief, prince, petty king" is from some early Germanic language. My preferred theory is Old Norse via the Rurikids and the Rus'.

  9. ^

    genie was used in French to translate the Arabic جِنّ jinn, based on the similar sound and the meaning in Latin of "guardian spirit".