Word Family - Linen

Introduction

While *linom: "flax" and *līnom: "flax" obviously must be connected in some way, the difference in vowel length cannot be reconciled by any regular changes.

All versions with the long vowel are plausibly attributable to derivation from Latin līnum. All the short vowel versions could theoretically be from Greek, but that's more of a stretch. My interpretation is that it is a European substrate/regional word, probably Balkan, which was borrowed more or less separately into Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Hellenic, and Italic (twice).

Teaser

linen, line, lint, align, linoleum, Linux

Full Text

  • Balkan substrate?
    • Balto-Slavic *lina
      • East Baltic
        • Lithuanian lìnas flax
      • West Baltic
        • Old Prussian linno
      • Slavic *lь̀nъ flax
        • East Slavic льнъ lĭnŭ
          • Russian лён ljon flax
        • South Slavic
          • Old Church Slavonic льнъ lĭnŭ flax
          • Serbo-Croatian ла̏н lȁn flax
        • West Slavic
          • Polish len flax
    • Celtic *linnā veil, cloak
      • Brythonic
        • Welsh llen curtain, veil, sheet
      • Gaulish *linnā
        • Latin linnā Gaulish mantle
      • Old Irish lenn cloak, mantle
    • Hellenic *linom
      • Ancient Greek λῐ́νον línon flax, anything made of flax
        • Byzantine Greek
          • Greek λινό linó linen
          • Byzantine Greek λινάριον linárion
            • Greek λινάρι linári flax
        • Ancient Greek Λῖνος Lînos Flax (personal name)
          • Greek Λίνος Línos
          • Latin Linus
            • English Linus
              • English Linux
    • Italic *lintom
      • Latin linteum linen cloth, sail, awning
        • Western Romance
          • Portuguese lenço handkerchief, headscarf
            • Malay lenso
            • Swahili leso handkerchief
          • Spanish lienzo linen, canvas, painting, picture
        • Koine Greek λέντιον léntion linen cloth, towel, apron, scarf
          • Armenian ղենջակ łenǰak apron, towel
          • Coptic ⲗⲉⲛⲧⲓⲟⲛ lention towel, napkin, sarong, loincloth
        • Latin linteolum small linen cloth diminuitive
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian lințoliu
          • Western Romance
            • French linceul shroud
            • Italian lenzuolo sheet, bedsheet
            • Spanish lenzuelo bedsheet
    • Italic *līnom
      • Latin līnum flax, linen, line, cloth, net, sail
        • Sardinian linu flax
        • Eastern Romance
          • Romanian in flax
        • Western Romance
          • Old French lin
            • French lin linen, flax
              • Vietnamese lanh flax
            • Old French linette small piece of flax
              • English lint
            • Old French linette linnet linnets eat flax seeds
              • French linotte linnet
              • English linnet
          • Italian lino flax, linen
          • Spanish lino flax, linen
        • Latin līnea linen thread, thread, string, line
          • Western Romance
            • French ligne line
            • Italian linea line
          • Albanian linjë line
          • Old High German linia line
            • German Linie line
            • Yiddish ליניע linye line
            • Danish linje line
            • Polish linia line
              • Russian линия linija line
          • Spanish línea line
            • Tagalog linya line
          • Welsh llinell line
          • Latin līnaria linen-weaver, weaving shop
            • Translingual Linaria taxonomic genus of toadflax plants
            • Translingual Linaria taxnomic genus of linnets
          • Latin līneō I draw a line, I make straight
            • Western Romance
              • French ligner to make a line, to add lines
              • Italian lineare to draw, to trace, to plot, to delineate
              • Spanish linear to outline, to mark out
            • Latin alīneō
              • Western Romance
                • French aligner to align
                  • English align
                • Spanish aliñar to prepare, to adorn, to season (food)
            • Latin dēlīneō I sketch out
              • English delineate
          • Latin līneāris consisting of lines, linear
            • English linear
        • Translingual Linum taxonomic genus of flax plants
        • English linoleum
          • English lino
            • English linocut
        • Albanian li flax
        • Brythonic
          • Cornish lin linen
          • Welsh llin flax
            • Welsh llinos linnet
        • Old Irish lín linen, flax, cloth, thread
          • Irish líon flax, linen
          • Scottish Gaelic líon flax, linen
            • Scottish Gaelic gealbhonn-lìn linnet lit. "flax-sparrow"
        • Germanic *līnã flax
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌽 lein linen
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse lín
              • Icelandic lín flax, linen
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German
              • German Lein flax, linen
          • Germanic *līnȭ thing made of flax, string, chord
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse lína
                • Danish line
                • Icelandic lína line, string
            • West Germanic
              • Old English
                • English line
              • Frankish
                • Dutch lijn line, string, rope
                  • Malay lin line, band, route
                  • Dutch lint ribbon, cloth band
              • Old High German līna
                • German Leine line, leash
          • Germanic *līnīnaz made of flax, linen
            • West Germanic
              • Old English līnen made of flax, linen
                • English linen
                • Scots linin
              • Frankish *līnīn
                • Dutch linnen linen
              • Old High German līnīn
                • German Leinen canvas, cloth
          • Finnic *liina
            • Finnish liina cloth, line, linen, hemp
          • Samic *lijnē
            • Northern Sami liidni cloth, scarf

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

Linus, Linux, lint, linnet, Linaria, Linaria, align, delineate, linear, Linum, linoleum, lino, linocut, line, linen