Word Family - Mother

May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

Teaser

mother, matrix, material, Manchester, mammal

Full Text

  • Proto-World? ma Or, more likely, convergent development from onamatopoeia of nursing sounds.
    • Proto-Bantu mama mother
    • Basque ama mother
    • Proto-Dravidian *amma mother
    • Proto-Mon-Khmer *meeʔ mother
    • Old Japanese omo mother
    • Mayan mamah
    • Quecha mama mother
    • Proto-Semitic *ʾimm- mother
    • Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow mother, woman
    • Sumerian 𒂼 AMA mother
    • Proto-Tai *meːᴮ mother
    • Proto-Indo-European *méh₂-
      • Early Proto-Indo-European *méh₂ters [1]
        • Greco-Armenian
          • Old Armenian մայր mayr
            • Armenian մեր mer
            • Armenian մայր mayr reborrowing
          • Hellenic *mā́tēr
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀔𐀳𐀩 ma-te-re
            • Ancient Greek μήτηρ mḗtēr mother, source, origin
              • Greek μητέρα mitéra
          • Greco-Armenian *meh₂truih₂- stepmother
            • Old Armenian մօրու mōru stepmother
              • Armenian մորու moru stepmother
            • Hellenic
              • Ancient Greek
                • Greek μητριά mitriá stepmother
        • Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr [1]
          • Balto-Slavic *māˀtē [1]
            • Lithuanian mótė
            • Slavic *màti
              • East Slavic
                • Russian мать matʹ
              • South Slavic
                • Serbo-Croatian ма̏ти mȁti
              • West Slavic
                • Polish mać
                  • Polish matka
          • Celtic *mātīr
            • Brythonic
              • Old Welsh *modri
                • Old Welsh *modribydaf queen bee lit. "mother of beehive"
                  • Welsh modrydaf queen bee
            • Celtiberian matrubos to (the) mothers [2]
            • Gaulish matīr
            • Old Irish máthir
              • Irish máthair
            • Celtic *mātrikʷā maternal aunt
              • Brythonic
                • Welsh modryb aunt
          • Germanic *mōdēr
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse móðir
                • Danish mor
                • Icelandic móðir
            • West Germanic
              • Old English mōdor
                • English mother
                • Scots mither
              • Frankish mōder
                • Dutch moeder
              • Old High German muoter
                • German Mutter
                • Yiddish מוטער muter
          • Indo-Iranian *máHtar
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit मातृ mā́tṛ
                • Magadhi
                  • Bengali মা ma
                • Maharashtri
                  • Marathi माता mātā
                • Sauraseni 𑀫𑀸𑀤𑀸 mādā
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi माँ mā̃
                  • Pahari
                    • Punjabi ਮਾਂ mā̃
                • Pali mātā
                  • Thai มารดา maan-daa formal
                • Telugu మాత māta
            • Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬨𐬁𐬙𐬀𐬭 mātar
              • Northern Iranian
                • Scythian
                  • Ossetian мад mad
              • Pashto مور mor
              • Western Iranian
                • Northwestern Iranian
                  • Kurdish mak
                • Old Persian 𐎶𐎠𐎫𐎠 m-a-t-a
                  • Persian مادر mādar
          • Italic *mātēr
            • Latin māter
              • Western Romance
                • French mère
                • Italian madre
                • Spanish madre
                  • Tagalog madre nun
              • Latin alma māter mother goddess, Virgin Mary
                • Latin Alma Mater Studiorum Nurturing Mother of Studies [3]
                  • English alma mater
              • Latin māternus maternal
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian matern maternal
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian materno maternal
                  • Spanish materno maternal
                • Latin māternālis maternal
                  • Western Romance
                    • French maternel maternal
                      • English maternal maternal
              • Latin mātrīx womb, dam, origin, list, register
                • English matrix
                • Latin mātrīcālis of or from a womb, newly invented
                  • Western Romance
                    • Italian madrigale madrigal
                      • English madrigal
                • Latin mātrīcula register, list
                  • Albanian ndrikull godmother
                  • French matricule serial number
                  • Italian matricola register, freshman
                  • Spanish matrícula license plate, matriculation
                  • Latin mātrīculāre to register
                    • English matriculate
          • Phrygian ματαρ matar
          • Tocharian *mācer
            • Arshian mācar
            • Kushean mācer
        • Proto-Indo-European *méh₂treh₂ mother's sister, maternal aunt
          • Albanian motër sister
          • Germanic *mōdrijǭ mother's sister, maternal aunt
            • West Germanic
              • Old English mōdriġe maternal aunt
              • Old High German muotera maternal aunt
        • Proto-Indo-European *meh₂terieh₁- source, material, timber that is, the "mother" of a finished product
          • Old Armenian մայր mayr cedar, pine, timber
            • Armenian մայր mayr cedar
            • Old Aremnian մայրի mayri woods, forest, thicket
              • Armenian մերի meri woods, forest
          • Italic
            • Latin māteria matter, material, component stuff, timber, source
              • Western Romance
                • Italian matera material archaic
                • Portuguese madeira wood, timber
                  • Portuguese Madeira
                    • English Madeira
                      • English madeira [4]
                • Spanish madera wood, board, makings
              • French matière material, matter, content
                • English matter
              • Italian materia matter, material, substance, subject
              • Spanish materia matter, subject
              • Latin māteriālis material
                • English material
                • Russian материа́л materiál material, stuff, fabric
                  • Russian компрома́т kompromát compromising or discrediting evidence, dirt
                    • English kompromat
      • Proto-Indo-European *méh₂-méh₂- mama
        • Albanian mëmë
        • Old Armenian
          • Armenian մամա mama
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian mamà
          • Slavic
            • East Slavic
              • Russian ма́ма máma
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian ма̏ма mȁma
            • West Slavic
              • Polish mama
        • Celtic *mammā
          • Brythonic *mamm
            • Welsh mam
            • Brythonic *Mamkeos? breast-like (hill)?
              • Brythonic *Mamkenion? place/city of breast-like hill, Manchester
                • Welsh Manceinion Manchester
                • Latin Mamucium (Castrum) Manchester (Fort)
                  • English Manchester
          • Old Irish
            • Irish mam
        • Germanic *mōmǭ
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse
              • Icelandic mamma
          • West Germanic
            • Old English
              • English mama
              • English mom
              • English mum
              • Scots mam
            • Old High German
              • German Mama
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek μᾰ́μμη mámmē mama, mother's breast
            • Greek μαμά máma
            • Greek μάνα mána
            • Latin mamma mama, breast
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian mamă
              • Western Romance
                • French maman
                • Italian mamma
              • English mammogram
              • Latin mammalis relating to breasts or nursing
                • Translingual Mammalia taxonomic class of the mammals
                  • English mammal
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अम्बा ambā́
              • Elu
                • Sinhala අම්මා ammā
              • Sauraseni 𑀅𑀁𑀫𑀸 aṃmā
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi अम्मा ammā
          • Iranian
            • Northern Iranian
              • Scythian
                • Ossetian мамӕ mamæ
        • Tocharian
          • Kushean ammakki

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

mother, alma mater, maternal, matrix, madrigal, matriculate, Madeira, madeira, matter, material, kompromat, Manchester, mama, mom, mum, mammogram, Mammalia, mammal

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Greek and Armenian forms require a different reconstruction than most other branches, notably a different stress pattern. Since the other form is analogous to the words for "father" and "daughter", the guess is that Greco-Armenian retains the older form, and in other dialects *méh₂ters changed to *méh₂tēr under the influence of *ph₂tḗr ("father"), *dʰugh₂tḗr ("daughter"), and *bʰréh₂tēr ("brother"). *ph₂tḗr and *dʰugh₂tḗr in turn had their inflection paradigm influenced by the paradigm used by *méh₂ters and *bʰréh₂tēr.

    The Balto-Slavic is actually ambiguous and could be derived from either *méh₂ters or *méh₂tēr. But Balto-Slavic has fewer shared derived characteristics with Greek and Armenian than it does with almost any other branch of IE, so I'm defaulting it to *méh₂tēr.

    The Anatolian reflex would be be greatly illuminating. Unfortunately, the only attested Anatolian word for "mother" seems to be *Honno.

  2. ^

    Only attested in the dative plural, because most Celtiberian inscriptions are on objects recording the history of a gift, either to a person, or as a votive offering to a dvinity. In this case, matrubos is usually in reference to the Divine Mothers. For example Matribus Termegiste (VSLM) "The Three Great(est) Mothers (this vow has been willingly and properly fulfilled)" (Latinized Celtiberian in Spain, Celtic Triple Goddess).

    See also Gaulish word for "sister" only attested in the dative dual

  3. ^

    The English usage of alma mater to mean the school one graduated from is derived from the motto of the University of Bologna: "Alma Mater Studiorum". University of Bologna has been in continuous operation (since 1088), and is the institution for whom the word university (or rather ūniversitās) was coined. Alumni include Copernicus, Petrarch, and Paracelsus. (alumnus is related to alma, and means "the one who is nourished, foster child, student".)

    See also {bee} for Bologna

  4. ^

    madeira: "The wine from the island with all the stuff". Compare canary: "The birds from the island with all the dogs", from another archipelago in the region.