Word Family - Nebula

Teaser

nephology, Niflheim, Nibelungenlied, nebula

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *nebʰ- cloudy, misty, damp [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *nébʰos cloud, mist, moisture
      • Anatolian *nébos
        • Hittite 𒉈𒂊𒁉𒅖 nēpis sky, heaven
        • Luwic
          • Cuneiform Luwian 𒋫𒀊𒉺𒀸𒊭 tappassa sky, heaven
          • Lycian 𐊗𐊀𐊂𐊀𐊛𐊀𐊈𐊀 tabahaza
      • Pre-Armenian *m̥bʰos
        • Old Armenian ամպ amp cloud
          • Armenian ամպ amp cloud
      • Balto-Slavic *nébas cloud, sky
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian debesìs cloud
        • Slavic *nȅbo sky, heaven
          • East Slavic
            • Russian нёбо njóbo palate (roof of mouth)
            • Ukrainian не́бо nébo sky, heaven
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic небо nebo heaven, sky
              • Russian не́бо nébo sky, heaven, air
          • West Slavic
            • Polish niebo sky, heaven
      • Celtic *nembos sky, heaven
        • Brythonic *neβ̃
          • Welsh nef heaven
        • Old Irish nem heaven, sky, radiance
          • Irish neamh heaven, sky
      • Hellenic *népʰos cloud
        • Ancient Greek νέφος néphos cloud
          • Greek νέφος néfos smog, cloud
          • English nepho-
            • English nephology
      • Indo-Iranian *nábʰas cloud, mist
        • Indo-Aryan *nábʰas
          • Sanskrit 𑀦𑀪𑀲𑁆 nábhas mist, fog, cloud, vapor, sky
            • Maharashtri 𑀡𑀳 ṇaha sky
            • Tamil நபம் napam sky
        • Iranian *nábah
          • Avestan 𐬥𐬀𐬠𐬀𐬵 nabah air, sky
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish nem moisture, humidity
            • Old Persian
              • Persian نم nam moisture, humidity, dew
                • Hindi नम nam moisture, humidity, dew, moist, damp
                • Turkish nem moisture, humidity
      • Proto-Indo-European *nebʰelos diminutive
        • Albanian avull steam
          • Romanian abur steam, vapor, fog
        • Germanic *nebulaz fog, mist, darkness
          • West Germanic
            • Frankish *neval
              • Dutch nevel fog
                • Dutch nevelvlek nebula
            • Old High German nebul
              • German Nebel fog, mist, nebula
              • Yiddish נעפּל nepl mist
          • Germanic *nibilaz misty, dark
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse *nifl
                • Icelandic nifl fog, darkness
                • Old Norse Niflheimr Niflheim lit. "World of Mist, Dark World"
                  • English Niflheim
            • West Germanic
              • Old English nifol dark, gloomy
            • Germanic *nibilungō lit. "Children of Darkness" [2]
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse Niflung
              • West Germanic
                • Old High German Nibelung
                  • German Nibelung
                    • German Nibelungenlied Song of the Nibelungs
                      • English Nibelungenlied
                  • Italian Napoleone
                    • French Napoléon
                      • English Napoleon
                        • English napoleon
                          • English simoleon
              • Latin Nivilōnēs
          • Insular Celtic
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh niwl mist, fog, haze
            • Old Irish nél cloud
              • Irish néal cloud, depression
                • Irish réaltnéal nebula
              • Old Irish Níall personal name
                • Irish Niall
                  • English Neil
                • Old Norse Njáll
                  • Icelandic Njáll
                • Old Irish Úa Néill grandson/descendant of Niall
                  • Irish Ó Néill
                    • English O'Neill
        • Hellenic *nepʰélā
          • Ancient Greek νεφέλη nephélē cloud
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Nuristani
            • Kamviri niru
        • Italic *neβelā
          • Latin nebula fog, cloud
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian negură fog
            • Western Romance *nebla
              • Italian nebbia fog, mist
              • Spanish niebla fog
            • English nebula
              • Thai เนบิวลา nee-biu-lâa nebula
            • Latin nebulōsus foggy, clouded, obscured
              • English nebulous
      • Proto-Indo-European *n̥bʰrós
        • Pre-Armenian *m̥bʰrós
          • Old Armenian ամպրոպ amprop thunder
            • Armenian ամպրոպ amprop thunderstorm
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀφρός aphrós foam [3]
        • Indeterminate Indo-European language
          • Hellenic
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀃𐀖𐀪𐀍 o-mi-ri-jo rain gods
            • Ancient Greek ὄμβρος ómbros thunderstorm, flood [3]
        • Indo-Iranian *abʰrás cloud, raincloud
          • Indo-Aryan *abʰrás
            • Dardic
              • Kashmiri obur clouds, cloudy weather
            • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀪𑁆𑀭 abhrá cloud, thunder cloud, sky
              • Pali 𑀅𑀩𑁆𑀪 abbha
                • Thai อาภา āphā light, ray
                • English Appa
              • Sauraseni 𑀅𑀩𑁆𑀪 abbha cloud, rain cloud, rainy weather, sky
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi आभ ābh sky
          • Iranian *abráh cloud
            • Avestan 𐬀𐬡𐬭𐬀 aβra cloud
            • Northern Iranian
              • Khotani orä
              • Ossetian арв arv sky
            • Pashto اوره owrë́
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Balochi اور awr cloud
                • Kurdish ewr cloud
              • Persian ابر abr cloud, sponge
            • Iranian *abrakah diminutive
              • Northern Iranian
                • Ossetian ӕврагъ ævraǧ cloud
              • Western Iranian
                • Persian ابرک abrak little cloud, sponge
        • Italic *emβris
          • Latin imber rain, storm
          • Oscan *anfr- rain
            • Oscan 𐌀𐌍𐌀𐌚𐌓𐌝𐌔𐌔 𐌊𐌄𐌐𐌐𐌉𐌉𐌖𐌉𐌔 Anafriss Kerriiuis They Grow the Rains (Divinities of Rain)
        • Tocharian *epprer
          • Kushean iprer sky, air
        • Indeterminate Indo-European language
          • Samic *ëprē rain
            • Northern Sami arvi rain
      • Proto-Indo-European *n̥bʰtós adjective
        • Indo-Iranian *nabʰtás
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬥𐬀𐬞𐬙𐬀 napta wet, damp
            • Northern Iranian
              • Sogdian 𐫗𐫂𐫤𐫏𐫏 nβtyy damp, humid
            • Pashto لوند lund wet
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian 𐫗𐫜𐫤 nft

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Collected English words

nepho-, nephology, Niflheim, Nibelungenlied, Napoleon, napoleon, simoleon, Neil, O'Neill, nebula, nebulous, Appa

Footnotes

  1. ^

    In a number of descendants of *nebʰ-: "cloudy, misty, damp" there is a semantic shift to "sky"; this parallels the shift from Germanic *skiwô: "cloud cover" to English "sky".

  2. ^

    Niebelung derived from *nibilaz: "misty, dark"—thus "Children of Darkness"—may be a reinterpretation by folk etymology from an existing name with a different etymology, likely originally *niwjaz: "new" instead.

    The name probably referred originally to a Burgundian dynasty with no particular supernatural or inhuman implication. Only in some later versions of the stories that included the Nibelungen did the term come to mean a race of underground dwarves.

    The Italian name "Napoleone" is modified by folk etymology from an unknown source, possibly the Lombardic versions of Nibelung.

  3. ^

    Ancient Greek ὄμβρος ómbros matches the meaning of other descendants of *n̥bʰrós, but the expected form is ἀφρός aphrós which means "sea foam" instead. Possibly ómbros is a borrowing from a different Indo-European branch, perhaps Phrygian which is known to have the *bʰ to *b sound change.