Word Family - Seat

Teaser

sit, sedate, obsess, possess, preside, supersede, polyhedron, banshee, LED, method, period, session, insidious, saddle, seat, nest

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *sed- to sit [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedeti simple imperfective
      • Celtic *sedeti
        • Brythonic
          • Cornish hedhi to stop, to pause
        • Old Irish saidid to sit
          • Irish suigh to sit, to set, to settle, to arrange, to rent
        • Celtic *exs-dī-sedeti "out-from-sit"
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh eistedd to sit
    • Proto-Indo-European *sédyeti ye- imperfective
      • Germanic *sitjanã
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 sitan to sit
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse sitja to sit
            • Danish sidde to sit, to be (at, in)
            • Icelandic sitja to sit, to ride
        • West Germanic
          • Old English sittan
            • English sit to sit
          • Frankish *sitten
            • Dutch zitten to sit, to be
          • Old High German sizzen
            • German sitzen to sit, to stay, to be
            • Yiddish זיצן zitsn to sit
      • Hellenic *heďďomai
        • Ancient Greek ἕζομαι hézomai I sit
    • Proto-Indo-European *sísdeti sits reduplicate imperfective
      • Pre-Armenian *hisdo-
        • Pre-Armenian *zisdo- to sit around, to sit after?
          • Old Armenian զիստ zist thigh, seat in a boat
            • Armenian զիստ zist thigh, haunch
      • Balto-Slavic *sēˀstei
        • Old Prussian sindants sitting
        • Slavic *sěsti to sit down
          • East Slavic
            • Russian сесть sestʹ to sit down
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic сѣсти sěsti to sit down
            • Serbo-Croatian сје̏сти sjȅsti to sit down
          • West Slavic
            • Polish siąść to sit down
      • Hellenic *hízdō
        • Ancient Greek ἵζω hízō to sit, to place, to settle, to sink
      • Indo-Iranian *síždati to sit
        • Indo-Aryan *síẓḍati
          • Sanskrit सीदति sī́dati to sit, to wait, to watch
            • Elu
              • Dhivehi އިންނަނީ in̊nanī
            • Pali sīdati
      • Italic *sizdō
        • Latin sīdō I sit, I seat, I settle, I sink down
          • Latin subsīdō
            • English subside
        • Umbrian 𐌔𐌉𐌔𐌕𐌖 sistu
      • Proto-Indo-European *ni-sísdeti sits down
        • Old Armenian նստիմ nstim to sit down, to settle
          • Armenian նստել nstel to sit down, to sink, to shrink
    • Proto-Indo-European *sodéyeti causes to sit, sets, seats causative
      • Balto-Slavic *sōˀdeitei
        • Lithuanian sodinti to set, to plant
        • Old Prussian saddinna sets
        • Slavic *sadìti to plant
          • East Slavic
            • Russian сади́ть sadítʹ to seat, to plant, to imprison
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic садити saditi to plant
            • Serbo-Croatian са́дити sáditi
          • West Slavic
            • Polish sadzić to plant
          • Slavic *sȃdъ plant, garden
            • East Slavic
              • Russian сад sad plant, garden, orchard
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic садъ sadŭ garden, plantation
              • Serbo-Croatian са̑д sȃd (plant) nursery, seedling
            • West Slavic
              • Polish sad orchard
            • Lithuanian sõdas garden
      • Celtic *sodeyeti
        • Celtic *ad-sodeyeti with *ad-: "toward", double marking the causative
          • Old Irish ad·suidi to hinder, to stop
      • Germanic *satjanã to set, to place
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍃𐌰𐍄𐌾𐌰𐌽 satjan to set
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse setja to set, to seat, to place, to settle, to establish, to set in order
            • Danish sætte to set, to place, to fix in place, to plant, to posit
            • Icelandic setja to put, to place, to fix in place, to decide, to posit, to typeset
        • West Germanic
          • Old English settan
            • English set
              • English setter
                • Czech setr setter (dog)
                • French setter setter (dog)
                • Mandarin 賽特犬 sàitèquǎn setter (dog)
                • Russian се́ттер sɛ́ttɛr setter (dog)
          • Frankish *setten
            • Dutch zetten to set, to put, to typeset, to prepare
          • Old High German sezzen
            • German setzen to set, to put, to settle
            • Yiddish זעצן zetsn to set, to seat
        • Germanic *bisatjanã to set in, to set around, to occupy
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐍃𐌰𐍄𐌾𐌰𐌽 bisatjan to surround with, to set around
          • West Germanic
            • Old English besettan to set in, to set around, to surround, to beset
              • English beset
            • Frankish
              • Dutch bezetten to fill, to occupy, to conquer
            • Old High German bisezzen
              • German besetzen to occupy
        • Germanic *satīniz a setting, a position, a collection of things in one place
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic *sateins
              • Gothic 𐌰𐍆𐍃𐌰𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 afsateins divorce "a setting off/apart"
              • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍃𐌰𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 gasateins foundation "a setting down"
          • West Germanic
            • Old English
              • English set
      • Indo-Iranian *sādáyati
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit सादयति sādáyati sits, reclines, languishes
      • Proto-Indo-European *ni-sodéyeti sets down
        • Indo-Iranian *ni-sādáyati
          • Iranian *nišādáyati
            • Avestan 𐬥𐬌𐬱𐬁𐬜𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌 nišāδaiieiti to sit down
            • Northern Iranian
              • Khotani näta’ś- to end
              • Sogdian 𐫗𐫏𐫢𐫏𐫔 nyšyδ to plant, to establish
            • Western Iranian
              • Kurdish niştin to sit down
              • Old Persian 𐎴𐎡𐎹𐏁𐎠𐎭𐎹𐎶 niyšadym establishes, settles
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedéh₂yeti causative/factitive
      • Italic
        • Latin sēdō I settle, I calm, I make still, I stop
          • Western Romance
            • Italian sedare to sedate, to soothe, to cool
          • Latin sēdātus calmed, stilled, ended
            • English sedate
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedéh₁yeti is sitting stative
      • Balto-Slavic *sēdētei
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian sėdė́ti sits
        • Slavic *sěděti
          • East Slavic
            • Russian сиде́ть sidétʹ to sit
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic сѣдѣти sěděti to sit, to dwell
            • Serbo-Croatian сјѐдити sjèditi to sit
          • West Slavic
            • Polish siedzieć to sit
      • Italic *sedēō
        • Latin sedeō I sit, I preside, I settle, I remain
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a ședea to sit
          • Western Romance
            • French seoir to be situated, to be suitable, to sit down
            • Italian sedere to sit
            • Spanish ser to be suppletive verb, most of the conjugated forms are from sum
          • Latin assideō I sit next to, I attend on, I assist, I resemble [2]
            • Latin assessus
            • English assess [2]
          • Latin dissideō I sit apart, I am divided, I disagree
            • Latin dissidēns
              • French dissident dissident, dissenting
                • English dissident
          • Latin obsideō I sit up against, I sit near, I stay, I frequent, I besiege, I detain, I guard
            • Latin obsessus
              • English obsess
          • Latin possideō I have, I own, I possess, I occupy, I control literally "able to sit (on
            • Western Romance
              • Old French posseoir
                • English possess
              • Italian possedere to possess, to own, to master
              • Spanish poseer to possess, to own
            • French posséder to own, to possess
          • Latin praesideō I sit in front of, I guard, I preside over
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • French présider to preside
                • English preside
              • Italian presiedere to preside
              • Spanish presidir to preside
            • Latin praesidēns guarding, presiding, president
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French président president
                  • English president
                • Italian presidente chairman, chief, president
                • Spanish presidente president
            • Latin praeses guard, defender, chief
              • Latin praesidium defence, aid, guard, garrison, escort
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian presidio garrison
                  • Spanish presidio garrison, prison
                    • English presidio
                • Russian прези́диум prezídium head of committee
                  • English presidium
          • Latin resideō I remain sitting, I linger, I reside, I am left behind
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • French résider to reside
                • English reside
              • Italian risedere to sit again, to reside
              • Italian risiedere to reside in, to room at, to lie in
            • Latin residuus remaining, persisting, left over
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French résidu residue, remainder
                  • English residue
          • Latin sedentārius sitting, sedentary
            • English sedentary
          • Latin sedēns
            • Vulgar Latin *sedentō
              • Western Romance
                • Spanish sentar to set, to seat, to fit
          • Latin sedimentum a settling, a subsidence
            • English sediment
          • Latin supersedeō I sit above, I preside, I refrain, I omit
            • Western Romance
              • French surseoir to postpone
              • Italian soprassedere to postpone
              • Spanish sobreseer to prolong, to dismiss
            • English supersede
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedtós seated adjective
      • Germanic *sessaz seat [3]
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse sess seat
            • Icelandic sess seat
        • West Germanic
          • Old English sess seat, bench
      • Indo-Iranian *sattás
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit सत्त sattá seated
      • Italic *sessos [3]
        • Latin sessus a sitting
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian șes plain, flatlands, flat
            • Albanian shesh floor, ground, plain, field
          • Western Romance
            • Spanish sieso rectum, anus
          • Latin sessilis usable as a seat, low growing, sessile
            • English sessile
    • Proto-Indo-European *sédos a sitting action noun
      • Hellenic *hédos
        • Ancient Greek ἕδος hédos a seat, a sitting
          • Ancient Greek ἕδρᾱ hédrā a seat, a sitting, a stool, a place, a position, face (of a geometric solid
            • Ancient Greek πολύεδρον polúedron polyhedron
              • Greek πολύεδρον polýedron polyhedron
              • English polyhedron
              • French polyèdre polyhedron
              • German Polyeder polyhedron
            • Ancient Greek σῠ́νεδρος súnedros sitting together, sitting in council
              • Ancient Greek σῠνέδρῐον sunédrion
                • English synedrion
                • Hebrew סַנְהֶדְרִין sanhedrín
                  • English Sanhedrin
      • Indo-Iranian *sádas
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit सदस् sádas seat, residence, meeting place
            • Sanskrit सदस्य sadasyá member of a council or court
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedos a sitting action noun
      • Celtic *sīdos tumulus, barrow, mound, peace alternating stem *sīd-/*sed-
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh hedd peace
        • Gaulish *sīdon
          • Gaulish *Mellosedon Confusion-Barrow? (place name)
            • Latin Mellosedum
          • Gaulish *Wirosīdon Man-Barrow?, True-Barrow? (place name)
            • Latin Virosidum
        • Old Irish síd fairy mound, fairies
          • Irish fairy mound, tumulus
          • English sidhe
          • Old Irish áes síde folk of the mounds, fairies
            • Irish aos sí fairies
          • Old Irish ben síde woman of the mounds, fairy-woman
            • Irish bean sí banshee, fairy woman
              • English banshee
          • Old Irish creitem sí
            • Irish Creideamh Sí'
          • Old Irish doíni síde people of the mounds, fairies
            • Irish Daoine Sí
            • English Daoine Sidhe
        • Lepontic 𐌔𐌉𐌕𐌄𐌑 siteś seats? in the Inscription of Prestino
    • Proto-Indo-European *sodos a sitting, a ride action noun
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *xodъ passage, movement
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ход xod motion, travel, path, speed
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic ходъ xodŭ movement
            • Serbo-Croatian хо̑д hȏd gait, pace
          • West Slavic
            • Polish chód a walk
          • Slavic *xoditi to go, to walk
            • East Slavic
              • Russian ходи́ть xodítʹ to go, to walk, to attend
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic ходити xoditi to walk
              • Serbo-Croatian хо̀дити hòditi to walk, to go, to pace
            • West Slavic
              • Polish chodzić to go, to walk, to attend, to mean
      • Hellenic *hodós
        • Ancient Greek ὁδός hodós road, path, journey, means, threshold
          • Greek οδός street, route
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́νοδος ánodos path up, ascent, climb
            • English anode
          • Ancient Greek δίοδος díodos path through, (mountain) pass
            • English diode
              • English LED
          • Ancient Greek ἔξοδος éxodos path out, exit, departure, divorce, end
            • Greek έξοδος éxodos exit
            • Latin exodus
              • English exodus
          • Ancient Greek κᾰ́θοδος káthodos path down, descent
            • English cathode
          • Ancient Greek μέθοδος méthodos path behind, pursuit, pursuit of knowledge, inquiry, doctrine, method, trick
            • Greek μέθοδος méthodos method
            • Armenian մեթոդ metʿod method
            • Georgian მეთოდი metodi method
            • Hebrew מֶתוֹדָה metóda method
            • Latin methodus method
              • French méthode method, book
                • English method
                • Persian متد metod
            • Russian ме́тод métod method
          • Ancient Greek περῐ́οδος períodos path around, circumference, periodic recurrence, period, complete sentence
            • Greek περίοδος períodos period (most senses)
            • Latin periodus
              • French période period, interval, point, locus
                • English period
          • Ancient Greek σῠ́νοδος súnodos path together, meeting, assembly, conjunction, syond
            • English synod
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit सादस् sādas a sitting, a ride, motion
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedtis abstract noun
      • Hellenic *hétstis
        • Ancient Greek ἕσις a sending forth, an aiming, a sitting
      • Proto-Indo-European *sedtiHō
        • Italic *seztjō
          • Latin sessio a sitting, a seat, a discussion, a session
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian sesie meeting, session, commune
            • Western Romance
              • French session
                • English session
              • Italian sessione
              • Spanish sesión
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedis derived noun
      • Italic
        • Latin sēdēs seat, chair, residence, place
          • Western Romance
            • Old French sie
              • English see
                • English Holy See
            • Italian sede venue, branch office, see, syllable
            • Spanish sede seat, headquarters, office, see
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh swydd job, office, position
          • Latin sēdēcula small seat, stool diminutive
            • Western Romance *sedicuᵐ
              • French siège seat, chair, siege, see
                • English siege
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedyeh₂ collective noun?
      • Pre-Albanian *sedjā
        • Albanian gjazë riverside forest
      • Italic *sedjā
        • Italic *ensedjā
          • Latin īnsidiae ambush, plot, snare
            • Latin īnsidiōsus insidious, deceitful, dangerous
              • English insidious
              • French insidieux
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedlom seat, thing to sit on instrumental
      • Old Armenian ետղ etł spot, place
        • Armenian տեղ teł place, position
        • Old Armenian տեղակալ tełakal [4]
          • Armenian տեղակալ tełakal deputy, assistant, subsitute [4]
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *sě̄dlò seat
          • West Slavic
            • Czech sídlo seat, residence
      • Germanic *setlaz seat, chair, settle
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌻𐍃 sitls seat, throne, nest
        • West Germanic
          • Old English setl [5]
            • English settle [5]
          • Frankish *setl
            • Detch zetel chair, seat
          • Old High German sezzal
            • German Sessel armchair
      • Italic
        • Latin sella seat, chair, sedan, saddle, stool
          • Sardinian sedda
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian șa saddle
            • Albanian shalë saddle
          • Western Romance
            • French selle
              • Hebrew אַסְלָה aslá toilet
            • Italian sella saddle
            • Spanish silla chair, saddle
              • Nahuatl siya chair, saddle
              • Tagalog silya chair
    • Proto-Indo-European *sodlōm seat, thing to sit on instrumental
      • Germanic *sadulaz saddle
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse sǫðull saddle
            • Danish sadel saddle
            • Icelandic söðull saddle
        • West Germanic
          • Old English sadol saddle
            • English saddle
          • Frankish *sadul
            • Dutch zadel saddle
          • Old High German satil
            • German Sattel saddle
        • Finnic *satula saddle
          • Finnish satula saddle
        • Slavic *sedъlò saddle
          • East Slavic
            • Russian седло́ sedló saddle
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic седьло sedĭlo
            • Serbo-Croatian сѐдло sèdlo saddle
          • West Slavic
            • Polish siodło saddle
    • Proto-Indo-European *sedtlom seat, thing to sit on instrumental
      • Indo-Iranian *sattrám religious session, religious gathering
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit सत्त्र sattrá session, large religious gathering
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬵𐬀𐬯𐬙𐬭𐬀 hastra gathering, meeting, session, assembly
    • Proto-Indo-European *sodyom
      • Celtic *sodyom
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh sedd seat
        • Old Irish suide
          • Irish suí sitting, session, siege
      • Germanic *setijã seat
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse sæti seat, hay-rick
            • Icelandic sæti seat, hay-rick
            • English seat
      • Italic
        • Latin solium
          • Western Romance
            • Italian soglio seat, throne, jurisdiction
    • Proto-Indo-European *sdós passive participle/deverbal
      • Proto-Indo-European *nisdós nest ~ "which is sat down on"
        • Pre-Albanian *nezda
          • Albanian neth sprout, bud
        • Old Armenian նիստ nist seat, residence, dwelling, meeting
          • Armenian նիստ nist meeting, session, facet
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian lìzdas nest
          • Slavic *gnězdo nest
            • East Slavic
              • Russian гнездо́ gnezdó nest, socket
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic гнѣздо gnězdo nest
              • Serbo-Croatian гније́здо gnijézdo nest
            • West Slavic
              • Polish gniazdo nest, socket
        • Celtic *nisdos nest
          • Brythonic *nɨθ
            • Welsh nyth nest
          • Old Irish net nest
            • Irish nead nest, den, lair, home
        • Germanic *nestã nest
          • West Germanic
            • Old English nest nest
              • English nest
            • Frankish *nest
              • Dutch nest nest, bed, brat
            • Old High German nest
              • German Nest nest
              • Yiddish נעסט nest nest
        • Indo-Iranian *niždás nest
          • Indo-Aryan *niẓḍás
            • Dardic
              • Kashmiri نؽوٗر nyūr
            • Sanskrit नीड nīḍá nest, resting spot, place
              • Pali nīḍa
              • Sauraseni 𑀡𑀻𑀟 ṇīḍa
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi नीड़ nīṛ nest
        • Italic *nizdos nest
          • Latin nīdus nest, dwelling
            • Western Romance
              • French nid nest
              • Italian nido nest
              • Spanish nido nest
            • Vulgar Latin *nīdicāre to nest, to make a nest
              • Western Romance
                • Old French nichier to nest, to make a nest
                  • French niche kennel, niche
                    • English niche
            • Vulgar Latin *nīdāx nest-ish, nestling
              • Western Romance
                • French niais nestling (esp. in falconry), buffoon
                  • English eyas
  • Proto-Indo-European *(h₁)ni down
    • Proto-Indo-European *ni-sed- to sit down
      • Proto-Indo-European *ni-sísdeti sits down ^
      • Proto-Indo-European *ni-sodéyeti sets down ^
      • Proto-Indo-European *nisdós nest ~ "which is sat down on" ^

Visual

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Collected English words

sit, subside, set, setter, beset, set, sedate, assess, dissident, obsess, possess, preside, president, presidio, presidium, reside, residue, sedentary, sediment, supersede, sessile, polyhedron, synedrion, Sanhedrin, sidhe, banshee, Daoine Sidhe, anode, diode, LED, exodus, cathode, method, period, synod, session, see, Holy See, siege, insidious, settle, saddle, seat, nest, niche, eyas

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Proto-Indo-European *sed-: "to sit" might be part of a Pre-Proto-Indo-European cluster of "s-t" roots with meanings related to stillness (still!). I suspect the "s-t" cluster is onomatopoeic of motion coming to a sudden stop (stop!).

    • *steh₂-: "stand up"
    • *stebʰ-: "stand still"
    • *stel-: "to put, to place"
    • *(s)telH-: "to be silent, to be still"
    • *steyh₂-: "to stiffen"

    The other "s-t" cluster with meanings related to "hit, strike, sting" may be related also. stop itself is from *(s)tew(p)-: "to push, to hit". (Cluster includes the roots *(s)tew-, *(s)tewd-, *(s)tewg-, *(s)tewk-, *(s)tewp-, *stengʷ-, *sterbʰ-, *(s)teyg-, *streyg-).

    Most of the rest of the *st- roots are related to "spreading out": *(s)teg-, *ster-, *sterh₃-, *strew- (connected to the "push" meanings?); or "twisting, twining, rope" (connected to the "stiffen" meanings?): *strengʰ-, *stegʷʰ-.

  2. ^

    Latin assideō: "I sit next to, I assist" notably is not the origin of English assist, which is from the parallel construction assistō: "I stand next to" instead. The meaning of "assess", which is from assideō comes from the job of an assistant to a judge who set the amount of a fine.

  3. ^

    Germanic *sessaz and Italic *sessos require two consonants in the proto form , as in the adjective form *sedtós; but they both have the semantics of an action noun, such as *sedós (or *sedōs), while the Sanskrit सत्त sattá: "seated" shows the expected adjective meaning. Perhaps *sedtós and *sedos became conflated in Northwest Indo-European (or it could just the generally weak distinction between nouns and adjectives in PIE).

  4. ^

    Armenian տեղակալ tełakal: "deputy, assistant, subsitute" is literally "place-holder" with կալնել kalnel: "to hold, to keep"; an identical formation to French lieutenant.

  5. ^

    The English verb settle is a merger of a verb derived from the noun Old English setl: "seat, a sitting" (gives the English noun settle), plus the verb sehtlian: "to bring to an agreement", which is a frequentive related to seek and sought.