Word Family - Small Horse Families

March theme: Horses 🐎

Introduction

Two final, small "horse" families.

Teaser

ride, palfrey, road,

and

henchman

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *reydʰ- to ride
    • Proto-Indo-European *reydʰ-ti primary verb
      • Germanic *rīdaną to ride
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse ríða to ride
            • Danish ride to ride
            • Icelandic ríða to ride
        • West Germanic
          • Old English rīdan to ride
            • English ride
          • Old High German rītan to ride
            • German reiten to ride
          • Frankish rīdan to ride
            • Dutch rijden to ride, to drive
              • Welsh gorwydd horse less common than ceffyl
        • Finnic *raććas
          • Finnish ratsastaa to ride
    • Proto-Indo-European *reydʰōs the act of riding
      • Celtic *rēdos
        • Celtic *uɸorēdos horse lit. "under-riding"?
          • Brythonic *gworuɨð horse
          • Gaulish *werēdos
            • Latin verēdus fast or light breed of horse
              • Spanish veredas horse path, sidewalk
              • Late Latin paraverēdus extra horse, post horse
                • Western Romance
                  • French palefroi small riding horse, palfrey
                    • English palfrey small riding horse
                  • Spanish palafrén palfrey
                • Old High German pfarifrit horse
                  • German Pferd horse also the chess piece
                • Frankish *pered
                  • Dutch paard horse also the chess piece
      • Germanic *raidō ride, journey
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍂𐌴𐌳𐌰 rēda
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse reið
            • Danish red
            • Icelandic reið ride, chariot
        • West Germanic
          • Old English rād journey, ride, expedition
            • English road
            • Scots raid expedition, raid
              • English raid
          • Old High German reita
        • Finnic
          • Finnish raide track, railroad
        • Samic *rājδō
          • Northern Sami ráidu line of reindeer
  • Proto-Indo-European *kankest- horse
    • Celtic *kassikā
      • Gaulish cassica mare
      • Insular Celtic
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh caseg mare
    • Germanic *hangistaz horse, stallion
      • North Germanic
        • Old Norse hestr horse
          • Danish hest horse
            • Greenlandic Inuit hiisti horse
          • Icelandic hestur horse
          • Faroese hestur stallion, horse
            • English Hestur
      • West Germanic
        • Old English hengest horse, gelding, stallion
          • Old English *hengstmann groom "horse-man"
            • English henchman
        • Old Frankish
          • Dutch hengst stallion
        • Old High German
          • German Hengst stallion
        • Old Saxon *hengist
          • Low German Hingst horse
          • Old English Hengist [1]
          • Danish hingst stallion

Visual

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Collected English words

ride, palfrey, road, raid, Hestur, henchman

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Hengist is one of the two legendary brothers who led the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain (along with Horsa). Presumably a reflex of the Divine Horse Twins myth.