Word Family - Star

October theme: Nighttime 🌃

Teaser

arid, star, disaster

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁s- to be dry, to burn, ashes, hearth
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁seh₁(ye)-ti stative
      • Italic *āzēō
        • Latin āreō I am dry, I am parched, I am withered
          • Latin āridus dry, withered, arid, shrivelled, uninspired
            • Western Romance
              • Italian arido arid, barren, insensitive, narrow-minded, bland
              • Spanish árido arid
            • English arid
            • French aride arid
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ēh₁só-ti
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian asatär dries up
        • Kushean osotär dries up
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sh₂ hearth, fireplace
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒄩𒀸𒊭𒀀 ḫāššā- fireplace, hearth
      • Germanic
        • North Germanic ᚨᛉᛁᚾᚨ azina ash
        • West Germanic
          • Old High German essa furnace
            • German Esse furnace, forge, chimney
      • Italic *āzā
        • Latin āra altar, sanctuary, refuge
        • Oscan 𐌀𐌀𐌔𐌀 aasa altar
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éh₁sh₂s?
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite ḫāšš- ashes, dust, soap
      • Indo-Iranian *HáHsas
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit आस ā́sa ashes, dust
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr star agentive: ~"burner" [1]
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒄩𒀸𒋼𒅕𒍝 ḫašterz(a) star
      • Old Armenian աստղ astł star, starfish, asterisk
        • Armenian աստղ astł star, celebrity
          • Armenian համաստեղություն hamastełutʿyun constellation [2]
      • Celtic *sterā star
        • Brythonic *ster star
          • Welsh sêr stars
      • Germanic *sternǭ
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌽𐍉 stairnō star
          • Crimean Gothic stein star
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse stjarna star
            • Danish stjerne star
            • Icelandic stjarna star
        • West Germanic
          • Old English steorra star
            • English star
              • German Star celebrity
            • Scots ster star
          • Frankish *sterro
            • Dutch ster star, celebrity
          • Old High German sterno star
            • German Stern star, asterisks
            • Yiddish שטערן
      • Hellenic *astḗr star
        • Ancient Greek ἀστήρ astḗr star, celebrity, starfish
          • Greek αστέρι astéri star, celebrity
          • Latin astēr star, starwort
            • Translingual Aster a genus of flowers
              • English aster
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́στρον ástron
            • Greek άστρο ástro star
            • Latin astrum
              • Western Romance
                • French astre celestial body
                • Italian astro celestial body, star
                  • Italian disastro
                    • French désastre
                      • English disaster
                • Spanish astro celestial body
            • English astro-
      • Indo-Iranian *Hstā́ star
        • Indo-Aryan *Hstā́
          • Sanskrit स्तृ (s)tṛ́ star
            • Sanskrit तारा tārā star, asterism, pupil (of the eye) [3]
              • Elu
                • Sinhala තරුව taruva star
              • Magadhi
                • Bengali তারা tara star
              • Maharashtri
                • Marathi तारा tārā star
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तारा tārā star, planet, meteor, pupil (of the eye)
                • Pahari
                  • Punjabi ਤਾਰਾ tārā star
                • Pali
                  • Burmese တာရာ tara constellation
                  • Tagalog tala star
                  • Thai ดารา daa-raa celestial body, celebrity
                • Telugu తార tāra star, pupil (of the eye)
        • Iranian *Hstā́
          • Avestan (𐬯)𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬀 star(a) star
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish stêr star, celebrity
            • Old Persian *star
              • Old Persian *apāxtara planet lit. "backwards-star", i.e. star with retrograde movement
                • Middle Persian abāxtar
                  • Persian اختر axtar star, constellation [4]
                  • Persian باختر bāḵtar west
          • Iranian *Hstā́rakaH
            • East Iranian
              • Pashto ستوری stóray star
              • Scythian
                • Ossetian стъалы st’aly
            • Western Iranian
              • Kurdish stêrk star
              • Old Persian
                • Middle Persian stārag
                  • Persian ستاره setâre star, destiny
                    • Punjabi ਸਿਤਾਰਾ sitārā star
      • Tocharian *ścäriye-
        • Arshian śre star
        • Kushean ścirye star
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗrlo probably Italo-Celtic innovation
        • Celtic *stīrlo
          • Old Irish sell iris compare Irish suil: "eye" from PIE *sóh₂wl̥: "sun"
          • Celtic *stīrlon
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh syllu to gaze
        • Italic *stērolā star
          • Latin stēlla star, planet
            • Sardinian isteddu star
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian stea star
            • Western Romance
              • French étoile star
                • Haitian Creole zetwal star
              • Italian stella star
              • Spanish estrella star
                • Tagalog estrelya star
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sdi- dental enlargement
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite hāt-ᶤ to dry up, to become parched
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sdi-eti primary verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic
            • West Slavic
              • Czech ozditi to dry malt
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sdōs result
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *ozdъ
            • West Slavic
              • Polish ozd dry malt
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éh₁stis abstract noun
        • Celtic *ātis furnace, oven
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh odyn kiln
          • Old Irish áith oven, grain kiln
            • Irish áith kiln
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂h₁stós adjective
        • Italic *astos
          • Latin assus roasted, baked
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sgi- velar enlargement
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sgō primary noun
        • Germanic *askǭ ash, ashes
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌰𐌶𐌲𐍉 azgō ash, cinder
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse aska ash, ashes
              • Danish aske ash
              • Icelandic aska ash, ashes
          • West Germanic
            • Old English æsce ash
              • English ash
              • Scots aise ash
            • Frankish *aska
              • Dutch as ash, ashes
            • Old High German asca ash
              • German Asche ash, ashes, money
              • Yiddish אַש ash ash
              • Italian lasca an ash-colored cyprinid fish like a dace, roach, or nase
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁sgiōn- genitive?
        • Old Armenian աճիւն ačiwn ashes
          • Armenian աճյուն ačyun cremated remains, corpse, grave
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂íh₁sgah₁sg-eti?? reduplicated thematic
        • Old Armenian ազազեմ azazem to tarnish, to dry, to fade, to wither
          • Armenian ազազել azazel to dry up, to become dry
      • ?
        • Finnic *kaski swidden (slash-and-burned land), coppice (for firewood)
          • Estonian kask birch
          • Finnish kaski slash and burn

Visual

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Collected English words

azalea, arid, star, Aster, aster, disaster, astro-, ash

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Alternatively, Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr: "star" could be related to Semitic *ʕaṯtar, meaning "heavens, sky" and the name Astarte/Ishtar/Ashtoreth, the Queen of Heaven (whose symbol is Venus the Morning Star).

  2. ^

    I thought it was interesting that Armenian համաստեղություն hamastełutʿyun: "constellation" is a morpheme-by-morpheme equivalent to Latin constellatio(n).

    ham- == con-

    asteł == stella

    -utʿyun == -tio(n)

  3. ^

    Given her nature, the Hindu and Buddhist divinity Tārā is best understood to mean "defend" from *terh₂-: "cross over, pass through, overcome", i.e. the same origin as avatar, nectar, and trans- (20170616); but there may be some influence from तारा (tārā): "star".

  4. ^

    Persian axtar: "star" is understood to be a mistaken (re-bracketed) backformation from abāxtar: "planet". But considering the word first appears in Middle Persian (i.e., after several centuries of Hellenistic rule in Persia), it makes me wonder if the rebracketing was influenced by Greek ἀστήρ astḗr.