Word Family - Stegosaurus

April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

Teaser

steganography, detect, Stegosaurus, thug, thatch, deck,

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *(s)teg- to cover s-mobile root
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tég-eti primary verb
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian stíegti to roof, to thatch
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek στέγω stégō to cover, to wrap, to make watertight
          • Ancient Greek στέγη stégē roof, cover, shelter, room, house
            • Greek στέγη stégi roof, house
          • Ancient Greek στεγνός stegnós watertight, waterproof, constipated
            • Greek στεγνός stegnós dry, dull
          • Ancient Greek στεγανός steganós [1]
            • Latin steganographia steganography [1]
              • English steganography
      • Indo-Iranian *stʰágati
        • Indo-Aryan *stʰágati
          • Sanskrit स्थगति sthágati to cover, to conceal
      • Italic
        • Latin tegō I cover, I clothe, I protect
          • Latin detegō I uncover, I take off, I reveal
            • Albanian dëftoj I show
            • Latin dētēctus uncovered, revealed
              • English detect
                • French detecter to detect
                  • Dutch detecteren to detect
                • Spanish detectar
          • Latin integō I cover, I protect
            • Latin integumentum covering, guard, shield
              • English integument
          • Latin protegō I cover, I protect, I defend lit. "cover forward"
            • Western Romance
              • French protéger to protect
                • French protégé(e) protected
                  • English protégé
                • Italian proteggere
            • Latin prōtēctus
              • English protect
          • Latin tēgula roof tile
            • Eastern Romance
              • Dalmatian tacla baking sheet
              • Albanian tjegull shingle, tile
              • Serbo-Croatian те́гла tégla jar
              • Hungarian tégla brick
                • Hungarian téglalap rectangle lit. "brick surface"
                • Turkish tuğla brick
            • Western Romance
              • French tuile tile, tuile (thin cookie)
                • English tuile
              • Italian teglia baking sheet, wide-brimmed hat
              • Italian tegola roof tile
              • Spanish teja roof tile
            • Germanic *tigulǭ tile, brick
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse tigl
                  • Danish tegl
                  • Icelandic tigl tile, brick
                  • Swedish tegel brick
                    • Finnish tiili brick, tile
              • West Germanic
                • Old English tiġele
                  • English tile
                • Frankish
                  • Dutch tegel tile
                  • Dutch tichel roof tile, brick, flagstone
                • Old High German ziagal(a)
                  • German Ziegel brick, roof tile
                    • Serbo-Croatian ци́гла cígla brick
                  • Polish cegła brick
                    • Ukranian це́гла céhla brick
            • Latin tegumentum cover, covering, shell, armor, husk
              • English tegument
    • Proto-Indo-European *stogéy-eti causative verb
      • Indo-Iranian *stʰagáyati
        • Indo-Aryan *stʰagáyati
          • Sanskrit स्थगयति sthagáyati to make hidden, to make invisible
        • Iranian
          • Northern Iranian
            • Saka
              • Khotani ttajsera pass over [2]
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tégos covered
      • Celtic *tegos house
        • Brythonic *tɨɣ
          • Welsh house [3]
            • Welsh bwyty restaurant lit. "food-house"
            • Welsh tylwyth family, household lit. "house-people"
              • Welsh Tylwyth Teg fairy folk
        • Old Irish tech
          • Irish teach house
        • Celtic *tego-slowgos household lit. "house-troop"
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh teulu family
          • Old Irish teglach
            • Irish teaghlach immediate family, household
      • Hellenic *(s)tégos
        • Ancient Greek στέγος stégos roof, house, grave, brothel
          • Translingual Stegosaurus a taxnomic genus of ornithischian dinosaur lit. "roof-reptile", for the plates on its back
            • Translingual Stegosauria the Stegosaurs, a taxonomic suborder of ornithiscian dinosaurs
            • English stegosaur
        • Ancient Greek τέγος tégos roof, cover, covered hall
      • Indo-Iranian *stʰagas covered, concealed
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit स्थग sthaga dishonest, fraudulent
            • Maharashtri
              • Marathi ठक ṭhak thief, swindler
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi ठग ṭhag swindler, fraud, robber
                  • English thug
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tǝgto-s covered
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian *taxta-
          • Northern Iranian
            • Saka
              • Khotani tti dwelling, nest [2]
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian *taxt throne
              • Persian تخت taxt throne, capital, seat, sofa, bed
                • Arabic تَخْت taḵt bed, couch, bench, capital, platform, orchestra
                • Malay takhta throne
                • Ottoman Turkish تخت taht throne, sofa, stage
                  • Turkish taht throne
                  • Armenian թախտ tʿaxt plank-bed, ottoman, sofa
                  • Serbo-Croatian тахт taht throne
              • Old Armenian տախտ taxt throne, bed, couch
                • Armenian տախտ taxt couch, sofa
              • Georgian ტახტი ṭaxṭi ottoman, bench, throne, royal residence
              • Kurdish text throne, bed, wood
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)togeh₂
      • Italic
        • Latin toga toga, garment, roof
          • English toga
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tog-os coverer agentive
      • Celtic *togos roof
        • Brythonic *toɣ
          • Welsh to roof
      • Germanic *þaką roof, cover
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse þak thatch, roof
            • Danish tag roof
            • Icelandic þak roof
          • Northern Sami dáhkki roof, ceiling, hearth
        • West Germanic
          • Old English þæc roof, thatch
            • English thatch
            • Scots tha(c)k thatch, roofing material, roof
          • Frankish *thak
            • Dutch dak roof
          • Old High German dah
            • German Dach roof
              • German Dachdecker roofer, tiler, thatcher
            • Yiddish דאַך
            • Polish dach roof, apartment
              • Polish dachowiec feral cat lit. "roofer"
              • Ukranian дах dax roof
        • Germanic *þakjaną to cover, to roof
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse þekja to cover, to thatch
              • Danish tække
              • Icelandic þekja to cover, to roof, to thatch
          • West Germanic
            • Old English þeċċan to cover, to thatch
              • English thatch
            • Frankish *thecken
              • Middle Dutch
                • Dutch dekken to cover, to set (a table)
                • English deck (out)
              • Frankish *thecka covering
                • Middle Dutch
                  • English deck
                  • German Deck deck (of a ship)
            • Old High German decchen to cover
              • German decken to cover, to set (a table)
                • German Dachdecker roofer, tiler, thatcher
              • Old High German decchī covering
                • German Decke covering, ceiling, roof
                  • German Bettdecke duvet, quilt, bedspread
    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)teg- pole, stick, beam [4]
      • Proto-Indo-European stogeh₂
        • Germanic *stakô stake
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic *staka
              • Western Romance staca stake
                • Old French estache stake, strap
                • Spanish estaca stake, tent peg
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse staki stake, rod
              • Danish stage
              • Icelandic staki
          • West Germanic
            • Old English staca stake
              • English stake
            • Frankish *stakō
              • Dutch staak
              • Old French estaie
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tog-os
        • Germanic *stakkaz a barn, a rick, a haystack
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse stakkr barn, haystack, pile
              • Danish stak stack
              • Icelanic stakkur stack
              • English stack
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tegdʰlom
        • Italic *texlom
          • Latin tēlum spear, missile, javelin

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

steganography, detect, integument, protégé, protect, tuile, tile, tegument, Stegosaurus, Stegosauria, stegosaur, thug, toga, thatch, thatch, deck (out), deck, stake, stack

Footnotes

  1. ^

    I can't determine what, if anything, the difference between Ancient Greek στεγνός stegnós and στεγανός steganós is. There's authors that use both, so it's not a dialect difference, but they seem to be interchangable.

    The word steganography is first recorded in, and apparently coined for, Johannes Trithemius's 1499 book, Steganographia, which was a steganographical text, apparently an occult book on communicating with spirits, but was actually a book about cryptography and steganography.

  2. ^

    Khotani ttajsera: "pass over, overwhelm" and tti: "nest" are probably from this root, but Khotani derivation is pretty difficult, these are just guesses of where they go in the graph. There's also a set of Khotani words with "head" related meanings that may be connected: ttādai: "forehead", ttomau: "top", ttiiva: "crown", ttīna: "bridle".

  3. ^

    We saw Welsh before, when Latin hospitium was borrowed into Welsh to mean "hospital", but was egg-corned in Welsh to end with : "house", parallel to bwyty: "restaurant".

  4. ^

    While *(s)teg- about covering and roofs and *(s)teg- about poles and beams are usually considered two different roots, the concept of "pole, stick, beam" seems clearly related to the concept of a roof. On the other hand "pole, stick, beam" is also related to the idea of "pierce, stab" usually assigned to *steyg- (whence, "stick", "stitch", "etiquette").