Word Family - Swine

June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕


I present two families for "pig" here, partly because Armenian խոզ xoz is derivable from either family (see footnote [1])

Family 1, Indo-European *suH- pig, sow?", possibly related to Akkadian 𒊺𒄷𒌑 še-hu-u₂ and Sumerian 𒋚 šah; and family 2, Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰóryos: "pig", probably central PIE dialect (Greek, Armenian, Albanian), and a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗrs: "hedgehog" ("bristler"), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer-: "to yearn, to be excited, to bristle". I give a brief select of other words from *ǵʰer-, but not a full treatment.

The traditional northeast English pig call "sooie"/"soo wee" seems likely to be related, but for that register in that region, it's hard to say if it is from Old English suga (sow), Brythonic *(s)uix, Latin suī, or Old Norse sýr, all from PIE *suH-.


  1. hyena, swine, sow
  2. yearn, charisma, exhort, urchin

Full Text

  • unknown source
    • Akkadian 𒊺𒄷𒌑 še-hu-u₂ pig
    • Sumerian 𒋚 šah pig
    • Proto-Indo-European *suH- pig
      • Albanian thi pig
      • Germanic *sūz
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse sýr sow (female pig)
            • Danish so sow
            • Icelandic sýr sow
        • West Germanic
          • Old High German
            • German Sau pig, especially female
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ὗς hûs pig
          • Ancient Greek ῠ̔́αινᾰ húaina hyena
            • Greek ύαινα ýaina hyena
            • Latin hyaena hyena
              • English hyena
              • French hyène hyena
              • Italian iena hyena
              • Spanish hiena hyena
            • Russian гие́на gijéna hyena
      • Indo-Iranian *suH-
        • Iranian *huH-
          • Avestan 𐬵𐬏
          • Northern Iranian
            • Scythian
              • Ossetian хуы x°y
      • Italic
        • Latin sūs pig
      • Proto-Indo-European *suHinos?
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Latvian sivēns piglet
          • Slavic *svinьja
        • Germanic *swīną swine, pig
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍃𐍅𐌴𐌹𐌽 swein pig
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse svín pig, swine
              • Danish svin pig, swine
              • Icelandic svín pig, swine
            • Samic *svijnē
              • Northern Sami spiidni pig
          • West Germanic
            • Old English swīn pig
              • English swine
            • Frankish *swīn
              • Dutch zwijn pig, swine, bicycle
            • Old High German swīn
              • German Schwein swine, pig, good luck
          • Germanic *mariswīną porpoise, dolphin lit. "sea-pig"
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse marsvín
                • Danish marsvin guinea pig, porpoise
            • West Germanic
              • Old English mereswīn porpoise, dolphin
                • English mereswine
              • Frankish *mariswīn
                • Dutch meerzwijn
                • French marsouin porpoise
              • Old High German meriswīn
                • German Meerschwein
                  • German Meerschweinchen guinea pig
        • Italic
          • Latin suīnus swine, pig-like
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian sain pork
            • Italian suino swine, pig, pork
            • Spanish suino
      • Tocharian *suwon
        • Kushean suwo pig
      • Proto-Indo-European *suh₂kéh₂ sow (female pig)
        • Celtic *sukkos
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh hwch
          • Old Irish socc
            • Irish soc
        • Germanic *sugō
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse
              • Swedish sugga
          • West Germanic
            • Old English sugu sow
              • English sow
            • Frankish *soga
              • Dutch zeug sow
        • Indo-Iranian *huHkáh
          • Iranian *huHkás
            • Western Iranian
              • Persian خوک xuk pig
              • Old Armenian խոզ xoz pig [1]
                • Armenian խոզ xoz pig
          • Indo-Iranian *suHkarás
            • Indo-Aryan *suHkarás
              • Sanskrit सूकर sūkará pig
                • Magadhi
                  • Bengali শুওর śuor
                • Maharashtri
                  • Marathi डुकर ḍukara pig
                • Pali 𑀲𑀽𑀓𑀭 sūkara pig
                  • Thai สุกร sù-gɔɔn pig, pork
                • Sauraseni 𑀲𑀽𑀕𑀭 sūgara
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi सूअर sūar pig, pork
                  • Pahari
                    • Punjabi ਸੂਰ sūr pig
              • Telugu సూకరము sūkaramu pig
  • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer- to yearn, to be excited, to bristle
    • Germanic *gernaz eager, willing
      • Germanic *girnijaną to want, to desire
        • West Germanic
          • Old English giernan
            • English yearn
    • Hellenic
      • Ancient Greek χᾰ́ρῐς kháris beauty, elegance, charm, grace, influence
        • Ancient Greek χᾰ́ρῐσμᾰ khárisma
          • English charisma
    • Italic
      • Latin hortor I encourage, I urge
        • English exhort
    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗrs hedgehog "bristler"
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek χήρ khḗr
      • Italic *hēr
        • Latin ēr hedgehog
          • Latin ēricius hedgehog
            • Sardinian rizzu hedgehog
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian arici hedgehog
            • Western Romance
              • Old French heriçun hedgehog
                • French hérisson hedgehog
                • English urchin
              • Italian riccio curl, lock, hedgehog, husk, sea urchin
              • Spanish erizo hedgehog, sea urchin
                • Spanish rizo curl, lock, highlight
            • Latin ērināceus hedgehog
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰóryos pig "hedgehog-oid"
        • Albanian derr pig
        • Old Armenian խոզ xoz pig [1]
          • Armenian խոզ xoz pig
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek χοῖρος khoîros (young) pig
            • Greek χοίρος choíros pig
        • Illyrian
          • Ancient Greek Δερβανοί Derbanoi Illyrian Tribe
          • Latin Deuri Illyrian Tribe
        • Karto-Zan *ɣor-
          • Georgian ღორი ɣori pig
          • Zan
            • Mingrelian ღეჯი ɣeǯi
          • Old Armenian խոզ xoz pig [1]
            • Armenian խոզ xoz pig


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Collected English words

hyena, swine, mereswine, sow, yearn, charisma, exhort, urchin


  1. ^

    Old Armenian խոզ xoz is derivable in a number of ways.

    Direct derivation from regional Indo-European *ǵʰóryos: "pig". This word only shows up for sure in Greek and Albanian. Armenian is closely associated with both.

    From a Kartvelian cognate of Georgian ღორი ɣori: "pig" (itself probably derived via a borrowing from the same regional Indo-European). Armenian has been in close contact with the Kartvelian languages for a long time.

    From a Middle Iranian, probably Parthian, cognate of Persian خوک xuk: "pig". Armenian has many borrowings from Middle Iranian.