Word Family - Thread

May theme: Cloth 👘


throw, dreidel, tribade, thresh, thread

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *terh₁- to rub, turn
    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₁ti primary verb form
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian trinti to rub
        • Slavic *tèrti to rub
          • East Slavic
            • Russian тере́ть terétʹ to rub, to polish, to grind
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian тр̏ти tȑti to rub, to scour, to scrub
          • West Slavic
            • Polish trzeć to rub
      • Germanic *þrēaną to twist, to turn
        • West Germanic
          • Old English þrāwan to twist, to turn, to writhe
            • English throw
            • Scots thraw to twist, to turn
          • Frankish *thrāien
            • Dutch draaien to turn, to play a record or cd, to host a party
            • Danish dreje to turn, to twist, to dial
          • Old High German drāen to twist, to turn
            • German drehen to turn, to roll, to veer, to record film
            • Yiddish דרייען dreyen to turn
              • Yiddish דרײדל dreydl top, dreidel
                • English dreidel
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek τρῑ́βω trī́bō I rub, I grind, I thresh, I wear away
          • Greek τρίβω trívo I grate, I chafe, I rub
          • Ancient Greek τριβάς tribás lesbian
            • Latin tribas lesbian
              • English tribade
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian *tarHenti to rub, wipe off
          • Northern Iranian
            • Sogdian ܕܣܦܪܛܪ dsprtr hand towel, handkerchief dast-par-tar, "hand-full-wipe"
              • Persian لسپردرک laspardarak hand towel, handkerchief
                • Yiddish לאַפּסערדאַק lapserdak A traditional Jewish black kaftan
                  • English lapserdak
                  • Russian лапсерда́к lapserdák lapserdak
          • Western Iranian
            • Persian ستردن setordan to wipe, to clean, to shave
      • Italic
        • Latin terō I rub, I wear away, I tread, I graze, I grind
          • Latin tritus rubbed, worn away, ground
            • Late Latin tritare I grind or crush; I beat the chaff from the wheat
              • French trier to sort, pick out, calibrate
                • English triage
              • Italian tritare chop, mince, dice, grind or crush
            • Latin trīticum a kind of wheat
              • Translingual Triticum
                • English triticale
                  • English quadrotriticale
    • Proto-Indo-European *treh₁sḱeti iterative/durative
      • Germanic *þreskaną
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌸𐍂𐌹𐍃𐌺𐌰𐌽 þriskan
            • Portuguese triscar to touch lightly
            • Spanish triscar to leap about, to stomp, to mix
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse þreskja to thresh
            • Danish tærske to thresh, to thrash
            • Icelandic þreskja to thresh
        • West Germanic
          • Old English þrescan thresh, trample
            • English thresh
            • English thrash
            • Old English þrescold threshold
              • English threshold
          • Old High German
            • German dreschen to thresh, to thrash
    • Proto-Indo-European *tórh₁mos bored hole
      • Germanic *þarmaz intestine, gut
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse þarmr intestine, gut
            • Danish tarm intestine, bowels
            • Icelandic þarmur intestine, gut
        • West Germanic
          • Old English þearm instestine, gut
            • Scots thairm intestine used for haggis, gut used for a musical instrument
          • Old High German darm
            • German Darm instestine
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek τόρμος tórmos peg, tenon
    • Proto-Indo-European *tréh₁tus
      • Germanic *þrēduz twisted fiber, thread
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse þráðr thread
            • Danish tråd thread, wire, string, filament
            • Icelandic þráður string, thread
        • West Germanic
          • Old English þrǣd thread
            • English thread
            • Scots threed thread
          • Frankish *thrāt
            • Dutch draad thread, wire
          • Old High German drāt
            • German Draht wire
      • Proto-Indo-European *treh₂ǵ- extended root, Greco-Armenian only?
        • Proto-Indo-European *trh₂ǵti primary verb form
          • Old Armenian արածեմ aracem to graze, to pasture
            • Armenian արածել aracel to graze, to pasture, to browse
          • Hellenic
            • Ancient Greek τρώγω trṓgō chew, gnaw, eat
              • Ancient Greek τράγος trágos male goat, lechery
                • Ancient Greek τραγῳδία tragōidía epic play, tragedy [1]
                  • Latin tragoedia tragedy theatrical meaning only
                    • French tragédie tragedy
                      • English tragedy
        • Proto-Indo-European *treh₂ǵtis
          • Old Armenian արաւտ arawt pasture, herbage, grass for grazing
            • Armenian արոտ arot pasture, herbage, grass for grazing


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Collected English words

throw, dreidel, tribade, lapserdak, triage, Triticum, triticale, quadrotriticale, thresh, thrash, threshold, thread, tragedy


  1. ^

    If this is the correct etymology, it would be formed as trago-ode, "goat-song", and have originally referred to the Satyr Plays, burlesque tragicomedies featuring satyrs. This is an etymology presented by Aristotle. It has a number of the warning signs of a folk etymology, but it also has more supporting circumstanital evidence than you'd expect. There's also no better idea of where τραγῳδία comes from.

    The other part of the word is definitely from ᾠδή ōidḗ: "song", also the root of English ode, comedy, melody, rhapsody, etc. The inflection paradigm of ἀείδω suggests an Indo-European origin, reconstructed as *h₂weyd-, but there is no evidence of that root outside of Greek. Possibly related to *h₂weh₁-: "to blow (of wind)" (see 20180209). Coincidentally, *h₂weh₁- has a potential relationship to Hebrew הָיָה hayah: "to happen", which is what the ה‬ stands for on a dreidel.