Word Family - Tree

May theme: Plants 🌱

Introduction

In which "dryad" and "druid" are basically the same word, "trust" and "tryst", "trees" and "truce". Plus horse racing history.

Teaser

true, endure, tree, derby, larch, druid, dryad, tray

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *drew- hard, firm, strong, wood, tree [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *droweh₂yéti
      • Germanic *trūwijaną
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse trúa to believe
            • Danish tro to believe, to think
            • Icelandic trúa to believe
        • West Germanic
          • Old English trūwian to trust, to have faith in
            • English trow
          • Frankish *triuwon
            • Dutch trouwen
          • Old High German trūwēn
            • German trauen to trust, to marry
    • Proto-Indo-European *drewéyeti? [2]
      • Germanic *trēwaną? [2]
        • Germanic *triwwiz true, faithful
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍅𐍃 triggws true, faithful
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tryggr true
              • Danish tryg safe, secure, easy, confident
              • Icelandic tryggur safe, secure
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trēowe true
              • English true
              • Scots trew
            • Frankish *triuwi
              • Dutch trouw true, faithful, loyal
            • Old High German triuwi
              • German treu loyal, faithful, true
          • Germanic *triwwiþō promise, contract
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse tryggð
                • Danish trygd
                • Icelandic tryggð loyalty, fidelity
            • West Germanic
              • Old English trēowþ
                • English truth
                • English troth
                  • English betrothal
          • Germanic *triwwijaną to be faithful, to make faithful
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse tryggja
                • Icelandic tryggja to secure, to ensure, to insure
            • West Germanic
              • Old English trēowan
                • English trow
    • Proto-Indo-European *druwós
      • Italic *dūros [3]
        • Latin dūrus hard, harsh, vigorous, stern, unyielding
          • Sardinian duru hard, tough
          • Western Romance
            • French dur hard, tough, harsh
            • Italian duro hard, tough, harsh
            • Spanish
          • Middle Irish
            • Irish dúr hard, tough, difficult, grim, dense, sluggish
            • Scottish Gaelic dùr obstinate, stubborn, sullen, dour
              • Scots dour
                • English dour
          • Latin dūrō I harden, I last, I endure
            • Western Romance
              • French durer
                • French durée duration
              • Italian durare
              • Spanish durar
            • Albanian duroj
            • Latin indūrō I harden, I endure
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a îndura
              • Western Romance
                • French endurer
                  • English endure
                • Italian indurare
                • Spanish endurar
            • Latin dūrātiō
              • Western Romance
                • Old French duracion
                  • English duration
                • Italian durazione
                • Spanish duración
          • Latin dūrābilis durable, lasting
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • English durable
              • Italian durabile
          • Latin dūritia hardness, rigidity, a harsh flavor, austerity, severity
            • Western Romance
              • Old French durece
                • English duress
              • Italian durezza harshness, rigidity, severity
              • Spanish dureza hardness, arduousness
          • Latin dūracinus hard-berried, stone fruit
            • Western Romance
              • Old French duraine
              • Italian duracina
              • Spanish durazno peach Latin American only
                • Quechua turasnu peach
            • French duracine type of peach
            • Ancient Greek δωράκινον dōrákinon type of peach
              • Greek ροδάκινο rodákino peach
              • Aramaic ܕܘܪܩܝܢܐ dōraqqīnā apricot, peach
                • Arabic دُرَّاق durrāq peach
    • Proto-Indo-European *drumós
      • Old Armenian տրամ tram solid, firm
        • Middle Armenian տրամ tram solid ground
          • Georgian ტრამა ṭrama wasteland
      • Germanic *trumaz firm, strong
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse Þrymr
        • West Germanic
          • Old English trum
            • English trim
        • Germanic *trumjaną to strengthen, to make fast
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trymman to strengthen
              • English trim
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek δροόν droón strong, mighty
    • Proto-Indo-European *drutós
      • Balto-Slavic [3]
        • Lithuanian drū́tas firm, strong
      • Celtic
        • Gaulish druto strong, vigorous
          • French dru thick, luxurious (of hair), heavily
    • Proto-Indo-European *drewō a firmness?
      • Germanic *trewwō fidelity, pledge
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌰 triggwa
            • Medieval Latin tregua
              • Italian tregua truce, rest, respite
              • Spanish tregua truce, rest, break
              • English treague
        • West Germanic
          • Old English trēow truth, fidelity
            • Middle English trewe
              • English true
              • Middle English trewes
                • English truce
          • Frankish *treuwa
            • Dutch trouw loyalty, faithfulness, marriage
            • Old French trieve
              • French trêve truce, break, rest
            • Old High German triuwa
              • German Treue faithfulness, loyalty
    • Proto-Indo-European *drowstōs
      • Germanic *traustaz firm, strong
        • Germanic *traustą shelter, aid, trust, confidence, alliance
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐍂𐌰𐌿𐍃𐍄𐌹 trausti covenant, pact
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse traust
              • Danish trøst comfort, solace
              • Icelandic traust trust, faith, confidence
              • Old English
                • English trust
                  • French trust a trust (group)
                    • Vietnamese tơ-rớt a trust (group)
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *trēast
              • English tryst
            • Frankish *traust
              • Dutch troost comfort, consolation
            • Old High German trōst
              • German Trost consolation
    • Proto-Indo-European *dóru tree
      • Anatolian *dōru
        • Hittite 𒋫𒀀𒊒 tāru wood, tree
      • Hellenic *dóru tree
        • Ancient Greek δόρῠ dóru wood, tree, pole, spear, lance
          • Greek δόρυ dóry pike, spear
          • English dory
        • Hellenic *drutómoi tree cutters
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀉𐀬𐀵𐀗 du-ru-to-mo tree cutters
      • Indo-Iranian *dā́ru tree, wood
        • Indo-Aryan *dā́ru
          • Sanskrit दारु dā́ru wood, timber
            • Sanskrit डाल ḍāla branch [4]
              • Hindi डाल ḍāl branch
        • Iranian *dā́ru wood, tree
          • Avestan dāuru wood
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish دار dār tree, wood, staff
            • Old Persian 𐎭𐎠𐎽𐎢𐎺 d-a-ru-u-v wood
              • Persian دار dâr tree, wood, gallows
          • Iranian *dā́rukah wood, tree, stick
            • Northern Iranian
              • Sogdian δʾrwkʾ‎ wood, stick
            • Pashto لرګی largáy wood
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Medean *dāruwkah
                  • Akkadian 𒁕𒊒𒊌𒆪 Da-ru-uk-ku place name
      • Tocharian *or
        • Arshian or wood
        • Kushean or wood
          • Kushean ārwa firewood
      • Proto-Indo-European *dréwom
        • Germanic *trewą
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌿 triu tree, wood, stick
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tré tree, mast, beam
              • Danish træ tree, wood, timber
              • Icelandic tré tree, wood
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trēow tree
              • English tree
            • Frankish *treo
              • Dutch teer
      • Proto-Indo-European *derwóm
        • Balto-Slavic *derwa
        • Celtic *derwom
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh derw oaks
            • Brythonic *Deruentiū hydronym, the River Derwent lit. "of the Oak Trees"
              • Old Welsh Derwennydd
              • Latin Derventiō
                • Old English Derwent
                  • English Derwent
                  • Old English Derwentby Derby lit. "Derwent-town"
                    • English Derby [5]
                      • English derby [5]
          • Gaulish *dervo-
            • Latin Dereventum
              • Western Romance
                • French Drevant
        • Germanic *terwą tar, resin
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tjara
              • Danish tjære tar
              • Icelandic tjara tar
            • Finnic *terva
              • Finnish terva tar
              • Samic *tërvē
                • Northern Sami darvi tar
          • West Germanic
            • Old English teru tar, resin
              • English tar
            • Frankish
              • Dutch teer tar
            • Old Saxon
              • Low German
                • German Teer tar
      • Proto-Indo-European *drw(h₂)ós collective
        • Albanian dru tree, wood
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *drъvo wood
            • East Slavic
              • Russian дрова́ drová firewood
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic дръва drŭva wood
              • Serbo-Croatian дрво drvo tree, wood, timber
            • West Slavic
              • Polish drwa
                • Polish drwal lumberjack
        • Celtic *daru tree, oak
          • Brythonic *dar oak, tree
            • Welsh dâr oak tree
            • Brythonic *aβaldar apple tree
              • Old English apuldor apple tree partial translation
                • English Appledore place name
          • Gaulish
            • Ancient Greek λάριξ lárix larch, Venice turpentine
              • Latin larix larch
                • Translingual Larix taxonomic genus of conifers, the larches
                • Italian larice larch
                • Old High German larihha
                  • German Lärche larch
                    • Dutch lork larch
                    • English larch larch
                • Finnic
                  • Estonian lehis larch
                  • Finnish lehtikuusi larch lit. "larch-spruce"
          • Old Irish dair oak
            • Irish dair oak
          • Celtic *dru-wits druid lit. "tree-knower"
            • Brythonic *drüw
              • Welsh dryw druid, seer
              • Old English drȳ sorcerer, magician
            • Gaulish *druwits
              • Gaulish *druwides druids, the Druids
                • Ancient Greek δρυΐδαι druḯdai the Druids
                  • Latin Druidae the Druids
                    • French druide druid
                      • English druid
                        • Mandarin 德魯伊 délǔyī druid
                    • Italian druida druid
                    • Spanish druida druid
            • Old Irish druí druid, sorcerer
              • Irish draoi druid, sorcerer, diviner, trickster
                • Irish draíodóir magician
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek δρῦς drûs tree, timber, oak
            • Ancient Greek Δρῠᾰ́ς Druás tree nymph, dryad genitive Δρῠᾰ́δος Druádos
              • Latin Dryas dryad, druidess genitive Dryadis
                • French dryade dryad
                  • English dryad
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit द्रु drú wood, wooden implement, branch
              • Sanskrit द्रुपद drupadá post, (wooden) pillar
      • Proto-Indo-European *drumos
        • Germanic *trumaz root
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trum root, (tree) stump
              • Old English wyrttrum
                • Old English wyrttrumian to grow upward, as from a root or seed
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek δρυμός drumós copse, thicket, wood
            • Ancient Greek Δρυμός Drumós place name
              • Latin Drymus
            • Ancient Greek Δρυμαία Drumaia place name
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit द्रुम druma tree
      • Proto-Indo-European *drukós wooden
        • Old Armenian տարգալ targal (wooden) spoon
          • Armenian գդալ gdal spoon
        • Celtic
          • Old Irish
            • Middle Irish drochta wooden basin, trough
        • Germanic *trugaz trough
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse trog
              • Icelandic trog trough
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trog trough
              • English trough
              • Irish trach trough
            • Frankish *trog
              • Dutch trog trough, trench
            • Old High German troc
              • German Trog trough, trench
              • Italian trogolo trough
      • Proto-Indo-European *dréwh₂(n/t)om wooden implement
        • Anatolian
          • Hittie taru̯āli pestle?
        • Old Armenian տոռն toṙn (wooden) pestle
        • Germanic *trawją
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse treyja
              • Old Swedish trø
          • West Germanic
            • Old English trēġ wooden serving board, tray
              • English tray
            • Old Saxon
              • Low German Treechel trough
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek δρουίτη drouítē (wooden) tub
        • Indo-Iranian *dráwnam
          • Indo-Aryan *dráwnam
            • Sanskrit द्रोण dróṇa wooden bucket, trough
      • Proto-Indo-European
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit dārv wooden
              • Sanskrit दर्वि dárvi spoon, ladle
    • Proto-Indo-European *dweh₂- long?, distant?, enduring? or related to *dyew-: "day"?
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek δήν dḗn for a long time, long ago
        • Italic
        • Latin dēmum at last, only
      • Proto-Indo-European *duh₂rós
        • Old Armenian երկար erkar long, extended, slow [6]
          • Armenian երկար erkar long, lengthy, protacted
        • Hellenic *dwārós alternate zero-grade stem where *h₂ instead of *w is vocalized
          • Ancient Greek δηρός dērós long, too long
        • Italic *dūros [3]
        • Latin dūrus hard, harsh, vigorous, stern, unyielding
          • Sardinian duru hard, tough
          • Western Romance
            • French dur hard, tough, harsh
            • Italian duro hard, tough, harsh
            • Spanish
          • Middle Irish
            • Irish dúr hard, tough, difficult, grim, dense, sluggish
            • Scottish Gaelic dùr obstinate, stubborn, sullen, dour
              • Scots dour
                • English dour
          • Latin dūrō I harden, I last, I endure
            • Western Romance
              • French durer
                • French durée duration
              • Italian durare
              • Spanish durar
            • Albanian duroj
            • Latin indūrō I harden, I endure
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a îndura
              • Western Romance
                • French endurer
                  • English endure
                • Italian indurare
                • Spanish endurar
            • Latin dūrātiō
              • Western Romance
                • Old French duracion
                  • English duration
                • Italian durazione
                • Spanish duración
          • Latin dūrābilis durable, lasting
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • English durable
              • Italian durabile
          • Latin dūritia hardness, rigidity, a harsh flavor, austerity, severity
            • Western Romance
              • Old French durece
                • English duress
              • Italian durezza harshness, rigidity, severity
              • Spanish dureza hardness, arduousness
          • Latin dūracinus hard-berried, stone fruit
            • Western Romance
              • Old French duraine
              • Italian duracina
              • Spanish durazno peach Latin American only
                • Quechua turasnu peach
            • French duracine type of peach
            • Ancient Greek δωράκινον dōrákinon type of peach
              • Greek ροδάκινο rodákino peach
              • Aramaic ܕܘܪܩܝܢܐ dōraqqīnā apricot, peach
                • Arabic دُرَّاق durrāq peach
        • Indo-Iranian *duHrás long, far
          • Indo-Aryan *duHrás
            • Dardic
              • Kashmiri دوٗر dūr
            • Sanskrit दूर dūrá
              • Pali dūra
              • Sauraseni 𑀤𑀽𑀭 dūra
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi दूर dūr distant, far, away from, off
                • Pahari
                  • Punjabi ਦੂਰ dūr far
              • West Indo-Aryan
                • Romani dur far
              • Telugu దూరము dūramu distance
          • Iranian *duHráh
            • Avestan dūrāt̰‎ from afar
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish دوور dûr distant, far off
              • Old Persian
                • Persian دور dūr far, distant, away

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

trow, true, truth, troth, betrothal, dour, endure, duration, durable, duress, trim, trim, treague, true, truce, trust, tryst, dory, tree, Derwent, Derby, derby, tar, Appledore, Larix, larch, druid, dryad, trough, tray

Footnotes

  1. ^

    It is impossible to tell at this point if "tree" or "firm" are the original meaning. Compare Latin "robustus"/"robur".

  2. ^

    PIE *drewéyeti and Germanic *trewwaną are implied only by the form of the Germanic adjective triwwiz. Compare for example Germanic *hriwwiz: "regretful" from Germanic *hrewwaną: "to regret, to rue", from PIE *krewéyti: "cause to break". But I know of no trace of *drewéyeti or *trewwaną other than those through *triwwiz. Indeed, Germanic then re-derives the verb from the *triwwiz to get *triwwijaną

  3. ^

    In my opinion, Latin dūrus is probably a mix of *druwós: "firm" (with metathesis) and *duh₂rós: "long" (with metaphor to time, also present in Armenian and Greek).

    In Indo-Iranian *duh₂rós is (nearly) always a long distance, not a long time. There is another adjective very similar to Latin dūrus, *dʰruwás: "firm, fixed, strong" (Sanskrit ध्रुव dhruvá), but the *dʰ means it is not formally equivalent for Latin durus and English true, but to Latin firmus and English darn (as in socks).

    Since Balto-Slavic merges *d and *dʰ, Lithuanian drū́tas: "firm, strong" could be from either group (or both!)

  4. ^

    I don't have any sources for an etymology for Sanskrit डाल ḍāla: "branch". But since in early Sanskrit d and are in conditioned alternation, and r and l are in dialectic alternation, it makes sense to tentatively connect it to दारु dā́ru: "wood, timber".

  5. ^

    English Derby is a confluence of related influences: 1) organic formation of Derwent-by: "Derwent-town, town on the River Derwent", 2) from the Roman settlement Derventio (later Derbentio), itself from the Brythonic name of the river Derwent, 3) Old Norse Djúrabý, the Danelaw name of the town, literally "Deer-town", but probably influenced by the sound of one or both of the other two.

    English derby: "a race", is after the Earls of Derby, several of whom were famous patrons of horse-racing, especially Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby who organized a sweepstake horse race in 1779 which was the founding event of two of the five most prestigious horse races in England: the Derby, open to colts and fillies, and the Oaks, restricted to fillies. Either of which counts as the second leg in the original "Triple Crown".

    Nota bene, "Oaks" after the London estate of the Earls of Derby (now Oaks Park), which connects back to the original Brythonic name *Deruentiū: "of the Oaks", such that these two equivalent races, "Derby" and "Oaks", are ultimately synonymous.

  6. ^

    Yes, Armenian erkar really is cognate to Greek dērós! Compare Armenian erku: vs. Greek dúo, both "two".