Word Family - Beryl

Teaser

Pavuluri Ganitamu, beryl, brilliant

Full Text

  • Dravidian *ūr village, settlement
    • Central Dravidian
      • Kolami ūr village
    • Northern Dravidian
      • Brahui ارآ urā house [1]
    • Southern Dravidian
      • Kannada ಊರು ūru town, city, dwelling
      • Tamil ஊர் ūr town, village, dwelling, place
    • South-Central Dravidian
      • Telugu ఊరు ūru village, town
        • Telugu ఊరేగు ūrēgu to parade, to go in procession lit. "go through the town"
        • Telugu కల్లూరు Kallūru Stone-Town (place name)
          • English Kallur(u)
        • Telugu పావులూరు Pāvulūru Quarters-Town (place name)
          • English Pavuluru
          • Telugu పావులూరి Pāvulūri from Quarters-Town (habitational surname)
            • English Pavuluri
            • Telugu పావులూరి గణితము Pāvulūri Gaṇitamu
              • English Pavuluri Ganitamu
    • Dravidian *ʋeɭ-ūr White-Town (place name) modern day Bēlūr, Karnāṭaka
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Kannada ಬೇಲೂರು bēlūru Belur
          • Hindi बेलूर belur Belur
            • English Belur
      • Pali veḷuriya lapis lazuli, gemstone "Veḷurian, from Veḷur"
        • Sanskrit 𑀯𑁃𑀟𑀽𑀭𑁆𑀬 vaiḍūrya cymophane (cat's eye/chrysoberyl), jewel, lapis lazuli
          • Hindi वैदूर्य vaidūrya cymophane
          • Middle Chinese 吠瑠璃 bʉɐiʰ liᴇ a kind of gemstone
            • Japanese べいるり beruri beryl
              • Japanese るり ruri lapis lazuli, azure, azurite
                • Japanese おおるり ōruri blue-and-white flycatcher "big blue"
                • Japanese こるり koruri Siberian blue robin "little blue"
          • Malayalam വൈഡൂര്യം vaiḍūryaṃ cymophane
          • Telugu వైడూర్యము vaiḍūryamu cymophane
          • Thai ไพฑูรย์ pai-tuun chrysoberyl
        • Middle Persian 𐭡𐭩𐭫𐭥𐭫 bylwl crystal
          • Persian بلور bolur crystal
            • Arabic بِلَّوْر billawr crystal
              • Arabic بِلَّوْرِيّ billawriyy crystalline
                • Spanish abalorio glass bead, bauble
                  • Malay hablur crystal, sparkling
                  • Tagalog abaloryo glass bead
            • Geʿez ብሉር bəlur
            • Malay balur rock-crystal
            • Ottoman Turkish بلور bıllur crystal
              • Turkish billur
              • Serbo-Croatian бѝљӯр bìljūr rock crystal
            • Kurdish belûr crystal
            • Mongolian ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠷ bolor crystal
            • Punjabi ਬਲੌਰ balaur crystal
        • Maharashtri *veruḷiya
          • Parthian 𐫁𐫏𐫡𐫇𐫓 byrwl / *bērūl crystal
          • Classical Greek βηρύλλιον bērúllion beryl
            • Old Georgian ბჳრილიონი bwirilioni beryl
              • Georgian ბროლი broli crystal, glass
                • Georgian ნაზიბროლა Nazibrola Delicate-Crystal (personal name)
            • Classical Greek βήρυλλος bḗrullos beryl variant from bērúllion
              • Greek βήρυλλος víryllos beryl
              • Old Armenian բիւրեղ biwreł beryl, crystal
              • Amharic ብርሌ bərəlle glass, crystal, carafe, bottle, beryl
              • Latin bēryllus bēryllus beryl
                • New Latin beryllium
                  • Translingual Be
                • Vulgar Latin berillus
                  • Western Romance
                    • Old French beril
                      • French béryl beryl
                        • Polish beryl beryl, beryllium
                      • Dutch beril beryl
                      • English beryl
                    • Italian berillo beryl
                    • Spanish berilo beryl
                  • German Brille spectacles, glasses, goggles
                    • Czech brýle spectacles, glasses
                    • Danish brille spectacles, glasses
                    • Dutch bril spectacles, glasses, telescope
                    • German WC Brille toilet seat "water closet glasses"
                      • German Klobrille toilet seat "Klo", another shortening of "water closet"
                  • Vulgar Latin *b(e)rillāre to shine, to sparkle (like a beryl)
                    • Western Romance
                      • Italian brillàre
                      • French briller to shine, to sparkle
                        • French brillance shininess, brightness
                          • English brilliance
                        • French brillant shining, shiny
                          • English brilliant
  • Dravidian *ʋeɭ- white
    • Southern Dravidian
      • Kannada ಬಿಳಿ biḷi white
      • Malayalam വെളുത്ത veḷutta white
      • Tamil வெள் vel white
        • Tamil வெள்ளை veḷḷai white
        • Tamil வெண்மை veṇmai white
          • Tamil வெங்காயம் veṅkāyam onion lit. "white scar"?
    • South-Central Dravidian
      • Telugu వెలి veli white, outside, external
    • Dravidian *ʋeɭ-am white water? [2]
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Malayalam വെള്ളം water
        • Tamil வெள்ளம் veḷḷam flood, water, wetness, abundance, truth
    • Dravidian *ʋeɭ-ney butter with *ney: "oil, ghee"
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Kannada ಬೆಣ್ಣೆ beṇṇe butter
        • Tamil வெண்ணெய் veṇṇey butter
      • South-Central Dravidian
        • Telugu వెన్న venna butter
    • Dravidian *ʋeɭ-i silver
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Kannada ಬೆಳ್ಳಿ beḷḷi silver
        • Malayalam വെള്ളി veḷḷi silver, Venus, Friday [3]
          • Malayalam വെള്ളിയാഴ്ച veḷḷiyāḻca Friday [3]
        • Tamil வெள்ளி veḷḷi silver, Venus
          • Tamil வெள்ளிக்கிழமை veḷḷikkiḻamai Friday [3]
      • South-Central Dravidian
        • Telugu వెండి veṇḍi silver
    • Dravidian *ʋeɭ-ūr White-Town (place name) modern day Bēlūr, Karnāṭaka
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Kannada ಬೇಲೂರು bēlūru Belur
          • Hindi बेलूर belur Belur
            • English Belur
      • Pali veḷuriya lapis lazuli, gemstone "Veḷurian, from Veḷur"
        • Sanskrit 𑀯𑁃𑀟𑀽𑀭𑁆𑀬 vaiḍūrya cymophane (cat's eye/chrysoberyl), jewel, lapis lazuli
          • Hindi वैदूर्य vaidūrya cymophane
          • Middle Chinese 吠瑠璃 bʉɐiʰ liᴇ a kind of gemstone
            • Japanese べいるり beruri beryl
              • Japanese るり ruri lapis lazuli, azure, azurite
                • Japanese おおるり ōruri blue-and-white flycatcher "big blue"
                • Japanese こるり koruri Siberian blue robin "little blue"
          • Malayalam വൈഡൂര്യം vaiḍūryaṃ cymophane
          • Telugu వైడూర్యము vaiḍūryamu cymophane
          • Thai ไพฑูรย์ pai-tuun chrysoberyl
        • Middle Persian 𐭡𐭩𐭫𐭥𐭫 bylwl crystal
          • Persian بلور bolur crystal
            • Arabic بِلَّوْر billawr crystal
              • Arabic بِلَّوْرِيّ billawriyy crystalline
                • Spanish abalorio glass bead, bauble
                  • Malay hablur crystal, sparkling
                  • Tagalog abaloryo glass bead
            • Geʿez ብሉር bəlur
            • Malay balur rock-crystal
            • Ottoman Turkish بلور bıllur crystal
              • Turkish billur
              • Serbo-Croatian бѝљӯр bìljūr rock crystal
            • Kurdish belûr crystal
            • Mongolian ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠷ bolor crystal
            • Punjabi ਬਲੌਰ balaur crystal
        • Maharashtri *veruḷiya
          • Parthian 𐫁𐫏𐫡𐫇𐫓 byrwl / *bērūl crystal
          • Classical Greek βηρύλλιον bērúllion beryl
            • Old Georgian ბჳრილიონი bwirilioni beryl
              • Georgian ბროლი broli crystal, glass
                • Georgian ნაზიბროლა Nazibrola Delicate-Crystal (personal name)
            • Classical Greek βήρυλλος bḗrullos beryl variant from bērúllion
              • Greek βήρυλλος víryllos beryl
              • Old Armenian բիւրեղ biwreł beryl, crystal
              • Amharic ብርሌ bərəlle glass, crystal, carafe, bottle, beryl
              • Latin bēryllus bēryllus beryl
                • New Latin beryllium
                  • Translingual Be
                • Vulgar Latin berillus
                  • Western Romance
                    • Old French beril
                      • French béryl beryl
                        • Polish beryl beryl, beryllium
                      • Dutch beril beryl
                      • English beryl
                    • Italian berillo beryl
                    • Spanish berilo beryl
                  • German Brille spectacles, glasses, goggles
                    • Czech brýle spectacles, glasses
                    • Danish brille spectacles, glasses
                    • Dutch bril spectacles, glasses, telescope
                    • German WC Brille toilet seat "water closet glasses"
                      • German Klobrille toilet seat "Klo", another shortening of "water closet"
                  • Vulgar Latin *b(e)rillāre to shine, to sparkle (like a beryl)
                    • Western Romance
                      • Italian brillàre
                      • French briller to shine, to sparkle
                        • French brillance shininess, brightness
                          • English brilliance
                        • French brillant shining, shiny
                          • English brilliant

Visual

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Collected English words

Kallur(u), Pavuluru, Pavuluri, Pavuluri Ganitamu, Belur, Be, beryl, brilliance, brilliant

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Brahui ارآ urā: "house" could be related to the descendants of *ūr: "village, settlement" in other Dravidian languages.

    It could also be related to Tamil uḷ: "inside" and/or Dravidian *uḷ: "to be, to exist, to live, to stay at, to dwell" (Tamil uḷ, Telugu uṅḍu). It may be that the Brahui meaning is older, and shows a semantic missing link in a chain of "be" -> "inside"-> "house" -> "village" -> "city". Compare English "-by": "village" (in place names), "building", "booth", and "bottle" (dialectic): "house, dwelling", which are all related to verb be.

  2. ^

    Dravidian *ʋeɭ-am looks like it means "white water"—that is rough or moving water—as preserved in the meaning "flood" of Tamil வெள்ளம் veḷḷam. For *am, see Northern Dravidian words for "water": amm (Kurukh), ammu (Sauria Paharia), amdu (Kumarbhag Paharia). I've seen one source also mention Tamil am/ām: "water", but I haven't been able to verify that.

    Other Dravidian languages mostly use descendants of *nīr and/or a version of jalam for "water". jalam is described as a learned borrowing of Sanskrit, but given that a) Indo-Aryan *jalá(m) has no cognates in Iranian or any other Indo-European language; and b) the -m is only attested in "Dravidian borrowings", I have to wonder if "Indo-Aryan *jalám" has some origin or influence from Dravidian *am.

    But Sanskrit would indeed delete inherited *-m in that position (compare Sanskrit dā́na vs. Latin dōnum, both "gift"). And Dravidian borrowings do regularly add -m: Telugu aśvamu from Sanskrit áśva or snēhamu from sneha; or Malayalam rahasyaṃ from rahasya.

  3. ^

    Tamil வெள்ளிக்கிழமை veḷḷikkiḻamai: "Friday", lit. "Venus day (of the week)", a calque ultimately from Greek Aphrodī́tēs hēméra: "Aphrodite's day".

    Note that in Tamil the word used here, kiḻamai means "day of the week", it is not the same as the normal word for day, nāḷ. In other contexts, kiḻamai means "possession, relation, connection, alliance, attribute", so probably originally it meant "belonging to Venus, connected to Venus", with "day" elided. Compare for example Latin month names, like iānuārius: literally "of Janus", an elision of mensis iānuārius: "month of Janus".

    The corresponding Malayalam വെള്ളിയാഴ്ച veḷḷiyāḻca: "Friday"—like other Malayalam week day words—uses āḻca: "week" in the compound, perhaps best translated as "the Venus of the week", again with "day" elided.