Word Family - Lord

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lord, ward, guard, warn, garnish, garage, revere, wary, Arthur

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *wer- to heed, to notice [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *weryeti
      • Germanic *warjanã to ward off, to defend against, to twart, to stop
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌰𐌽 warjan to forbid
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse verja
            • Icelandic verja to defend, to guard, to protect, to prevent
            • Swedish värja to defend, to protect, to dodge
          • Finnic
            • Finnish varjella to protect
        • West Germanic
          • Old English werian to defend, to protect
            • Scots weir to guard, to defend
          • Old High German werien
            • German wehren to fight, to defend
          • Frankish *warjan to fend off, to thwart, to stop
            • Old French guarir to protect, to save, to heal
              • French guérir to cure, to heal, to recover
              • Old French garison safety, defense
                • French guérison recovery, healing
                • English garrison
              • Old French guarant safety, protector, permission, assurance, guarantee, guarantor
                • French garant guarantor, surety
                • Anglo-Norman warrant
                  • English warrant
                • Spanish garante guarantor
                • Old French guarantie assurance, promise, contract, guarantee, surety
                  • French garantie guarantee
                  • English guarantee [2]
                  • Anglo-Norman warrantie
                    • English warranty [2]
                  • Spanish garantía guarantee
                • Old French guarantir to protect
                  • French garantir to guarantee, to protect, to preserve
                  • Spanish garantir to guarantee
        • Germanic *warīniz warding off, a defense
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse vǫrn defence, legal defence
              • Danish værn guard, defense, protection
              • Icelandic vörn defense, protection
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German *werī
              • German Wehr guard, army, force
                • German Bundeswehr national army of Germany lit. "Bond Guard", i.e. "Federation Army"
    • Proto-Indo-European *wortus
      • Germanic *warduz watchman, guard
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *wards only attested in compounds
            • Gothic 𐌳𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌰𐍅𐌰𐍂𐌳𐍃 daurawards porter, gate-keeper lit. "door guard"
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse vǫrðr
            • Icelandic vörður guard
            • Swedish vård care, health care, protection
              • Swedish tandvård dentistry
                • Swedish djurtandvård animal dentistry
        • West Germanic
          • Old English weard guardian, watchman
            • English ward
            • Old English hlāfweard
              • Old English hlāford male head of household, master of servants, lord lit. "loaf-ward", i.e., "bread-guardian"
                • English lord
                • Scots laird
          • Old High German wart
          • German Wart guard, ward
        • Germanic *wardānã to guard, to watch over, to protect
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse varða
              • Icelandic varða to affect, to concern, to regard
              • Swedish vårda to nurse, to take care off
          • West Germanic
            • Old English weardian to guard, to protect, to occupy, to keep, to possess
              • English ward
            • Old High German wartēn
              • German warten to wait, to maintain (e.g., a car)
            • Frankish *wardōn
              • Medieval Latin wardō I guard, I ward against, I herd cattle
                • Old French
                  • French garder to keep, to save, to guard, to be careful
                    • English guard [2]
                  • Old French *gardein
                    • French gardien guard, guardian, goalkeeper
                    • English guardian [2]
                    • Anglo-Norman wardein guard, guardian
                      • English warden [2]
                  • Old French reguarder
                    • French regarder to look at, to watch
                    • English regard [2]
                    • Anglo-Norman rewarder
                      • English reward [2]
                • Italian guardare to look at, to watch, to examine, to watch after, to guard
                • Spanish guardar to keep, to save, to order, to clean, to put away
    • Proto-Indo-European *wréyeti?
      • Germanic *warnōnã to be careful, to warn
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse varna
            • Swedish varna to warn
        • West Germanic
          • Old English warnian to be aware, to take care, to warn, to caution
            • English warn
            • Scots wairn to warn
          • Old High German warnōn
            • German warnen to warn
    • Proto-Indo-European *wr̥néwti
      • Germanic *warnijanã worry, care, heed
        • West Germanic
          • Frankish *warnijan to ward, to take care of
            • French garnir to furnish, to arm, to decorate, to garnish
              • English garnish
    • Proto-Indo-European *wereh₁yeti iterative or intensive
      • Germanic *warōnã to watch, to protect
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse vara
            • Danish vare to be careful, to beware
            • Icelandic vara to warn
        • West Germanic
          • Old English warian to beware
            • English ware
            • Old English bewarian
              • English beware
          • Frankish *waron
            • Old Dutch *waron
              • Old Dutch bewaron
                • Dutch bewaren to preserve, to keep, to guard, to watch over
            • Old French warer
              • French garer to cover, to shelter, to park
                • French garage garage
                  • English garage
          • Old High German warōn
            • German wahren to protect, to safeguard, to maintain
      • Italic *werēōr
        • Latin vereor I stand in awe of, I dread, I revere
          • Latin revereor I stand in awe of, I regard, I respect, I fear, I revere
            • Western Romance
              • French révérer to revere
                • English revere
              • Spanish reverenciar to revere
            • Latin reverendus
              • English reverend
          • Latin verēcundia modesty, coyness, knowing one's place, shame, awe
            • Western Romance
              • French vergogne shame, moderation, decency (archaic)
              • Italian vergogna shame, disgrace, scandal, embarassment, shyness
              • Spanish vergüenza shame, embarassment
    • Proto-Indo-European *worós
      • Germanic *waraz watchful, cautious, wary
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍂𐍃 wars
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse varr
            • Danish var aware
            • Icelandic var cautious, aware
        • West Germanic
          • Old English wær aware, cautious
            • English ware
              • English wary
        • Germanic *gawaraz
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ġewær aware
              • English aware
              • Scots avar
            • Old High German giwar
              • German gewahr aware
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek οὖρος oûros guardian, watcher
          • Ancient Greek ἔφορος éphoros overseer, guardian, ruler, ephor epi-ouros: "over-watcher"
            • English ephor member of the Spartan oversight committee
          • Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρκτοῦρος Arktoûros Arcturus (the star) lit. "guardian of the bear", for its place in the sky near Ursa Major
            • Greek Αρκτούρος Arktoúros Arcturus
            • Latin Arctūrus Arcturus (the star), Boötes (the constellation) [3]
              • English Arcturus
                • Japanese アークトゥルス Ākuturusu Arcturus
              • French Arcturus Arcturus
              • Spanish Arturo Arcturus [3]
              • Welsh Arthur [3]
                • English Arthur [3]


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Collected English words

garrison, warrant, guarantee, warranty, ward, lord, ward, guard, guardian, warden, regard, reward, warn, garnish, ware, beware, garage, revere, reverend, ware, wary, aware, ephor, Arcturus, Arthur


  1. ^

    Not to be confused with *wer-: "to burn" or *wer-: "squirrel"

  2. ^

    A whole pile of 'w'/'gu' English doublets here: ward/guard, warranty/guarantee, warden/guardian, and reward/regard.

    These happen when French borrows a word of Germanic origin (almost always Frankish origin) beginning with 'w', changes the beginning to 'gu' in Middle French, and then English borrows the 'gu' form; while already having the 'w' form as well.

    The 'w' form is sometimes native from Old and Middle English (from the same West Germanic source as the Frankish), and sometimes borrowed from Anglo-Norman French, which had not undergone the 'w' to 'gu' sound change.

    Usually not triplets, because when the Anglo-Norman and Middle English forms both exists, they tend not to be distinct enough to avoid merging (Frankish and Old English are extremely similar), but it's not impossible!

  3. ^

    Latin Arctūrus is a possible source for the name Arthur. There is no evidence of anyone named "Arthur" until the 5th century at the earliest, shortly after the end of the Roman occupation of Brittain; and either Latin Arctūrus (borrowed from Greek) and the Latin family name Artōrius (of indeterminate origin and meaning) would become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh.

    The other possibility is that it is natively Welsh, from Brythonic *arθorīɣ: "bear-king", which would also become Arthur in Welsh. And finally, the Latin family name Artōrius could itself be borrowed from the Gaulish equivalent, *Arto-rīg-ios: "(son) of (the) Bear-King", and either be or not be the origin of post-Roman Welsh Art(h)ur.

    The folk etymology of Welsh Arth-(g)wr (Brythonic *arθ(o)gwur): "bear-man" is almost certainly wrong. There is a fair amount of evidence from Welsh poetry that the name always rhymed with -ur and not -wr.