Word Family - Pandemic

Theme: 🦠


Demon Pandemic Zeitgeist Time


democracy, pandemic, zeitgeist, time, demon

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂- to share, to divide
    • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂yéti divides
      • Albanian daj I divide
      • Hellenic *dayomai
        • Ancient Greek δαίομαι daíomai to divide, to distribute
      • Indo-Iranian *dáyatay
        • Indo-Aryan *dáyatay
          • Sanskrit दयते dáyate to divide, to take part in, to sympathize with, to defend, to pity, to love
            • Sanskrit दया dayā sympathy, compassion, pity, mercy [1]
              • Hindi दया dayā pity, mercy
    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂mos division, part
      • Hellenic *dāmos
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀅𐀗 da-mo village, community
        • Ancient Greek δῆμος dêmos district, land, town, commoners, free citizens, popular assembly
          • Greek δήμος dímos people, common people, municipality
          • Ancient Greek δημαγωγός dēmagōgós popular leader, mob leader
            • French démagogue
              • English demagogue
          • Ancient Greek δημοκρᾰτῐ́ᾱ dēmokratíā popular government, democracy
            • Medieval Latin dēmocratia democracy
              • French démocratie democracy
                • English democracy
              • Italian democrazia democracy
              • Spanish democracia democracy
            • Russian демокра́тия demokrátija democracy
            • Ancient Greek ἔνδημος éndēmos at home, native, specific to a place or people
              • English endemic
            • Ancient Greek ἐπιδήμιος epidḗmios
              • Medieval Latin epidemia
                • French épidémie
                  • French épidémique
                    • English epidemic
            • Ancient Greek πάνδημος pándēmos
              • English pandemic
          • Ancient Greek Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs People-Strength personal name
            • Latin Dēmosthenēs
              • English Demosthenes
            • Ancient Greek Νῑκόδημος Nīkódēmos Victory-People personal name
              • Latin Nīcodēmus
                • English Nicodemus
    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂lom
      • Celtic *dālom part, share, portion
        • Old Irish dál part, share, land occupied by a tribe
          • Old Irish Dál Riata Gaelic Kingdom in Ulster and Argyll
            • English Dalradia
              • English Dalradian
    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂y- to share, to divide
      • Proto-Indo-European *déh₂itis division, interval, period of time
        • Pre-Albanian *dīti
          • Albanian ditë day
        • Old Armenian տի ti year, era, lifetime, century
        • Germanic *tīdiz
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse tíð time, hour
              • Danish tid time
              • Icelandic tíð time, period, weather conditions
          • West Germanic
            • Old English tīd
              • English tide
            • Frankish *tīt
              • Dutch tijd time
            • Old High German zīt
              • German Zeit time, period, era
                • German Zeitgeist spirit of the age, zeitgeist equiv. to "tide-ghost"
                  • English zeitgeist
              • Yiddish צײַט tsayt time, age, era
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek δαῖσις daîsis division of property
    • Proto-Indo-European déh₂imō divider
      • Germanic *tīmô a part of the day, a time
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse tími a part of the day, a time
            • Danish time hour, class, lesson
            • Icelandic tími time, hour, class, lesson
        • West Germanic
          • Old English tīma a time
            • English time
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek δαίμων daímōn divine power, guardian spirit, (later) demon [2]
          • Coptic ⲇⲁⲓⲙⲱⲛ daimōn demon
          • Latin daemon genius loci, protective spirit, demon
            • Western Romance
              • Italian demonio demon
            • English demon
            • French démon demon
            • Irish deamhan demon
              • Irish deamhan fola vampire lit. "blood demon"
          • Ancient Greek εὐδαίμων
            • Ancient Greek εὐδαιμονίᾱ eudaimoníā
              • English eudemonia
            • Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρᾰβῐ́ᾱ Εὐδαίμων Arabíā Eudaímōn Southern Arabia, Yemen [3]
    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂p- to sacrifice, to lose
      • English damage
    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- to give
      • English add
      • English donate
      • English data


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Collected English words

demagogue, democracy, endemic, epidemic, pandemic, Demosthenes, Nicodemus, Dalradia, Dalradian, tide, zeitgeist, time, demon, eudemonia, damage, add, donate, data


  1. ^

    You could imagine Japanese 同情 dōjō: "sympathy" coming from Sanskrit दया dayā: "sympathy, compassion, pity, mercy", via Buddhism, but it's not. It's standard Sino-Japanese from Middle Chinese 同情 duŋ-d͡ziᴇŋ.

  2. ^

    Ancient Greek δαίμων daímōn: "divine power, guardian spirit, (later) demon" via the idea of "one who dispenses, one who allots". Compare Old Persian 𐏎 baga: "god" from *bʰeh₂g-: "to divide, to distribute".

    It can seem more related to the meaning of *deh₃-: "to give", the phonetics clearly align it with *deh₂-. This semantic blurring lends weight to the idea that *deh₂-: "divide" and *deh₃-: "give" have a Pre-Proto-Indo-European relationship.

  3. ^

    Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρᾰβῐ́ᾱ Εὐδαίμων Arabíā Eudaímōn: "Southern Arabia, Yemen", literally "Prosperous Arabia", calqued into Latin as Arabia Felix.