Word Family - Red

Teaser

ruby, roan, red, russet, robust, corroborate, julep, rose

Proper names

Rob Roy, Rufus, Eritrea, Rousseau, Russell, Paso Robles, Rosetta Stone

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rewdʰ- red
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁réwdʰeti reddens
      • Germanic *reudanã to redden
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse rjóða to redden
        • West Germanic
          • Old English rēodan to redden, to to make bloody, to wound
      • Hellenic *eréutʰō
        • Ancient Greek ἐρεύθω ereúthō I redden
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rudʰéh₁ti is red (stative)
      • Balto-Slavic *rudḗˀtei
        • Slavic *rъděti
          • East Slavic ръдѣти сѧ rŭděti sę to redden with reflexive pronoun
            • Russian рдеть rdetʹ
            • Ukrainian рди́тися rdýtysja
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic ръдѣти сѧ rŭděti sę
          • West Slavic
            • Czech rdíti se
      • Germanic *rudānã to be red
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse roða to redden
        • West Germanic
          • Old English rudian to be red
            • English rud
            • English rudden
          • Frankish
            • Dutch roden
          • Old High German rōten
            • German röten to redden
        • Germanic *rudō redness
          • West Germanic
            • Old English rudu redness
              • Old English rudiġ ruddy
                • English ruddy
        • Germanic *rudalōnã
          • West Germanic
            • Old English
              • English ruddle
            • Old High German
              • German Rötel
      • Italic *ruðēō
        • Latin rubeō I am red, I redden, I blush
          • Latin rubeus red, reddish
            • Sardinian ruju red
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian roib chestnut, sorrel
            • Western Romance
              • French rouge red
                • English rouge
              • Italian robbio red, crimson
              • Spanish rubio blond
                • Spanish Rubio surname
                  • English Rubio
              • Spanish roja (plant) rust
            • French rubis ruby re-borrowing
              • English ruby
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rowdʰós red (adj)
      • Balto-Slavic *raudas
        • Lithuanian rùdas brown
        • Slavic *rȗdъ red, reddish, red-haired, brown
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ру́дый rúdyj red, red-haired
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ру̑д rȗd reddish-brown
          • West Slavic
            • Polish rudy reddish brown, rusty, auburn, red-haired
          • Slavic *rudà ore, mineral
            • East Slavic руда ruda
              • Russian руда́ rudá ore
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic роуда ruda ore, metal
              • Serbo-Croatian ру́да rúda ore, mineral
            • West Slavic
              • Polish ruda ore
            • Finnic *rauta iron
              • Finnish rauta iron
                • Samic *ruovtē
                  • Northern Sami ruovdi iron
      • Celtic *roudos red
        • Brythonic *rrʉð
          • Welsh rhudd red, crimson
        • Gaulish roudos
          • Old Irish rúad red
            • Irish rua red, reddish, redhead, wild
            • Scottish Gaelic ruadh red, redhead
              • Scottish Gaelic Raibeart Ruadh Robert the Redhead
                • English Rob Roy
      • Germanic *raudaz
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌸𐍃 rauþs
            • Ibero-Romance *raudanus from the accusative
              • Galician ruán roan, auburn
              • Portuguese ruão roan
              • Spanish roano roan
                • French rouan
                  • English roan
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse rauðr red
            • Danish rød red
            • Icelandic rauður red
        • West Germanic
          • Old English rēad red
            • English red
          • Frankish *rōt
            • Dutch rood red
              • Afrikaans rooi red
                • Afrikaans rooibos rooibos lit. "red-bush"
                  • English rooibos
          • Old High German rōt red
            • German rot red
            • Yiddish רויט royt red
        • Finnic *rauta iron
          • Finnish rauta iron
          • Samic *ruovtē
            • Northern Sami ruovdi iron
        • Germanic *raudnanã to become red
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse roðna
              • Icelandic roðna
              • English rudden
      • Indo-Iranian *Hrawdʰás red, red metal, copper
        • Indo-Aryan *Hrawdʰás
          • Sanskrit 𑀮𑁄𑀳 lohá red, copper, iron
            • Magadhi
              • Bengali লোহা loha
            • Sauraseni 𑀮𑁄𑀳 loha
              • Madhya
                • Hindi लोहा lohā iron
              • Pahari
                • Punjabi ਲੋਹਾ lohā iron
            • Pali loha metal
            • Hindi लोह loh iron, steel, metal
        • Iranian *Hrawdáh copper, brass
          • Northern Iranian
            • Sogdian rwδ‏
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Balochi رود rōd bronze, metal
              • Medean *arōδ
                • Old Armenian արոյր aroyr brass
                  • Armenian արույր aruyr brass
                  • Georgian რვალი rvali copper, brass, bronze
              • Parthian 𐫡𐫇𐫔 rwδ copper
      • Italic *rouβos
        • Latin rōbus red
          • Latin rōbīgō rust, mildew
            • Western Romance
              • Spanish robín rust
            • Latin *robicula
              • Western Romance
                • French rouille rust
        • Umbrian 𐌓𐌖𐌚𐌓𐌖 rufru
          • Latin rūfus red-haired
            • Latin Rūfus
              • English Rufus
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rewdʰós red (adj)
      • Germanic *reudaz
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍂𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃 gariuþs honorable, dignified
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rudʰrós red (adj)
      • Balto-Slavic *rudras
        • Lithuanian rùdas
        • Slavic *rъdrъ
          • East Slavic ръдръ rŭdrŭ
            • Russian рёдрый rjódryj red, tawny
      • Hellenic *erutʰrós
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀬𐀵𐀫 e-ru-to-ro
        • Ancient Greek ἐρῠθρός eruthrós red
          • Ancient Greek Ἐρῠθρᾱ́ Eruthrā́ Red Sea, Indian Ocean
            • Greek Ερυθρά θάλασσα Red Sea
            • Ancient Greek Ἐρῠθραίᾱ Eruthraíā Eritrea
              • Latin Erythraea Eritrea
                • Italian Eritrea Eritrea
                  • English Eritrea Eritrea
                  • Tigrinya ኤርትራ ʾertra Eritrea
          • Ancient Greek ἐρῠθρῖνος eruthrînos red sea bream
            • Greek λυθρίνι lythríni red sea bream
          • English erythro-
            • English erythrocyte
      • Indo-Iranian *Hrudʰrás
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀭𑀼𑀥𑀺𑀭 rudhirá red, bloody, Mars (planet)
            • Tamil రుధిరము rudhiramu blood
      • Italic *ruðros red
        • Latin ruber red, ruddy
          • Latin rubellus reddish
            • English rubella
        • Latin rubrīca red ochre, ruddle, title/heading (written in red)
          • Western Romance
            • French rubrique category, heading, rubric
              • English rubric
            • Italian rubrica rubric, notebook, newspaper column
            • Spanish rúbrica signature, initials, title, heading, section
        • Latin rubia red dye, madder
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian roibă madder
          • Western Romance
            • Italian robbia madder
          • Translingual Rubia taxonomic genus of madder plants
      • Tocharian *rätre red
        • Arshian rtär red
        • Kushean ratre red
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rowdʰsos red (adj)
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *rusъ fair, blond, red, yellow
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ру́сый rúsyj fair-haired, blond [1]
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic роусъ rusŭ
          • West Slavic
            • Polish rusy fair (haired)
      • Italic *roussos
        • Latin russus red, reddish-brown
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian roșu red
          • Western Romance
            • Old French rous
              • French roux red-haired, russet
              • Old French rousset
                • English russet
              • Old French roussel red-head
                • French Rousseau surname
                  • English Rousseau
                • English Russell
            • Italian rosso red, red-haired
              • Italian Rosso surname
                • English Rosso
              • Italian Rossi surname
                • English Rossi
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁ru(H)dʰyos red (adj)
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *ryďь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ры́жий rýžij red, sorrel, red-haired
            • Polish ryży red-haired
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ри̑ђ rȋđ reddish, red
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁réwdʰitos red (adj)
      • Indo-Iranian *Hráwdʰitas
        • Indo-Aryan *Hráwdʰitas
          • Dardic *lóhita
            • Kalasha لؕوُی ḷúi blood, life, strength
          • Sanskrit 𑀮𑁄𑀳𑀺𑀢 lohita red, reddish, coppery, blood
            • Maharashtri 𑀮𑁄𑀳𑀺𑀅 lohia
            • Pali lohita red, blood
              • Khmer លោហិត loohət blood
              • Thai โลหิต loo-hìt [2]
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi लहू lahū blood
          • Sanskrit 𑀭𑁄𑀳𑀺𑀢 róhita red, a red horse, a kind of red tree, a kind of red fish
            • Maharashtri 𑀭𑁄𑀳𑀺𑀅 rohia
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi रोहू rohu rohu, a kind of carp
                  • English rohu
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rowdʰ-os redness, red thing (noun)
      • Italic *rouβos
        • Latin rōbur common oak or sessile oak, strength, hardness [3]
          • Western Romance
            • French rouvre sessile oak
            • Italian rovere sessile oak
            • Spanish roble oak, strength
              • Spanish Robles surname
              • Spanish Paso Robles Pass of Oaks (place name) among many other place names
                • English Paso Robles
          • Latin rōbustus oaken, hard, firm, solid, robust
            • English robust
            • French robuste
            • Italian robusto
            • Spanish robusto
          • Latin rōborō I strengthen
            • Latin corrōborō I make strong, I reinforce, I fortify, I corroborate
              • English corroborate
              • French corroborer to corroborate
              • Italian corroborare to strengthen, to fortify, to support, to corroborate
              • Spanish corroborar to corroborate
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rudʰyeh₂ red thing (noun)
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *rъďa rust
          • East Slavic
            • Ukrainian іржа́ iržá rust
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian р̀ђа r̀đa rust
          • West Slavic
            • Polish rdza rust
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁rudʰmḗn
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian raumuõ muscle
        • Slavic *ru(d)měnъ ruddy, rosy, pink
          • East Slavic
            • Russian румя́ный rumjányj ruddy, rosy, pink
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ру̀мен rùmen ruddy, rosy, pink, reddish
          • West Slavic
            • Polish rumiany ruddy, reddening
    • Proto-Indo-European *wr̥dʰo- sweetbriar rose [4]
      • Pre-Albanian *wurdā
        • Albanian hurdhe ivy
          • Albanian urth ivy
      • Germanic *wurdã
        • West Germanic
          • Old English word thorn bush
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬜𐬀 varəδa
          • Northern Iranian
            • Sogdian ward
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Parthian 𐫇𐫀𐫡 wʾr
              • Old Armenian վարդ vard rose
                • Armenian վարդ vard rose
                • Georgian ვარდი vardi rose
            • Old Persian *vr̥da-
              • Persian گل gol rose, flower
                • Arabic جل jull rose, jasmine
                • Hindi गुल gul flower, rose
                • Pashto ګل gul flower, Monday
                • Ottoman Turkish گل gül rose
                  • Turkish gül rose
                  • Serbo-Croatian ђу̑л đȗl rose
                • Persian گلاب golâb rose water
                  • Arabic جلاب julāb rose water syrup, julep
                    • English julep
                  • Hindi गुलाब gulāb rose, rose water
                  • Khmer ផ្កាកុលាប pkaa ko’laap rose with pkaa: "flower"
                  • Telugu గులాబి rose, pink
                    • Telugu గులాబిపువ్వు gulābipuvvu rose (flower)
                  • Thai กุหลาบ gù-làap rose
              • Arabic وردة warda rose, flower, bloom, rosette, washer
                • Arabic ماء ورد māʾ ward rose water
                  • Malay mawar rose
              • Aramaic warda
                • Classical Syriac ܘܪܕܐ wardā
                • Demotic Egyptian wrṱ rose
                  • Coptic ⲟⲩⲣⲧ ourt rose
        • Hellenic *wródon
          • Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon rose
            • Greek ρόδο ródo rose
              • Greek ροδοδάφνη rododáfni oleander lit. "rose-laurel"
            • Ancient Greek ῥοδοδᾰ́κτῠλος rhododáktulos rosy-fingered dawn
            • Ancient Greek ῥοδόδενδρον rhodódendron rosebay, oleander
              • Latin rhododendron rosebay, oleander
                • Translingual Rhododentron
                • Vulgar Latin *arodandrum
                  • Vulgar Latin *lorandrum
                    • Western Romance
                      • French oléandre [5]
                        • English oleander [5]
                      • Galician loendro oleander
                      • Italian oleandro oleander [5]
            • Oscan
              • Latin rosa rose
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French rose
                    • French rose rose, pink
                      • Finnish roosa pink
                      • Greek ροζ roz pink
                      • Persian رز roz rose
                      • French rosette rosette
                        • English rosette
                    • Dutch roos rose, bullseye, rash, dandruff
                  • Italian rosa rose, pink
                    • Maltese roża rose, pink
                    • Italian rosetta rosette
                      • English rosetta
                      • Italian Rosetta [6]
                        • English Rosetta Stone
                  • Spanish rosa rose, pink
                    • Cebuano rosa rosa, pink
                    • Tagalog rosas rose
                • Old English
                  • English rose
                    • Hawaiʻian loke rose
                • Old Church Slavonic рожа roža rose
                  • Russian ро́за róza rose
                • Latin Rosa Rose (personal name)
                  • English Rosa
                  • Spanish Rosa
                    • Spanish Santa Rosa
                      • English Santa Rosa
                • Latin rosārium rose garden, rosary
                  • Western Romance
                    • French rosaire rosary
                    • Portuguese rosário rosary
                      • Japanese ロザリオ rozario rosary
                      • Malay rosario rosary
                    • Spanish rosario rosary
                      • Spanish Rosario Rosary (personal name)
                        • English Rosario
                  • English rosary
        • Kartvelian *bard-
          • Georgian ბარდი bardi undergrowth, brush, bushes
          • Svan ბარდ bard stalk, stem, undergrowth
      • Italic *wruðos
        • Latin rubus blackberry, bramble
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian rug bramble
          • Western Romance
            • Italian rovo blackberry, bramble
          • Translingual Rubus taxonomic genus of brambles

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

rud, rudden, ruddy, ruddle, rouge, Rubio, ruby, Rob Roy, roan, red, rooibos, rudden, Rufus, Eritrea, erythro-, erythrocyte, rubella, rubric, Rubia, russet, Rousseau, Russell, Rosso, Rossi, rohu, Paso Robles, robust, corroborate, julep, Rhododentron, oleander, rosette, rosetta, Rosetta Stone, rose, Rosa, Santa Rosa, Rosario, rosary, Rubus

Footnotes

  1. ^

    The name of "Russia" comes from the Русь Rus, which were probably so called after the Swedish ruling class. Compare the Finnish word for Sweden: Ruotsi, as well as various other Uralic names from both Sweden and Russia. Those names are probably related to words for "row" (compare modern Swedish Roslagen), but Русь Rus may have been influenced by Slavic *rusъ: "fair, blond, red, yellow".

  2. ^

    Due to an interesting coincidence, Thai has two very similar sounding words for "blood" with completely different origins: Thai โลหิต loo-hìt: "blood" is from Sanskrit 𑀮𑁄𑀳𑀺𑀢 lohita: "blood", from Indo-European *h₁rewdʰ-: "red". But Thai เลือด lʉ̂ʉat: "blood" is from Proto-Tai *lɯət: "blood".

  3. ^

    Old Latin rōbus had an oblique stem of rōbores due to intervocalic rhoticization of the s. In Classical Latin, the paradigm was levelled back into the direct stem to change it to rōbur instead of rōbus.

    The oak tree is named rōbur from its reddish timber, and the "strength" and "hardness" meanings derive from the oak timber.

  4. ^

    *wr̥dʰo- has no certain connections. It is sometimes derived from *Hwardh-: "to grow, to grow strong". There is no attestation of that root outside of Indo-Iranian, but it's possible all the *wr̥dʰo- words come through Indo-Iranian.

    But it's at least worth considering whether it could be from *h₁rewdʰ-: "red", with metathesis of the *w and *r. The *h₁ could have easily been lost in the metathesis, but also even if the *h₁ was actually there in the PIE, we wouldn't have any evidence of it, since we have only this one zero-grade form for the paradigm.

    Deriving *wr̥dʰo- from *h₁rewdʰ- is an interesting possibility, because it unifies "rose" with "red": French rose with rouge, Italian rosa with rosso, Latin rubus with rubeus. And even the species name of the sweetbriar rose: "Rosa rubiginosa".

    *wr̥dʰo- is not likely to be related to *wréh₂ds: "root, plant"; those are not as similar as the notation makes them look.

    Sweetbriar rose is also called "eglantine" in English: https://www.aidanem.com/word-family-edge.html

  5. ^

    The connection of oleander to Greek oleo-ander: "I will kill a man" is almost certainly folk etymology, though the word may have been modified under influence of that folk etymology.

  6. ^

    The Italian name "Rosetta" for the town in Egypt is an eggcorn for Coptic ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit (as is the Arabic name Rashid). It was there that Napoleon's campaign in Egypt found the Rosetta Stone, a bilingual/triscriptual text in Ancient Egyptian (in both Hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts) and Classical Greek which allowed Ancient Egyptian to be deciphered.