Word Family - Warm

Teaser

fermentation, thermos, warm, petit four, furnace, gore, frantic, adrenaline

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰer- warm, hot
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰéreti warms root imperfective
      • Pre-Albanian *džera
        • Pre-Albanian *džernja
          • Albanian ziej I boil, I cook
      • Celtic *gʷereti warms
        • Celtic *uɸo-gʷereti
        • Old Irish fo·geir to heat, to warm, to inflame, to irritate
      • Hellenic *kʷʰérō
        • Classical Greek θέρω thérō I heat, I become warm, I burn
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰr̥néwti warms -nw- imperfective
      • Old Armenian ջեռնում ǰeṙnum to get warm, to be warmed, to get angry or excited, to burn (instransitve)
        • Armenian ջեռանալ ǰeṙanal to get warm
          • Armenian ջեռակ ǰeṙak hot water bottle
      • Germanic *brinnanã [1]
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌱𐍂𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 brinnan to burn
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse brinna to burn
            • Danish brænde to burn, to roast, to cremate, to sting
            • Icelandic brenna to burn
        • West Germanic
          • Old English biernan to burn
            • English burn
          • Old High German brinnan to burn
            • German brinnen to burn archaic
      • Indo-Iranian *gʰr̥náwti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀖𑀾𑀡𑁄𑀢𑀺 ghṛṇóti burns, shines, sprinkles and/or from *gʰer-: "to rub, to smear"
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰigʷʰérti warms reduplicative imperfective
      • Indo-Iranian *ǰʰigʰárti
        • Indo-Aryan *ȷ́igʰárti
          • Sanskrit 𑀚𑀺𑀖𑀭𑁆𑀢𑀺 jígharti shines
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰréh₁(ye)ti is warm -eh₁- stative
      • Pre-Albanian *grāja
        • Pre-Albanian *en-grāja
          • Albanian ngroh I warm, I heat
      • Balto-Slavic *grḗˀtei
        • Slavic *grěti to warm, to heat, to shine
          • East Slavic грѣти grěti
            • Russian греть gretʹ to heat
            • Ukrainian грі́ти hríty to radiate heat (instransitive), to heat up
          • South Slavic
            • Bulgarian гре́я гре́я to heat, to warm up, to shine
            • Old Church Slavonic грѣꙗти grějati
            • Serbo-Croatian грејати grejati to heat, to warm
          • West Slavic
            • Czech hřát to warm
            • Polish grzać to heat, to warm, to fight
          • Slavic *grě̃xъ sin
            • East Slavic грѣхъ grěxŭ
              • Russian ​​грех grex sin, fault
                • Karelian riähkä sin
              • Ukrainian гріх hrix sin, fault
            • South Slavic
              • Bulgarian грях grjah sin, error, fault
              • Old Church Slavonic грѣхъ grěxŭ sin
              • Serbo-Croatian грије̑х grijȇh sin
            • West Slavic
              • Czech hřích sin
              • Polish grzech sin
      • Hellenic *kʷʰeréyō
        • Classical Greek θερέω theréō
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰegʷʰór-e is warm reduplicative stative
      • Balto-Slavic *garḗˀtei
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian garė́ti to boil, to steam, to evaporate
        • Slavic *gorěti to burn (instrans.)
          • East Slavic
            • Russian горе́ть gorétʹ to burn (intrans.), to be on fire, to be lit, to flush, to gleam
            • Ukrainian горі́ти horíty to burn (intrans.)
          • South Slavic
            • Bulgarian горя́ gorjá to burn (trans. or intrans.), to sting (trans.), to have a fever, to crave)
            • Old Church Slavonic горѣти gorěti to burn (intrans.)
            • Serbo-Croatian го̀рјети gòrjeti to burn (intrans.), to be lit, to blaze, to glow
          • West Slavic
            • Czech hořet to burn, to feel strongly
            • Polish gorzeć to glow, to flush
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰoréyeti heats, makes warm causative
      • Celtic *gʷorīti
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh gori to brood, to incubate, to keep warm
        • Old Irish
          • Irish gor to incubate, to brood, to warm, to burn, to blush
        • Hispano-Celtic
          • Galician gorar to addle, to spoil, to covet
            • Galician goro incubated, but unfertilized egg
          • Portuguese gorar to addle, to miscarry
          • Old Spanish gorar
            • Old Spanish guero unfertilized egg
              • Spanish huero vain, empty
              • Spanish güero light-skinned person Mexican Spanish; semantic shift from "sickly" physical, not cultural like gringo;
      • Indo-Iranian *gʰaráyati
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀖𑀭𑀬𑀢𑀺 gharáyati
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰéros heat, warm weather
      • Old Armenian ջեր ǰer heat, warmth, sunny weather, warm, clear
        • Armenian ջեռ ǰeṙ warm, bright, shining
      • Balto-Slavic *géras heat, glowing embers
        • West Baltic
          • Old Prussian goro ash pit
        • Slavic *žarъ heat, glow
          • East Slavic жаръ žarŭ
            • Russian жар žar heat, fever, embers, fervor
              • Russian жар-пти́ца žar-ptíca firebird, phoenix
                • Russian Жар-птица Žar-ptíca (Stravinsky's) The Firebird
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian жа̑р žȃr fervor, embers
            • Hungarian zsarátnok embers [2]
            • Romanian jar burning coals, heat, glow, fire
          • West Slavic
            • Polish żar embers, heat
              • Polish żarówka (incandescent) light bulb
      • Hellenic *kʷʰéros
        • Classical Greek θέρος théros heat, summer, harvest
          • Classical Greek θερινός therinós of summer
            • Greek θερινός therinós of summer
              • Greek θερινή ώρα theriní óra summer time, daylight saving time
      • Indo-Iranian *ǰʰáras
        • Indo-Aryan *źʰáras
          • Vedic Sanskrit háras flame, fire
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰérmn̥
      • Old Armenian ջերմն ǰermn fever, heat
        • Armenian ջերմ ǰerm fever, warmth, warm, warmly, passionate, tender
      • Germanic *bermô yeast, leven [1]
        • West Germanic
          • Old English beorma yeast, leaven, beerhead
            • English barm
              • English barmy
          • Old Saxon *berma
            • Low German Bärme
              • German Bärme yeast
            • Danish bærme dregs
            • Estonian pärm yeast
      • Italic *xʷermen [1]
        • Italic *xʷermentom
          • Latin fermentum fermentation, leavening, yeast, passion
            • Latin fermentō I ferment, I leaven, I break up, I loosen, I spoil
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a frământa to knead, to churn, to agitate, to work, to fret
              • French fermenter to ferment
                • English ferment
              • Italian fermentàre to ferment
              • Spanish fermentar to ferment
              • Latin fermentātiō fermentation
                • English fermentation
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰermós warm
      • Old Armenian ջերմ ǰerm
      • Hellenic *kʷʰermós
        • Classical Greek θερμός thermós warm, hot, hotheaded, active
          • Greek θερμός thermós warm, hot, fervent, heartfelt
          • German Thermos company/product name for a vacuum flask
            • English Thermos
              • English thermos
                • Greek θερμός thermós thermos, vacuum flask
          • Classical Greek θερμο- thermo-
            • Classical Greek Θερμοπῠ́λαι Thermopúlai Hot-Gates (place name), Thermopylae [3]
              • Greek Θερμοπύλες Thermopýles Thermopylae
              • Latin Thermopylae
                • English Thermopylae
            • Classical Greek ​​θερμοφῠ́λᾰξ thermophúlax kettle lit. "heat guard"
            • English thermo-
            • French thermo-
              • French thermomètre
                • English thermometer
      • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰerméh₂ warmth de-adjectival noun
        • Pre-Albanian *džerma
          • Albanian zjarm
        • Hellenic *kʷʰermá
          • Classical Greek θέρμη thermē
            • French thermal thermal learned coinage from Greek, 1756
              • English thermal
        • Phrygian
          • Classical Greek Γέρμη Gérmē Germa, place name
            • Latin Germa
              • English Germa
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰermih₂
      • Indo-Iranian *gʰarmi
        • Iranian *garmi
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian
              • Persian گرمی garmi warmth, heat
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰormós
      • Balto-Slavic *garmas
        • West Baltic
          • Old Prussian gorme heat
      • Germanic *warmaz
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse varmr warm
            • Danish varm warm, hot
            • Icelandic varmur warm (archaic)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English wearm warm
            • English warm
          • Frankish *warm
            • Dutch warm warm, hot
          • Old High German warm
            • German warm warm
            • Yiddish וואַרעם varem warm
        • Germanic *warmijanã to warm, to heat
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍂𐌼𐌾𐌰𐌽 warmjan to warm, to keep warm, to cherish
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse verma to warm, to heat
              • Icelandic verma to warm, to heat
              • Swedish värma to warm, to heat
          • West Germanic *wermijan
            • Old English werman to warm, to heat
              • English warm
            • Frankish *wermen
              • Dutch warmen to warm
            • Old High German wermen
              • German wärmen to warm
      • Italic *xʷormos warm
        • Latin formos warm (archaic)
        • Italic *xʷormokaps warm-catcher, tongs
          • Latin forceps tongs, forceps, pincers
            • Western Romance
              • Italian forcipe forceps
            • English forceps
      • Indo-Iranian *gʰarmás
        • Indo-Aryan *gʰarmás
          • Sanskrit 𑀖𑀭𑁆𑀫 gharmá heat, warmth, warm weather, sunshine
            • Maharashtri 𑀖𑀫𑁆𑀫 ghamma
              • Marathi घाम ghām sweat
            • Pali 𑀖𑀫𑁆𑀫 ghamma
            • Sauraseni
              • Nepali घाम ghām sunlight, sun, heat of the sun
              • Romani kham sun
        • Iranian *garmáh
          • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬨𐬀 garǝma
        • Northern Iranian
          • Khotani 𑀕𑀭𑁆𑀫 garma-
        • Western Iranian
          • Northwestern Iranian
            • Kurdish germ warm
          • Old Persian
            • Persian گرم garm warm, hot, friendly, passionate
              • Hindi गर्म garm warm, hot, active, fresh, angry
              • Malay gêram angry
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰornós
      • Celtic
        • Old Irish gorn fire
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰr̥nós
      • Balto-Slavic *gurnas
        • Slavic *gъrnъ
          • East Slavic горнъ gornŭ cauldron, pot, oven
            • Russian горн gorn fireplace, furnace, forge
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian грно grno heart
          • West Slavic *gъrnъ
            • West Slavic *gъrnьcь diminutive
              • Czech hrnec cooking pot
              • Polish garnek cooking pot
          • Slavic *gъrnidlo furnace
            • East Slavic гърнило gŭrnilo
              • Russian горни́ло gornílo furnace
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic грънилъ grŭnilŭ
              • Serbo-Croatian грнил grnil
      • Indo-Iranian *gʰr̥nás
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀖𑀾𑀡 ghṛṇá heat, ardor, sunshine
            • Sanskrit 𑀖𑀾𑀡𑀸 ghṛṇā́ hatred, malice
              • Sauraseni
                • Hindi घिन ghin hatred, scorn, contempt
      • Italic *xʷornos
        • Latin furnus oven, bakery
          • Vulgar Latin
            • Sardinian forru oven
            • Eastern Romance
              • Aromanian furnu oven
            • Western Romance
              • French four oven, stove
                • French petit four petit four, a small cake [4]
                  • English petit four
              • Italian forno oven, bakery
              • Spanish horno oven, furnace
            • Albanian furrë oven, kiln, bakery
          • Koine Greek φούρνος foúrnos oven, bakery, furnace
            • Aramaic 𐡐𐡅𐡓𐡍𐡀 phurna
              • Arabic فرن furn oven, bakery, furnace
                • Maltese forn oven
            • Old Armenian փուռն pʿuṙn oven, kiln
              • Armenian փուռ pʿuṙ oven, bakery
            • Turkish fırın oven
          • Georgian ფურნე purne bakery
          • Old Irish sorn oven, furnace, kiln
            • Irish sorn furnace, stone
            • Vulgar Latin *furnellus diminutive
              • Sardinian forredhu
              • Western Romance
                • Old French fornel
                  • French fourneau stove, bowl of a pipe
                • Italian fornello stove, burner, hot plate
                • Spanish hornillo hot plate, camp stove
          • Latin furnārius baker
            • Western Romance
              • Italian fornaio baker
              • Italian Furnari Baker (occupational surname) presumably from the Latin vocative
              • Italian Fornaro Baker (occupational surname)
              • Sicilian furnaru
                • Maltese furnar baker
              • Spanish hornero baker, hornero (bird)
                • English hornero
            • Translingual Furnarius taxonomic genus of hornero birds
          • Latin fornāx oven, furnace, kiln apparently "warm-ish"?
            • Western Romance
              • Old French fornais furnace
                • French fournaise furnace, oven
                • English furnace
                • Irish foirnéis furnace
            • Latin Fornax Roman divinity of ovens
              • New Latin Fornax The Furnace, a winter constellation in the Southern Hemisphere
                • English Fornax
    • Proto-Indo-European
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *gȍře grief, suffering
          • East Slavic
            • Russian го́ре góre grief, distress, trouble, disaster
          • West Slavic
            • Czech hoře grief (archaic)
            • Old Polish gorze distress, woe
      • Germanic *gurã feces, filth, half-digested stomach contents
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse gor cud
          • Finnic *kura
            • Finnish kura mud, dirt, diarrhea
        • West Germanic *gor
          • Old English gor dirt, dung, feces
            • English gore
          • Frankish
            • Dutch goor dirty, filthy, disgusting
    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰrḗn gut, stomach, seat of emotions and/or thought
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *grě̑nь blaze, rot, puss
          • East Slavic
            • Ukrainian грянь hrjanʹ
          • South Slavic
            • Bulgarian гран gran rot
              • Bulgarian грани́в graniv rotten, a dirty yellow or orange color
            • Slovene grénək bitter
      • Germanic *gruniz
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse grunr doubt, uncertainty, suspicion
      • Hellenic
        • Classical Greek φρήν phrḗn midriff, stomach, seat of emotions and appetite, seat of the mind, will
          • Classical Greek Λῠκόφρων Lukóphrōn Wolf-Mind (personal name)
            • Latin Lycophrōn
              • English Lycophron
          • Classical Greek σώφρων sṓphrōn of sound mind, sane, prudent, sober
            • Classical Greek σωφροσῠ́νη sōphrosúnē moderation, sanity, self-control, temperance
              • English sophrosyne
          • Classical Greek φρονέω phronéō I think, I understand, I am prudent, I consider
            • Classical Greek φρόνησῐς phrónēsis prudence, wisdom
              • English phronesis
          • Classical Greek φρενῖτις phrenîtis inflammation of the mind, inflammation of the brain
            • Latin phrenītis
              • English phrenitis
            • Classical Greek φρενῑτικός phrenītikós
              • Latin phrenēticus mad, delirious
                • Old French frenetike
                  • French frénétique frenetic, frantic
                  • English frantic
                  • English frenetic
              • Classical Greek *phrénēsis variant of phrenītikós
                • Latin phrenesis madness, delirium, frenzy
                  • Old French frenesie
                    • French frénésie frenzy
                    • English frenzy
      • Italic xrēn [5]
        • Latin rēn kidney
          • Vulgar Latin *rene
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian rână the two sides of the body
            • Western Romance
              • French rein kidney, lower back, waist
            • Albanian rrâni kidney
            • Vulgar Latin *rēniō
              • Western Romance
                • French rognon kidney (cooking)
                  • Italian rognone kidney (cooking)
                • Spanish riñón kidney, hematite
            • Vulgar Latin *renicāre
              • Vulgar Latin *derenicāre
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian a dărâna to wear out, to exhaust
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian direnare
                  • Spanish derrengar to bend, to twist, to wear out
          • Latin rēnālis of the kidneys
            • English renal
              • English adrenal
                • English adrenaline [6]
          • Latin rēniculus
            • Vulgar Latin rēniclus
              • Sardinian arrigu
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian rinichi kidney

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Collected English words

burn, barm, barmy, ferment, fermentation, Thermos, thermos, Thermopylae, thermo-, thermometer, thermal, Germa, warm, forceps, petit four, hornero, Furnarius, furnace, Fornax, gore, Lycophron, sophrosyne, phronesis, phrenitis, frantic, frenetic, frenzy, renal, adrenal, adrenaline

Footnotes

  1. ^

    In Latin, *bʰ- and *gʷʰ- merge at the beginning of words to *f-, which makes it difficult to distinguish between words derived from *gʷʰer-: "warm, hot" versus from *bʰrewh₁-: "to boil, to bubble"; and there are not other Italic examples of any of these words.

    In Germanic, *gʷʰ can becomes any of *gw, *g, *w, or *b; and there is debate as to which conditions lead to which reflex. If *gʷʰ regularly becomes *w, then *warmaz is a regular descendant of *gʷʰer- and *brinnanã would come from *bʰrewh₁-, not *gʷʰer-. If *gʷʰ becomes *w only between vowels, and *b at the beginning of words, then *brinnanã is indeterminate between *gʷʰer- and *bʰrewh₁-, like Italic reflexes; and *warmaz is either irregular or from *wer-: "to burn". But as far as I know, the root *wer-: "to burn" is a pretty marginal root: only confidently found in Balto-Slavic, with possible a reflexe in Hittite 𒉿𒊏 wa-ar as well as Germanic *warmaz.

    In particular, Germanic *bermô: "yeast, leavening" and Latin fermentum: "fermentation, yeast, levening"—clearly related to each other—fit semantically better with *bʰrewh₁-: "to boil, to bubble, to brew", but better phonetically with *gʷʰer-: "warm, hot". The trouble is, each of them is … plausible, without being instinctive.

  2. ^

    Hungarian zsarátnok: "embers" comes from South Slavic—Serbo-Croatian жа̑р žȃr: "fervor, embers" or a close relative thereof. The "-noc" is a common noun-formation suffix in Hungarian, generalized from borrowed Slavic "-nik"-type words like Serbo-Croatian bȏjnīk to Hungarian bajnok. The -at- is a little more confusing. It could be one of the four or more -a-t derivational suffixes in Hungarian, or a piece of Slavic morphology; Hungarian sometimes has -at for in borrowings from Slavic *-dlo, for example (garat, lapát).

  3. ^

    The pass of Thermopylae is named "Hot Gates" after the sulfur hot springs in pass. Interesting note, all names for the pass in other languages that I know of are purely phonetic renderings except 2. Icelandic Laugaskarð: "Bath-Notch" and Mandarin Chinese 温泉关 wēnquán guān: "Hot Spring Border-Pass", or possibly "Spa Check-Point".

  4. ^

    The name petit four (a kind of small cake) means literally "small oven" in French. The name comes from a time when bakers used large brick ovens that heated up and cooled down slowly. When the oven was heating up with the fire going full, that was baking à grand four, "in the big oven"; when the oven was cooling down afterward, small pastries could be baked using only the residual heat, which was called baking à petit four, "in the small oven". Petit fours were originally baked à petit four, and retained the name.

  5. ^

    Latin rēn: "kidney" may be from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰrḗn: "gut, stomach, seat of emotions and/or thought", as Greek phren, Norse grunr, and *grěnь. The loss of rounding in front of the *r is probably regular (*gʷʰr- to *xr-, as opposed to *gʷʰe- to xʷe-), but there are very few other examples to compare to.

    Alternatively, rēn could be from a root approximately like *h₂er- together with Hittite 𒄩𒄩𒊑 ḫaḫri-: "lungs, chest" (from a reduplicative form, h₂eh₂r-), Kushean arañce: "heart, seat of emotion" (Proto-Tocharian *ār-(e)-äñce), and Welsh aren: "kidney" (Celtic *ārū)

  6. ^

    The adrenal glands are next to the kidneys, thus ad-renal. Adrenaline was named by the Japanese chemist 高峰 譲吉 Takamine Jōkichi in 1901 (working in English after he had emigrated to the United States).