Word Family - Wolf

Teaser

wolf, wolframite, Ralph, Raoul, lycanthrope, lupus

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *welkʷ- dangerous?, wild?
    • Proto-Indo-European *wl̥kʷós
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒉿𒀠𒆪𒉿𒀸 walkuwa-
      • Celtic *ulk(ʷ)os evil, bad or from *h₁elk-: "wound"
        • Old Irish olc evil
          • Irish olc evil, bad, grudge, misfortune, unfortunate
        • Lepontic 𐌖𐌋𐌊𐌏𐌔 ulkos Evil? Wolf? (personal name) [1]
      • Indo-Iranian *wṛkás
        • Indo-Aryan *wṛkás
          • Indo-Aryan *a-wṛkás not dangerous, safe
            • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀯𑀾𑀓 avṛká safe, inoffensive, true, safety
          • Indo-Aryan *wṛká-taHtṣ
            • Sanskrit 𑀯𑀾𑀓𑀢𑀸𑀢𑁆 vṛká-tāt savagery, danger, wolfishness
      • Proto-Indo-European *wĺ̥kʷos wolf nominalization, "dangerous/wild thing"
        • Pre-Albanian *ulka-
          • Albanian ujk wolf
          • Pre-Albanian
            • Albanian ulkonjë she-wolf
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite *walkui
            • Hittite 𒉿𒀠𒆪𒉿𒀸 walkuwa-
            • Hittite ura-walkui Great Lion (personal name) Luvo-Hittite name
          • Luwian *walwa lion
            • Luwian walwa.LÚ.i Lion Man (personal name)
            • Luwian arma-walwi- Lion of the Moon (personal name)
            • Luwian mūwa-walwi- Lion of Might (personal name)
            • Luwian piḫa-walwi- Lion of Splendor (personal name)
            • Luwian ura-walwi- Great Lion (personal name)
              • Hittite ura-walkui Great Lion (personal name) Luvo-Hittite name
          • Lydian 𐤥𐤠𐤩𐤥𐤤 walwe lion
        • Balto-Slavic *wilkás wolf
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian vilkas wolf
          • West Baltic
            • Old Prussian wilkis wolf
          • Slavic *vьlkъ wolf
            • East Slavic вълкъ vŭlkŭ wolf
              • Russian волк volk wolf
              • Ukrainian вовк wowk wolf
            • South Slavic
              • Bulgarian вълк vǎlk wolf
              • Old Church Slavonic влькъ vlĭkŭ wolf
              • Serbo-Croatian вук vuk wolf
            • West Slavic
              • Czech vlk wolf
              • Polish wilk wolf, meatgrinder, lupus
          • Balto-Slavic *wilko-lákas? werewolf [2]
            • East Baltic
              • Lithuanian vilkolakis werewolf
            • Slavic *vьlkolakъ werewolf
              • East Slavic
                • Russian волкула́к volkulák werewolf
                • Ukrainian вовкула́ка wowkuláka werewolf
              • South Slavic
                • Bulgarian върколак vǎrkolak
                  • Byzantine Greek βουρκόλακας bourkólakas werewolf
                    • Greek βρικόλακας vrikólakas werewolf
                  • Romanian vârcolac werewolf
                • Serbo-Croatian вуко̀длак vukòdlak werewolf
              • West Slavic
                • Czech vlkodlak werewolf
                • Polish wilkołak werewolf
        • Celtic *ulkʷos
          • Lepontic 𐌖𐌋𐌊𐌏𐌔 ulkos Evil? Wolf? (personal name) [1]
          • Celtic *ulkʷagnos
            • Old Irish Olcán Little-Wolf? (personal name) [1]
        • Pre-Germanic *wulpos
          • Germanic *wulfaz wolf
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍅𐌿𐌻𐍆𐍃 wulfs wolf
                • Gothic *wulfila Wolf (personal name)
            • North Germanic *wulfaz
              • Old Norse úlfr
                • Danish ulv wolf
                • Icelandic úlfur wolf
            • West Germanic *wulf
              • Old English wulf wolf
                • English wolf
                  • Māori wuruwhi wolf
                  • Japanese ウルフ urufu wolf (informal)
              • Frankish *wulf
                • Dutch wolf wolf
                  • Afrikaans wolf wolf
                    • Afrikaans aardwolf aardwolf lit. "earth-wolf"
                      • Dutch aardwolf aardwolf
                      • English aardwolf
              • Old High German wolf wolf
                • German Wolf wolf
                • Yiddish וואָלף volf wolf
                • Old High German Wolfgang Wolf-Journey (personal name)
                  • German Wolfgang
                    • English Wolfgang
                • Old High German Wolfhram Wolf-Raven (personal name)
                  • German Wolfram
                    • English Wolfram
                • Old High German wolfroum wolframite [3]
                  • German Wolfram tungsten, wolframite
                    • Translingual W
                    • English wolfram
                    • German Wolframit wolframite
                      • English wolframite
              • Old Saxon wulf wolf
                • Low German Wulf wolf
              • West Germanic *werawulf man-wolf, werewolf
                • Old English werwulf werewolf
                  • English werewolf
                • Frankish *werawulf werewolf
                  • Dutch weerwolf werewolf
                  • Old French garoul werewolf
                    • Old French leu-garoul werewolf [4]
                      • French loup-garou werewolf
                        • Haitian Creole lougarou werewolf, devil, sorceror
                          • English loogaroo
                • Old High German werwolf werewolf
                  • German Werwolf werewolf
                • Old Saxon warwulf werewolf
                  • Low German Warwulf werewolf
                  • Danish varulv werewolf
                  • Icelandic varúlvur werewolf
            • Germanic *Audawulfaz
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse Auðulfr
                  • Faroese Eyðolvur
              • West Germanic
                • Old English Ēadwulf
                • Old High German Odolf
                  • Swedish Odolf
            • Germanic *Aþalawulfaz
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic *Aþalawulfs
                  • Latin Ataulphus
                    • English Athaulf
              • West Germanic
                • Old English Æþelwulf
                • Old High German Adalwolf
                  • German Adolf
                    • English Adolf
            • Germanic *Gunþiwulfaz Battle-Wolf (personal name)
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic *Gunþiwulfs
                  • Galician Gundulfis
              • West Germanic
                • Old High German
                  • Lombardic *Gundulf
                    • Italian Gandolfo
            • Germanic *Haþuwulfaz Battle-Wolf (personal name)
              • North Germanic ᚺᛡᚦᚢᚹᚢᛚᚨᚠᛉ Haþuwulafʀ
                • Old Norse *Hǫðulfr
                  • Middle English Hathulf
              • Germanic *Hrōþiwulfaz Famous-Wolf (personal name)
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse Hrólfr
                    • Danish Rolf
                    • Icelandic Hrólfur
                    • English Rolf
                    • Old French Rollon
                      • English Rollo
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English Hrōþ(w)ulf
                  • Frankish *Ruothwulf
                    • Dutch Roelof
                  • Old High German *Hruodwolf
                    • German Rudolf
                      • English Rudolf
                      • German Rudi
                        • English Rudy
              • Germanic *Rēdawulfaz Counsel-Wolf (personal name) compare Classical Greek Λυκομήδης Lukomḗdēs: "Wolf-Counsel (personal name
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse Ráðúlfr
                    • Danish Radulf
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English Rǣdwulf
                    • English Ralph
                      • English ralph
                  • Frankish *Rátwulf
                    • Dutch Radolf
                    • Old French Raol
                      • French Raoul
                        • English Raoul
                      • Spanish Raúl
        • Indo-Iranian *wŕ̥kas wolf
          • Sanskrit 𑀯𑀾𑀓 vṛka wolf, Wolf (personal name)
            • Maharashtri 𑀯𑀬 vaya wolf
            • Sauraseni
              • Western Sauraseni
                • Gujarati વરુ varu wolf
                • Romani ruv wolf
            • Hindi वृक vŕk wolf
            • Telugu వృకము vr̥kamu wolf, dog
          • Iranian *wŕ̥kah wolf
            • Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬀 vəhrka wolf
            • Northern Iranian
              • Saka
                • Khotani 𐨦𐨁𐨪𐨿𐨒𐨿𐨒 birgga- wolf
              • Sogdian
            • Pashto لېوه lewë wolf [4]
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish gur wolf
                • Medean *wurg
                • Parthian 𐫃𐫇𐫡𐫃 gwrg wolf
              • Old Persian 𐎺𐎼𐎣 v-r-k wolf
                • Persian گرگ gurg wolf
            • Iranian *Wŕ̥kānah Wolf-Land (place name), Hyrcania
              • Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬁𐬥𐬀 Vəhrkāna Hyrcania
              • Northern Iranian
                • Ossetian Уӕрхӕг Wærxæg
              • Western Iranian
                • Northwestern Iranian
                  • Medean
                    • Akkadian Urqananu
                    • Classical Greek Ὑρκᾰνῐ́ᾱ Hurkaníā
                      • Latin Hyrcania
                        • English Hyrcania
                  • Parthian 𐫇𐫡𐫐𐫗 wrkn
                • Old Persian 𐎺𐎼𐎣𐎠𐎴 v-r-k-a-n
                  • Middle Persian 𐭢𐭥𐭫𐭢𐭠𐭭 gʿlgʾn
                    • Persian گرگان Gorgân
                      • Arabic جرجان Jurjān
                      • English Gorgan
                    • Classical Greek Γουργάν Gourgán
                  • Elamite 𒈪𒅕𒋡𒀭 mi-ir-ka⁴-an
          • Mordvinic
            • Erzya верьгиз verʹgiz wolf
        • Tocharian *wä́lkʷë
          • Kushean walkwe wolf
        • Unknown satem language *wl̥x?-
          • Old Udi 𐕒𐕡𐔾 ul wolf
        • Proto-Indo-European *lúkʷos wolf [5]
        • Hellenic *lúkos
          • Classical Greek λῠ́κος lúkos
            • Greek λύκος lýkos wolf, lupus
            • Samoan luko wolf
            • Classical Greek Λύκος Lúkos Wolf (personal name)
              • Classical Greek Λυκία Lycia [4]
                • Classical Greek λύκειος Lycean
                  • Classical Greek Ἀπόλλων Λύκειος Apollo Lyceus, Lycean Apollo [6]
                    • Classical Greek Λύκειον Lúkeion Temple of Apollo Lyceus at Athens [6]
                      • Greek λύκειο lýkeio high school (secondary school), lyceum, educational organization
                      • Latin Lyceum
                        • English lyceum
                        • French lycée high school (secondary school)
                          • Turkish lise high school (secondary school)
                        • Italian liceo high school (secondary school)
              • Classical Greek λῠκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos werewolf, wof-man, lycanthrope
                • Greek λυκάνθρωπος lykánthropos
                • English lycanthrope
              • Classical Greek Λυκομήδης Lukomḗdēs Wolf-Counsel (personal name) compare Germanic *Rēdawulfaz: "Counsel-Wolf (personal name
                • Greek Λυκομήδης Lykomídis
                • Latin Lycomedes
                  • English Lycomedes
              • Classical Greek Λυκόπολις Lukópolis Wolf-City (place name) modern Asyut/Siōwt, Egypt
              • Classical Greek Λῠκοῦργος Lukoûrgos Wolf-Worker (personal name)
                • Latin Lycurgus
                  • English Lycurgus
              • Classical Greek Αὐτόλῠκος Autólukos Self-Wolf (personal name), Autolycus son of Hermes
                • Greek Αυτόλυκος Aftólykos
                • Latin Autolycus
                  • English Autolycus
              • Classical Greek ἐπίλυκοι epílukoi
                • Classical Greek Ἐπίλυκοι Epílukoi Epilukoi (personal name)
                • Classical Greek παρεπίλυκοι parepílukoi auxiliary epilukoi?
                • Classical Greek Ἐπιλυκάρχης Epílukarches Chief of the Epilukoi
        • Paeonian *lúkʷ-
          • Paeonian *lúkʷiHwós of the Wolf? (personal name) [5]
            • Classical Greek Λύκκειος Lukkeios Lycceius, King of Paeonia
              • English Lycceius
            • Classical Greek Λύκπειος Lukpeios Lycceius, King of Paeonia
            • Classical Greek Λύππειος Luppeios Lycceius, King of Paeonia
        • Italic *lukʷos
          • Oscan *lupus
            • Latin lupus wolf
              • Italian lupo wolf
              • Sardinian lupu wolf
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian lup wolf
              • Western Romance
                • Old French leu
                  • French loup wolf, bass (fish), mask, flaw
                  • Old French leu-garoul werewolf [4]
                    • French loup-garou werewolf
                      • Haitian Creole lougarou werewolf, devil, sorceror
                        • English loogaroo
                  • Anglo-Norman louve wolf
                    • Anglo-Norman Trousse-louve Truss-Wolf (occupational surname for a wolf-catcher)
                      • English Truslove
                      • English Truslow
                    • Middle English Breedel-louve Bridle-Wolf (occupational surname for a wolf-catcher)
                      • English Breedlove
                • Spanish lobo
              • Latin Lupercus Wolf-Ward, divinity of shepherds
                • English Lupercus
                • Latin Lupercalia
                  • English Lupercalia
              • New Latin lupus erythematosus wolf red-rash [7]
                • English lupus
        • Proto-Indo-European *wl̥kʷíh₂s she-wolf
          • Balto-Slavic *wilkī́ˀ
            • East Baltic
              • Lithuanian vìlkė she-wolf
            • Balto-Slavic *wilkī́ˀkāˀ
              • Slavic *vьlčìca
                • East Slavic
                  • Russian волчи́ца volčíca she-wolf
                  • Ukrainian вовчи́ця vovčýcja she-wolf
                • South Slavic
                  • Bulgarian вълчи́ца vǎlčíca she-wolf
                  • Serbo-Croatian ву̀чица vùčica she-wolf
                • West Slavic
                  • Czech vlčice she-wolf
                  • Polish wilczyca she-wolf
          • Germanic *wulgī
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse ylgr she-wolf
          • Indo-Iranian *wr̥kíHs
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀯𑀾𑀓𑀻 vṛkī́ she-wolf

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

wolf, aardwolf, Wolfgang, Wolfram, W, wolfram, wolframite, werewolf, Athaulf, Adolf, Rolf, Rollo, Rudolf, Rudy, Ralph, ralph, Raoul, Hyrcania, Gorgan, lyceum, lycanthrope, Lycomedes, Lycurgus, Autolycus, Lycceius, loogaroo, Truslove, Truslow, Breedlove, Lupercus, Lupercalia, lupus

Footnotes

  1. ^

    While the word *ulkʷos for "wolf" is not directly attested in any Celtic language, it seems typologically more likely for early Celtic names for the Leponitc personal name 𐌖𐌋𐌊𐌏𐌔 ulkos and the Old Irish Olcán to mean "wolf" and "little wolf" respectively, rather than meaning "bad, evil, wound".

    The Irish olc: "evil, bad, grudge, misfortune, unfortunate" may be from the adjective *wl̥kʷós: "dangerous, wild" that *wĺ̥kʷos: "wolf" appears to derive from. The adjective is otherwise only attested in Hittite and Sanskrit. Irish olccould also be from *h₁elk-, the source of "ill" and "ulcer".

    In Celtic languages, the word for "wolf" has been replaced by various other words *waylos: "howler" (also shared with Armenian) and *bledyos: "monster, predator". Irish additionally uses madra all(t)a: "wild dog" and mac tíre: "son of the land".

  2. ^

    Balto-Slavic *wilko-(d)lákas?: "werewolf" is attested throughout Slavic languages, and also in Lithuanian vilkolakis. The second element in the word is confusing; it is sometimes linked to *dòlka, which in some East South Slavic dialects can mean "fur, pelt"—which would make it "wolf-pelt/skin", i.e. someone who puts on a wolf skin to transform into a wolf. But *dòlka only appears in South Slavic languages, and only means "fur, pelt" in some minority dialects; it means "(strand of) hair" in most South Slavic languages.

    I don't see anyway to get the distribution of dl vs. l with regular changes. The South Slavic languages with dl are among the Slavic languages most likely to reduce *dl to l, so they would require *dol in order to keep it dl. But if it was *dol, East Slavic would keep the vowel giving dol (or maybe dal), and instead in East Slavic has l. I was going to say I suspected South Slavic of adding the d, perhaps by folk etymology with the South Slavic-specific *dòlka, but then I realized West Slavic Czech has it in vlkodlak. 🤷

    On the other hand if the *d really is there in Proto-Slavic, Russian вурдала́к vurdalák: "vampire" may contain a related morpheme. But I don't know the etymology of vurdalák, or any cognates in other Slavic languages.

  3. ^

    German Wolfram (the personal name) and Wolfram: "tungsten" are not the same word. The name is Old High German Wolfhram: "Wolf-Raven", but the word for tungsten (originally for the mineral wolframite) is Old High German wolfroum: "wolf-froth".

    In his De Rei Metallica, Agricola calls wolframite Lupi spuma, likewise "wolf's froth". It's hard to know if Agricola coined the Latin and the German is a calque of it, or if Agricola translated an existing but previously unattested German name into Latin.

    The name "wolf-froth" refers the appearance of some wolframite as long black tungsten crystals mixed with intrusions of small clumps of light colored pegmatite crystals or milky quartz crystals, creating an appearance like a froth of sweat or saliva on black wolf fur.

  4. ^

    Old French borrowed Frankish *werawulf as garulf or garoul, and then added Old French leu: "wolf" to get the etymologically redundant (or "pleonastic") Old French leu-garoul (Modern French loup-garou).

  5. ^

    Greek lukos, Italic *lukʷos, Paeonian *lukʷ- (probably), and Pashto lewë all have words for "wolf" that show metathesis of *wl̥kʷ- to *lukʷ-. Pashto لېوه lewë is almost certainly an independent metathesis, it probably requires that the metathesis happened after Iranian specific sound changes. But I've shown the others as if they come from a shared metathesis—they may, or it could be up to 4 separate cases of the same metathesis.

    In Greek, the metathesis of *wl̥kʷos to *lukʷos triggered the boukólos rule which dissimilates labiovelars to plain velars next to *u, giving lukos.

    The Latin form would be expected to retain the *kʷ and so have **luquus for "wolf". lupus was probably borrowed from an Oscan-Umbrian language where *kʷ regularly becomes p.

    The Classical Greek spelling of Lycceius's name alternate between Lukkeios, Lukpeios, and Luppeios, so the Paeonian probably retained the *kʷ that had been lost in Classical Greek, having merged with *k, *p, or *t depending on the environment.

    The Paeonian language is extremely poorly attested, so it is difficult to know anything about its relation to other languages. It is Indo-European (or else very influenced by Indo-European), but beyond that little can be said. Paeonia bordered Makedonia, Thrace, and Illyria, so it was probably related to one or more of those languages; but those languages, while better attested than Paeonian, are themselves of uncertain classification within Indo-European.

    Pashto probably went from Iranian *wŕ̥kah to *wŕ̥a to *ŕ̥wa to *ḷ́wa to lewə́. Unlike the other cases of metathesis, the *w did not become syllabic during metathesis, probably because the metathesis much later than the others, in a specifically Southeast Iranian context.

  6. ^

    It is unclear why Lycia is called "Lycia", but whatever the origin of the name, it appears to have been modified by folk-etymology to be derived from Λύκος Lúkos: "Wolf (personal name)" (or else re-named entirely based on folklore)

    Classical Greek Ἀπόλλων Λύκειος/"Apollo Lyceus"/"Lycean Apollo", was probably originally from λύκη: "light, dawn", but was later associated with wolves and Lycia.

    The Lyceum (Λύκειον) at Athens was a sanctuary dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, which was later used as a public exercise area and as a public meeting area for philosophical discussion and teaching. In 335 BCE, Aristotle returned to Athens after having worked for Phillip II and Alexander III ("the Great") of Macedon and founded the Peripatetic School, which met primarily at the Lyceum. From this comes the term "lyceum" as a school or lecture hall.

  7. ^

    New Latin lupus erythematosus means "wolf red-rash"; the "wolf" part refers to the ragged edges of the rash that were considered to look like a wolf bite.