Word Family - Work

Teaser

work, wrought, boulevard, energy, argon, allergy, Demiurge, liturgy, metallurgy, surgeon, organic organize

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *werǵ- to make
    • Proto-Indo-European *wérǵeti makes
      • Albanian argëtój I entertain, I amuse
      • Celtic *wregeti does, makes
        • Brythonic *gwrėɣɨd
          • Welsh gwneud doing, making
          • Pictish ᚒᚏᚏᚐᚉᚈ urract he made
        • Old Irish fairged
    • Proto-Indo-European *wr̥ǵti
      • Indo-Iranian *wr̥šti voicing assimilation from *wr̥ȷ́ti
        • Indo-Iranian *swawr̥šti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀲𑁆𑀯𑀯𑀾𑀱𑁆𑀝𑀺 svávṛṣṭi epithet of Indra
    • Proto-Indo-European *wr̥ǵyéti makes intransitive/deponent imperfective?
      • Germanic *wurkijanã to work, to make
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 waurkjan to work, to make
          • Crimean Gothic warthata made
        • North Germanic ᚹᛟᚱᚨᚺᛏᛟ worahto I made Tune Stone
          • Old Norse yrkja to work, to compose
            • Icelandic yrkja to cultivate, to till
            • English irk
            • Old Norse orka work, strength
              • Danish orke
              • Icelandic orka strength, power, energy
        • West Germanic
          • Old English wyrċan to make, to work, to do
            • English work
        • Finnic *pürkidäk to strive for, to tend to (do)
          • Finnish pyrkiä to strive to, to pursue, to aspire to be, to tend to (do)
        • Samic *përkëtēk to work
          • Northern Sami bargat to do, to work
            • Northern Sami bargu work, job
      • Hellenic *wreďďō
        • Classical Greek ῥέζω rhézō to do, to make, to act
      • Indo-Iranian *wr̥ȷ́yáti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀯𑀾𑀚𑁆𑀬𑀢𑁂 vṛjyáte
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬰𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌 vərəziieiti
    • Proto-Indo-European *wérǵyeti
      • Germanic *wirkijanã to make, to make happen
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse virkja
            • Danish virke to work, to function, to affect, to seem
              • Icelandic virka to work, to function
            • Icelandic virkja to make work, to harness, to exploit
        • West Germanic
          • Frankish
            • Dutch werken
          • Old High German wirken
            • German wirken to work, to function, to seem, to take effect
      • Hellenic *wérďō
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀺𐀽𐀁 wo-ze-e / worzei to work
        • Classical Greek ἔρδω érdō to act, to do, to perform
    • Proto-Indo-European *wr̥ǵtós worked, made adjective
      • Germanic *wurhtaz done, made, happened /past participle of *wurkijaną
        • West Germanic
          • Old English (ġe)worht
            • English wrought
        • Germanic *wurhtijō worker, workman, maker
          • West Germanic
            • Old English wyrhta worker, maker
              • English wright
            • Frankish *wurhto
              • Dutch wrecht worker, builder, wright
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬭𐬱𐬙𐬀 varšta done, complete, worked
    • Proto-Indo-European *wérǵom a work, a making
      • Old Armenian գործ gorc work, deed, action, business, effect
        • Armenian գործ gorc work, job, business
      • Germanic *werką work (noun)
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse verk work
            • Danish værk work, creation
            • Icelandic verk work, chore, creation
            • Old Norse Bǫlverkr Bale-Worker, Evil-Doer (pseudonym of Odin)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English weorc
            • English work
          • Frankish *werk
            • Dutch werk task, job, chore, creation
          • Old High German werc
            • German Werk creation, achievement, factory
          • Old Saxon
            • Middle High German werk
              • Middle High German bolwerk bulwark, stronghold "tree trunk work"
                • Dutch bolwerk
                  • English bulwark
                  • French boulevard
                    • English boulevard
      • Hellenic *wérgon
        • Classical Greek ἔργον érgon work, labor, task, deed, result of work, creation
          • Greek έργο work, project, creation
          • Classical Greek ἐργάτης ergátēs worker, laborer, capstan, winch
            • Greek εργάτης ergátis worker, laborer, servant, capstan, winch
            • Ottoman Turkish ارغات ırgat
              • Turkish ırgat
              • Albanian argat
              • Serbo-Croatian а̀ргат àrgat
          • English ergo-
            • English ergonomic
      • Indo-Iranian *wárȷ́am
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀯𑀭𑁆𑀚 várja
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬰𐬆𐬨 varəzəm
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian wark wickerwork, basketry
    • Proto-Indo-European wérǵos working, a work
      • Celtic *wergos active, lively
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh gwery
        • Gaulish *wergobretos
          • Latin vergobretus
      • Hellenic
        • Classical Greek εργός ergós working, active, complete
          • Classical Greek ἐνεργός energós at work, active
            • Classical Greek ἐνέργειᾰ enérgeia activity, vigor, workmanship, cosmic force
              • Latin energia
                • English energy
                • German Energie
          • Classical Greek ᾰ̓εργός aergós
            • Classical Greek ᾱ̓ργός ārgós not working, idle, lazy, incomplete contraction
              • New Latin argon
                • Translingual Ar
                • English argon
              • Classical Greek λήθᾱργος lḗthārgos forgetful, lethargic
                • Classical Greek ληθᾱργίᾱ lēthārgíā
                  • English lethargy
          • German Allergie allergy learned construction "other-work", based on Energie
            • English allergy
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀊𑀭𑁆𑀚𑁆 ū́rj vigor, strength, sap
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬰 varǝz strength, performance, work, activity
    • Proto-Indo-European *worǵós worker, maker
      • Hellenic *-worgós used in compounds
        • Mycenaean Greek -𐀺𐀒 -wo-ko / -worgos
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀆𐀓𐀶𐀺𐀒 de-ku-to-wo-ko / dektu-worgos net-maker
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀂𐀋𐀫𐀺𐀒 i-je-ro-wo-ko / hiero-worgos priest lit. "holy-worker"
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀓𐀬𐀰𐀺𐀒 ku-ru-so-wo-ko / khruso-worgos goldsmith "gold-worker"
        • Classical Greek -ουργός -ourgós
          • Classical Greek γεωργός geōrgós tilling the ground, farmer "earth-work"
            • Classical Greek Γεώργιος Geṓrgios
              • Latin Geōrgius
                • English George
          • Classical Greek δημῐουργός dēmiourgós skilled worker, craftsman, builder, public engineer, magistrate [1]
            • Koine Greek Δημιουργός Dēmiourgós Demiurge [1]
              • English Demiurge [1]
          • Classical Greek λειτουργός leitourgós public servant "townhall worker"
            • Classical Greek λειτουργία leitourgíā public service, ministration
              • Greek λειτουργία leitourgía function, service, liturgy, Mass
              • Latin lītūrgia liturgy
                • English liturgy
          • Classical Greek μεταλλουργός metallourgós miner, metal-worker
            • French métallurgie
              • English metallurgy
          • Classical Greek χειρουργός kheirourgós craftsman, surgeon "hand-worker"
            • Latin chīrūrgus surgeon
            • Classical Greek χειρουργία kheirourgíā handiwork, handicraft, surgery
              • Latin chīrūrgia surgery
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French surgie
                    • English surgery
                • Latin *chīrurgiānus
                  • Western Romance
                    • Old French surgien
                      • English surgeon
                    • Old French cirurgiien
                      • French chirurgien
                      • Dutch chirurgijn
                      • English chirurgeon
    • Proto-Indo-European *wérǵih₂
      • Celtic *wergā anger
        • Old Irish ferg anger, wrath
          • Irish fearg anger
    • Proto-Indo-European *worǵéh₂
      • Hellenic *worgā́
        • Classical Greek ὀργή orgḗ temper, passion, anger, temperament
          • Greek οργή orgí rage, anger
          • Classical Greek ὀργάω orgáō I am eager, I am excited, I ripen, I am aroused
            • Classical Greek ὀργασμός orgasmós eagerness, arousal, orgasm
              • Greek οργασμός orgasmós
              • French orgasme
                • English orgasm
          • Classical Greek ὀργίζω orgízō I anger, I irritate, I become angry
            • Greek οργίζω orgízo I anger, I enrage
          • Classical Greek ὄργια órgia secret rituals, cultic practices
            • Latin orgia secret revel, festival of Bacchus, orgy
              • French orgie
                • English orgy
    • Proto-Indo-European *worǵnom tool for work
      • Hellenic *worganon
        • Classical Greek ὄργᾰνον órganon tool, instrument, musical instrument, sense organ
          • Greek όργανο órgano body organ, musical instrument, appliance, equipment
          • Aramaic 𐡀𐡅𐡓𐡂𐡍𐡅𐡍 ʾōrganōn instrument, tool, vessel, body organ
          • Old Armenian երգիոն ergion (pipe) organ
            • Armenian երգեհոն ergehon (pipe) organ
          • Latin organum implement, tool, musical instrument
            • French organe organ
              • English organ
            • French orgue (pipe) organ
              • English orgue
              • Persian ارگ org (pipe) organ
            • Latin organicus
              • French organique
                • English organic
            • Medieval Latin organizō I organize
              • French organiser to organize
                • English organize
                • French organisation
                  • English organization
          • Persian ارغنون arğanun (pipe) organ

Visual

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Collected English words

irk, work, wrought, wright, work, bulwark, boulevard, ergo-, ergonomic, energy, Ar, argon, lethargy, allergy, George, Demiurge, liturgy, metallurgy, surgery, surgeon, chirurgeon, orgasm, orgy, organ, orgue, organic, organize, organization

Footnotes

  1. ^

    I always associated the Gnostic "Demiurge" with "demigod", and assumed it was "demi-": "half". But that's a Latin prefix. "Demiurge" actually has the "demi-" meaning "people, public" from "democracy" or "demographic" instead; a dēmiourgós was a public craftsman, often an engineer of public works.