Word Family - Year

Introduction

The PIE word *yóh₁r̥: "year" becomes both the native English "year" and also the Latinate "hour". Fascinatingly, Greek ὥρᾱ hṓrā (whence the Latin) is also borrowed, post-Alexander, into Classical Sanskrit along with the Hellenistic-Babylonian astronomy/astrology, eventually giving such descendants as Thai โหร hǒon: "astrologer, prophet, magician"!

Teaser

year, hour, encore, horoscope

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *yóh₁r̥ year
    • Indo-Iranian *yáHr̥
      • Indo-Aryan *yār
        • Sanskrit *yār
          • Sanskrit 𑀧𑀭𑁆𑀬𑀸𑀭𑀺𑀡𑀻 paryāríṇī calving after a year
      • Iranian *yār
        • Avestan 𐬫𐬁𐬭𐬆 yārə year
        • Iranian *Hhuyārah good year (non-drought year) with PIE *h₁su-
          • Avestan 𐬵𐬎𐬌𐬌𐬁𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀 huiiāiriia good year, non-drought year, good harvest
        • Iranian *dušyārah bad year (drought year) with PIE *dus-
          • Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬲𐬌𐬌𐬁𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀 dužiiāyriia bad year, drought year, bad harvest
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Parthian 𐫅𐫢𐫏𐫀𐫡 dušyār drought
                • Parthian dižyārīft famine
            • Old Persian 𐎯𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐎶 dušiyāram bad year, drought year, bad harvest
    • Proto-Indo-European *yéh₁ros
      • Germanic *jērã year, the rune ᛃ
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌾𐌴𐍂 jēr year, the letter 𐌾
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse ár year, harvest, abundance, the rune ᛡ
            • Danish år year
            • Icelandic ár year
        • West Germanic
          • Old English ġēar year, the rune ᛡ
            • English year
            • Old English ġeāra long ago "of years"?
              • English yore
          • Frankish *jār
            • Dutch jaar year
              • Sranan Tongo yari year
          • Old High German jār year
            • German Jahr year
            • Yiddish יאָר yor year
        • English Jera the rune ᛃ/ᛡ/ᛄ/ᛅ
    • Proto-Indo-European *yóh₁ros
      • Balto-Slavic *jāˀrā́ˀ
        • Slavic *jȃro spring
          • East Slavic ꙗра jara spring
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ја̏ра jȁra spring
          • West Slavic
            • Polish jar spring
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ὥρᾱ hṓrā any period of time, season, climate, time of day, youth
          • Koine Greek
            • Greek ώρα óra hour, time
            • Latin hōra hour, time, season
              • Sardinian òra
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian oară time, instant, instance
                • Albanian herë time
              • Western Romance
                • Old French ore
                  • French heure hour, time, o'clock
                    • Haitian Creole hour, when
                  • Middle English
                    • English hour
                      • Hausa awa hour
                    • Scots oor hour
                • Italian ora hour, time, now
                • Spanish hora hour, time, appointment
                  • Cebuano oras hour, duration, instant
                  • Quechua ura hour
                  • Tagalog oras time, hour
                    • Tagalog orasan clock, to time
              • Latin ad hanc hōram at this hour, at this time
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Dalmatian junkaura still
              • Latin in hanc hōram at this hour, at this time
                • Western Romance
                  • French encore still, again, yet
                    • English encore
                  • Italian ancora still, again, more, yet, even
              • Latin hāc hōram as of this hour, as of this time
                • Western Romance
                  • Spanish ahora now
              • Albanian orë hour, clock
              • Basque oren hour
              • Brythonic *ọr
                • Welsh awr hour
              • Old Irish úar hour, time, occasion
                • Irish uair hour, time
              • Latin ad illam hōram at that hour
                • Western Romance
                  • French alors then, so, hence
                  • Italian allora so, well then, then, at the time
                  • Spanish alora then, at that moment
            • Sanskrit 𑀳𑁄𑀭𑀸 horā rising of an astrological sign, hour, mark, horoscope, astrology
              • Pali 𑀳𑁄𑀭𑀸 horā
                • Burmese ဟူးရား hu:ra: astrology, astrologer, soothsayer
                • Old Khmer
                  • Thai โหร hǒon astrologer, prophet, magician
              • Hindi होरा horā astrology, hora
              • Telugu హోర hōra hour
              • Middle Chinese 火羅 hua la astrology, hora
              • English hora
            • Koine Greek ὡρολόγιον hōrológion clock, mechanism for telling time
              • Greek ρολόι rolói clock, timepiece, wristwatch, clock tower, meter
              • Latin horologium clock, mechanism for telling time, waterclock, sundial
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian orologiu clock
                • Western Romance
                  • Old French
                    • French horloge clock, timepiece
                    • Dutch horloge watch
                      • Malay arloji watch
                    • English horologe
                  • Italian orologio clock
                  • Old Occitan relotge
                    • Basque erloju clock, watch
                    • Spanish reloj clock, watch
                      • Tagalog reló watch
                  • Sicilian ralogiu clock, watch
                    • Maltese arloġġ clock
                • Latin horologia
                  • English horology
            • Koine Greek ὡροσκόπος hōroskópos
              • Medieval Latin horoscopus
                • French horoscope
                  • English horoscope
            • English horo-
      • Italic *jōros year
        • Italic *jōrnos year (attributive)
          • Italic *ho-jōrnos this year (attributive), this year's
            • Latin hōrnus this year's, grown this year

Visual

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Collected English words

year, yore, Jera, hour, encore, hora, horologe, horology, horoscope, horo-