Word Family - Ankylosaurus

April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

Introduction

Ankylosaurus! And as an unexpected bonus, I found Azhdarchid pterosaurs deep in the family, too. Pterosaurs are probably my very favorite Mesozoic animals (stay tuned for next week!). Also in this family: various spiders and snakes and fears and sins in various languages.

I include words here that are formally reconstructed to five different roots: 1) *h₂enk-: "to curve, to bend, joint"; 2) *h₂enǵʰ-: "to constrict, to tighten, narrow, distress"; 3) *h₂egʰ-: "to be upset, to be afraid"; 4) *h₂engʷʰ-: "snake, eel, water worm"; 5) *h₃égʷʰ-: "snake, serpent, dragon". Looking at that list, it seems clear at least some of those are related to each other.

Teaser

Ankylosaurus, English, angst, ugly, eel, ophidiophobia, Azhdarcho

Full Text

  • ?
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂enk- to curve, to bend, joint
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énkti primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अञ्चती áñcati to curve, to make round, to wander
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂n̥kos bent adjective
        • Celtic *ankos
          • Brythonic *ank
            • Brythonic *kraβ̃-ank
              • Welsh crafanc talon, claw
          • Celtic *ankotos
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh anghad hand, grasp
            • Old Irish écath fishhook
        • Italic
          • Latin ancus
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अंकुश aṃkuśa hook, goad
          • Iranian
            • Western Iranian
              • Persian آکج âkej hook
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂n̥krós bent adjective
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂n̥kreh₂ feminine
          • Hellenic
            • Ancient Greek ἄγκῡρα ánkūra anchor, hook
              • Greek άγκυρα ágkyra anchor
              • Latin ancora hook
                • Western Romance
                  • French ancre anchor
                    • English anchor
                  • Italian ancora anchor
                  • Spanish ancla anchor
                    • Tagalog angkla anchor
              • Persian لنگر langar anchor
                • Arabic أَنْجَر ʾanjar anchor
              • Ancient Greek Ἄγκῡρα Ánkūra Ancyra/Angora/Ankara
                • Greek Άγκυρα Ágkyra Ankara
                • Latin Ancȳra Ankara
                  • Western Romance
                    • Italian Angora Ankara
                      • English angora
                • Ottoman Turkish انقره Anqarah Ankara
                  • Turkish Ankara
                    • English Ankara
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énkōs bend, turn resultative noun
        • Hellenic *ánkos
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́γκος ánkos bend, hollow, valley
        • Indo-Iranian *Hánkas
          • Indo-Aryan *Hankás
            • Sanskrit अङ्क aṅká curve, hook, hip, curved line, number
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi अंक aṅk number, mark, point
                    • Hindi आंकड़ा āṅkṛā numerical, statistical
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ónkos bend, turn agentive noun
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian anka loop, ring
          • Slavic *ǫkotь hook
            • East Slavic укоть ukotĭ claw, anchor
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic ѫкоть ǫkotĭ
            • Slavic *pàǭkъ spider "hook-leg"
              • East Slavic паукъ paukŭ spider
                • Russian пау́к paúk spider
                  • Russian Челове́к-пау́к Čelovék-paúk Spider-man
                • Ukrainian паву́к pavúk spider
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic паѫкъ paǫkŭ
                • Serbo-Croatian па̏ӯк pȁūk spider
              • West Slavic
                • Polish pająk spider
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὄγκος ónkos curve, angle, hook, barb
        • Italic
          • Latin uncus hook, barb, hooked, curved
            • Latin aduncus hooked, curved
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian adânc deep, profound, serious
              • Western Romance
                • Italian adunco hooked
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ónkustos?
        • Indo-Iranian *Hangúštʰas
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अङ्गुष्ठ aṅgúṣṭha thumb, big toe
              • Maharashtri 𑀅𑀁𑀕𑀼𑀝𑁆𑀞 aṃguṭṭha
                • Marathi अंगठा ãṅgaṭhā thumb, big toe
              • Pali aṅguṭṭha thumb
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi अंगूठा aṅgūṭhā thumb, big toe
                • Pahari
                  • Nepali औंठी aũṭhī (finger) ring
          • Iranian
            • Avestan aṇgušta toe
            • Western Iranian
              • Persian انگشت angošt finger
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂enkulos? joint
        • Old Armenian անգղ angł handle, vulture
          • Armenian անգղ angł vulture
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *ǫ̑gъlъ corner, angle
            • East Slavic оугълъ ugŭlŭ
              • Russian у́гол úgol corner, angle
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic ѫгълъ ǫgŭlŭ angle
              • Serbo-Croatian у̏гао ȕgao corner, angle
            • West Slavic
              • Polish węgieł corner, keystone
        • Germanic *ankulaz
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse ǫkkla
              • Icelandic ökkli ankle
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *ancel
              • Old English anclēow ankle modification by association with "claw"
              • English ankle
            • Frankish
              • Dutch enkel ankle
            • Old High German ankala ankle
              • Luxembourgish Enkel ankle
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀγκύλος ankúlos cooked, curved, intricate, wily
            • Ancient Greek ἀγκυλόω ankulóo I bend, I make crooked
              • Ancient Greek ἀγκύλωσις ankúlōsis stiffening of joints lit. "bent condition"
                • English ankylosis
                  • English ankylo- bent, crooked, stiff, fused
                    • Translingual Ankylosaurus genus of ornithischian dinosaur refers to fusion of bones via ankylosis, not directly to "crooked"
        • Indo-Iranian *Hanguri-
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अङ्गुरि aṅgúri finger, toe
            • Sanskrit अङ्गुली aṅgulī finger
        • Italic
          • Latin angulus corner, angle
            • Sardnian àngolo
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian unghi angle
            • Western Romance
              • French angle angle
                • English angle
              • Italian angolo angle, corner
              • Spanish ángulo angle
              • Welsh ongl angle
            • Latin triangulus three-cornered
              • Latin triangulum triangle
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian triunghi triangle
                • Western Romance
                  • French triangle
                    • English triangle
                  • Italian triangolo triangle
                  • Spanish triángulo triangle
            • Latin quādrangulus four-cornered
              • Latin quadrangulum quadrangle
                • French quadrangle
                  • English quadrangle
                    • English quad
      • Proto-Indo-European noun *h₂énkō
        • Germanic *angô bend, crook, hook, angle
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic *agga
              • Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌻𐍃𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌰 halsagga neck
              • Galician anga handle
                • Galician angazo hand rake
                • Galician angarela windlass, crank
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German ango hook, angle, narrowly
              • German Ange hinge
          • Germanic *angulō hook, fishhook diminutive
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse ǫngull hook, fishhook
                • Icelandic öngull hook, fishhook
            • West Germanic
              • Old English angul
                • English angle
              • Frankish *angul
                • Dutch angel stinger, fishhook, tang
                  • Dutch voetangel caltrop lit. "foot-stinger"
                • Dutch hengel fishing rod
              • Old High German angel
                • German Angel fishhook, hinge, fishing rod
                  • German angeln to angle, to fish
                  • German Fußangel caltrop
                  • German Türangel door hinge
            • Germanic *? Angles/Anglia (Peninsula) [1]
              • West Germanic
                • Old English Engle Angle
                  • Old English Englisc
                    • English English
                  • Old English Engla land England "Angles' land"
                    • English England
                • Old High German
                  • German Angeln Anglia (Peninsula)
              • Latin Anglus Angle
                • English Angle
                  • English anglo-
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂enkuleh₂
        • Germanic *anhulō strap
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse ǫ́l
              • Icelandic ól leather belt or strap
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *ōl
              • Old English ōlþwong whip, scourge
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀγκύλη ankúlē belt
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂n̥kyós?
        • Old Armenian անկիւն ankiwn angle, corner, nook
          • Armenian անկյուն ankyun angle, corner, nook
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- to constrict, to tighten, narrow, distress
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énǵʰ-eti primary verb
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἄγχω ánkhō I compress, I choke, I pressure
            • Ancient Greek κῠνάγχη kunánkhē dog collar, sore throat, tonsilitis
              • Latin cynanchē tonsilitis
                • English cynache
                • Medieval Latin quinancia
                  • Old French quinencie
                    • English quinsy
        • Italic *anɣō
          • Latin angō I bind, I press together, I choke, I cause pain
            • Latin angina choking, suffocation
              • English angina
            • Latin ānxius troubled, uneasy, anxious
              • Western Romance
                • French anxieux anxious, apprehensive
                • Italian ansioso anxious, apprehensive, eager
                • Spanish ansioso anxious, eager
              • English anxious
              • Latin ānxietās anxiety, caution
                • Western Romance
                  • French anxiété anxiety
                    • English anxiety
                  • Italian ansietà anxiety, yearning
                  • Spanish ansiedad anxiety
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énǵʰus narrow, tight
        • Old Armenian անձուկ anjuk narrow, difficult, strait, anxiety, wish
          • Armenian անձուկ anjuk narrow, strait, constrained, wish [2]
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian añkštas tight
          • Slavic *ǫzъkъ
            • East Slavic оузъкъ uzŭkŭ
              • Russian у́зкий úzkij narrow, tight
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic ѫзъкъ ǫzŭkŭ tight, narrow
              • Serbo-Croatian у̏зак ȕzak narrow, strait, tight
            • West Slavic
              • Polish wąski narrow, tight
          • Finnic *ahtas narrow, cramped
            • Finnish ahdas tight, narrow, restrictive, cramped
        • Celtic *angus narrow
          • Brythonic
            • Breton enk too small, too narrow
            • Welsh ing anguish, distress
          • Celtic *kom-ingus
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh cyfyng narrow, confined, difficult, limited
            • Old Irish cumung narrow, constricted
              • Irish cúng narrow
        • Germanic *anguz narrow, tight, choked
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌿𐍃 aggwus narrow, strait
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌹𐌸𐌰 aggwiþa distress, anguish
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse ǫngr narrow
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ange tight, painful
              • Old English angnæġl hangnail lit. "painful (finger
                • English hangnail
            • Frankish
              • Dutch eng
                • Dutch engte narrowness, difficulty
            • Old High German engi narrow, narrowness
              • German eng narrow, tight
              • Yiddish ענג eng narrow, crowded
          • Germanic *angustiz
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish *angust
                • Dutch angst
              • Old High German angist
                • German Angst fear, fright, anxiety
                  • English angst [3]
              • Old Saxon *angust
                • Old Norse angist
                  • Danish angst fear, apprehension, anxiety, angst
                    • English angst [3]
                  • Icelandic angist anguish
          • Germanic *? Angles/Anglia (Peninsula) [1]
        • Indo-Iranian *Hánĵʰuš
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अंहु áṃhu narrow, anxiety, distress
        • Italic *angus
          • Italic *angustos
            • Latin angustus narrow, close, confined, small
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian îngust narrow, tight, thin
                • Albanian ngushtë narrow
              • Western Romance
                • Italian angusto narrow
                • Spanish angosto narrow, reduced
                  • Spanish angostura narrowness, narrow passage, narrows
                    • Spanish Angostura place name city in Venezuela at the narrows of the Orinoco River, now called Ciudad Bolívar
                      • English Angostura bitters
              • Latin angustō I narrow, I make smaller
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian îngusta to narrow, to tighten, to shrink
                  • Albanian ngushtoj I narrow
                • Western Romance
                  • Spanish angostar to narrow
              • Latin angustia narrowness, confinement, difficulties, brevity, deprivation
                • Western Romance
                  • French angoisse anguish, distress, dread, angst
                    • English anguish
                  • Italian angoscia anguish
                  • Spanish angoja grief, anguish
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énǵʰos
        • Germanic *angazaz worry, grief, anxiety
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse angr sorrow, distress, resentment, affliction, injury
              • Danish anger regret, remorse
              • Icelandic angur trouble
              • English anger
            • Finnic *ankeda
              • Finnish ankea dreary, dismal
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀγχοῦ ankhoû near, nearby preposition, probably derived from a genitive form
        • Indo-Iranian *Hánĵʰas
          • Indo-Aryan *Hánźʰas
            • Sanskrit अंहस् áṃhas anxiety, trouble, sin
          • Iranian *Hanĵah
            • Avestan ązah tightness, constriction, anxiety
      • Proto-Indo-European ?
        • Old Armenian անձաւ anjaw cave, den
          • Armenian անձավ anjav cave
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʰ- to be upset, to be afraid
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₂ógʰe to be upset, to be afraid stative
          • Celtic *āgetor to fear, to dread
            • Old Irish ad·ágathar to fear, to dread, to be in awe of
          • Germanic *aganą to fear, to be afraid
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍉𐌲𐌰𐌽 ōgan to fear, to be afraid
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₂ogʰéy-eti to scare causative
          • Germanic *ōgijaną
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍉𐌲𐌾𐌰𐌽 ōgjan to scare
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse œgja
              • Old Norse œgr terrible
                • Old Norse Yggr Terrible (epithet of Odin)
                  • Old Norse Yggdrassil
                    • English Yggdrassil
                • French ogre [4]
                  • English ogre
            • West Germanic
              • Old English onœ̄ġan
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂égʰos distress
          • Germanic *agaz
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌹𐍃 agis fear
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse agi awe, terror, uproar, constraint, discipline
                • Danish ave discipline
                • Icelandic agi discipline
                • English awe
                  • English awful
                  • English awesome
              • Old Norse uggr fear, apprehension, dread
            • Germanic *agazlīkaz fearsome, frightening-looking "awe-like"
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse uggligr fearful, dreadful
                  • Icelandic ugglegur
                  • English ugly
              • West Germanic
                • Frankish *egislīk
                  • Dutch ijselijk
                    • Dutch ijzingwekkend frightening
                • Old Saxon egislīk terrifying, horrible
                  • Low German aislik horrible, gruesome, ugly
                • Mycenaean 𐀀𐀑𐀩𐀄 a-ki-re-u personal name, Achilles?
                • Ancient Greek Ἀχιλλεύς Akhilleús
          • Hellenic *akhos
            • Ancient Greek ἄχος ákhos distress, pain, grief
            • Hellenic *Akhílāu̯os Achilles lit. "Grief of the People"?
          • Indo-Iranian *Hagʰás bad, evil
            • Indo-Aryan *Hagʰás
              • Sanskrit अघ aghá bad, evil, sinful, dangerous
                • Pali agha
                • Sauraseni 𑀅𑀳 aha
                  • Madhya
                  • Hindi अह ah
            • Iranian
              • Avestan aγa evil
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʰlos distressing, repulsive
          • Germanic *agluz upsetting, offensive, burdensome
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌿𐍃 aglus difficult
            • Germanic *aglijaną to offend, to damage
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌽 agljan to hurt, to damage
              • West Germanic
                • Old English eġlan to trouble, to pain, to afflict
                  • English ail
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eg- guilt, penance?
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti primary verb
            • Germanic *akaną to ache
              • West Germanic
                • Old English acan to ache
                  • English ache [5]
              • Germanic *akiz an ache
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English eċe ache
                    • English ache [5]
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵos action/result noun
            • Hellenic
              • Ancient Greek ἄγος ágos awe, reverence, curse, guilt, penance
            • Indo-Iranian
              • Indo-Aryan *Hā́gas
                • Sanskrit आगस् ā́gas injury, sin, fault
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂engʷʰ- snake, eel, water worm
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éngʷʰis
        • Old Armenian աւձ awj
          • Armenian օձ ōj snake, serpent
        • Old Armenian
          • Armenian անգի angi thin, emaciated
        • Balto Slavic *angis
          • Lithuanian angis viper
          • Slavic *ǫ̃žь
            • East Slavic ꙋжь užĭ
              • Russian уж grass snake
            • West Slavic wąż
        • Celtic
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh llysywen eel
          • Old Irish escong
            • Irish eascann eel, snake, reptile
        • Indo-Iranian *Hánǰʰiš
          • Iranian *Hánǰiš
            • Persian یغنیج yağni grass snake
        • Italic
          • Latin anguis snake, serpent, dragon
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éngʷʰileh₂? eel
      • Pre-Albanian *engellā
        • Albanian ngjalë eel
        • Pre-Albanian *ts-engellā
          • Albanian thnegël ant
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἔγχελῠς énkhelus eel should be ánkhelus, but influenced by ékhis?
          • Greek χέλι chéli eel
      • Italic
        • Latin anguilla eel, small snake
          • Sardinian anguidda
          • Eastern Romance
            • Dalmatian anǧola eel
          • Western Romance
            • French anguille eel
            • Italian anguilla eel
            • Spanish anguila eel
          • Translingual Anguilla a taxonomic genus of eels
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂n̥gʷʰos
        • Germanic *unkʷô snake
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German unc snake
              • German Unke fire-bellied toad
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂engʷʰrós
        • Balto-Slavic *angurios
          • Lithuanian ungurỹs eel
          • Slavic *ǫgorjь eel
            • East Slavic
              • Russian у́горь úgorʹ eel
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic ѫгорищь ǫgorištĭ
              • Serbo-Croatian у̀гор ùgor eel, conger
            • West Slavic
              • Polish węgorz eel
                • Yiddish ווענגער venger eel
          • Finnic
            • Finnish ankerias eel
        • Germanic *angraz
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German angar mealworm, grub
              • Old High German engiring
                • German Engerling maggot
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃égʷʰis snake, serpent, dragon
      • Old Armenian իժ viper
        • Armenian իժ viper, snake
      • Germanic agiz snake, lizard
        • Germanic *egalaz leech
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse *iglr
              • Danish igler leeches
              • Icelandic iglur leeches
          • West Germanic
            • Frankish
              • Dutch echel leech
            • Old High German egala leech
              • German Egel leech
        • Germanic *agiþahsijǭ lizard, newt lit. "badger-lizard"
          • West Germanic
            • Old English āþexe
              • English ask
            • Frankish *egithassa
              • Dutch hagedis
                • Sranan Tongo lagadisa
            • Old High German egidehsa
              • German Eidechse
                • German Echse
                • Yiddish עקדיש ekdish scorpion
          • Germanic *ēlaz
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse áll eel
                • Danish ål eel
                • Icelandic áll eel, river channel
            • West Germanic
              • Old English ǣl eel
                • English eel
                • Old English ǣlfær migration of eels lit. "eel journey"
                  • English elver
              • Frankish *āl
                • Dutch aal eel, elver
              • Old High German āl
                • German Aal eel
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ὄφῐς óphis serpent, snake
          • Koine Greek ὀφίδιον ophídion
            • Greek φίδι fídi snake
            • English ophidiophobia
          • English ophiophobia
      • Indo-Iranian *Háǰʰiš snake
        • Indo-Aryan *Háźʰiṣ
          • Sanskrit अहि áhi
            • Pali ahi
              • Tagalog ahas snake
        • Iranian *Háǰiš
          • Avestan aži
            • Avestan Aži Dahāka
              • Parthian až-δahāg
                • Persian اژدها aždahâ dragon
                  • Armenian աժդահա aždaha monstrous giant
                  • Hindi अज़दहा azdahā dragon
                  • Ottoman Turkish اژدرها ejderha dragon
                    • Turkish ejderha dragon
                    • Serbo-Croatian ажда̀ха aždàha dragon
                • Persian اژدر aždar dragon
                  • Translingual Azhdarcho a taxonomic genus of pterosaur
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Kurdish ažî bug, worm, snake
      • Phrygian
        • Ancient Greek ἔχις ékhis snake, adder, viper
          • Ancient Greek ἔχιδνᾰ ékhidna viper
            • Greek έχιδνα échidna adder, viper, echidna
            • Ancient Greek Ἔχιδνα Ekhidna
              • English Echidna
              • English echidna
      • Tocharian
        • Kushean auk snake, serpent

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

anchor, angora, Ankara, ankle, ankylosis, ankylo-, Ankylosaurus, angle, triangle, quadrangle, quad, angle, English, England, Angle, anglo-, cynache, quinsy, angina, anxious, anxiety, hangnail, angst, Angostura bitters, anguish, anger, Yggdrassil, ogre, awe, awful, awesome, ugly, ail, ache, Anguilla, ask, eel, elver, ophidiophobia, ophiophobia, Azhdarcho, Echidna, echidna

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Anglia/Anglen Peninsula, the homeland of the Angles before they settled England. There are three possibilities for the origin of the name of the place/people:

    1) "fishhook", referring to the shape of the peninsula,

    2) "fisherman", referring to the industry of the people, or

    3) "narrow", referring to the Flensburg Firth/Fjord between the Anglia Peninsula to the south and the Als/Sonderberg region to the north.

  2. ^

    Armenian անձուկ anjuk is a homonym pair: on the one hand "narrow, constrained, wish" (cognate to angst and anguish) and on the other hand an-+juk: "fishless" (equivalent to a Greek formation of "an-icthyan"). I wish for fish.

  3. ^

    English angst is adopted in the 19th C via Freud's German and Kierkegaard's Danish.

  4. ^

    The general guess is that French ogre is from Italian orco (with metathesis), from Latin Orcus, god of the underworld. The related flesh-eating monsters orc and orca almost certainly are. But since the French ogre is first attested not until 1697 in Perrault's fairy tales, and is apparently a literary invention, it seems worth asking whether it could instead be related to nearly Old Norse œgr: "terrifying" or œgir: "terrifier".

  5. ^

    Originally the noun and verb of "ache" were pronounced and spelled differently: ake eık (verb), ache eıtʃ (noun), comparable to speak/speech. The pronunciation of the noun merged with the verb, and the spelling of the verb merged with the noun. Possibly under the influence of Greek ákhos of much the same meaning.