Word Family - Arctic

Introduction

Here I'm following Blažek's compelling argument (2017) to derive *h₂ŕ̥Tk̑os from *h₂r̥dh₂éḱh₃-s: "bee-eater", similar to many later words for bear that mean things like "honey eater", "honey pig", "thief of bees", "bee bear", "bee wolf", … . This instead of the traditional connection to Sanskrit 𑀭𑀓𑁆𑀱𑀲𑁆 rákṣas and Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬀𐬵 rašah, both "harm, destruction".

Per Blažek, *h₂r̥dh₂éḱh₃-s gets to *h₂ŕ̥dk̑os by a series of common changes: levelling of the inflection paradigm from a hysterokinetic genitive *h₂r̥dh₂ḱh₃-ós, plus regular absorption of the *h₃ by the *o and regular CHCC > CCC deleting the middle *h₂ (see also in *h₂eḱneti).

Teaser

Arthur, arctic, Ursus arctos

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂erd(i)- edge, point
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂erdih₁yéti
      • Germanic *artijanã to provoke, to annoy, to sting
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse erta
            • Danish erte
            • Icelandic erta to irritate, to tease, to provoke
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂órdis point, sting noun
      • Indo-Iranian *Hórdiš
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀮𑀺 ali bumble bee, scorpion, crow, enemy
            • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀮𑀺𑀦𑁆 alin Scorpio
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂érdis point, sting e-grade variant of noun
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἄρδῐς árdis point of an arrow
  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱh₃- to eat
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱneti regular CHCC > CCC from *h₂eḱh₃neti
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀰𑁆𑀦𑀸𑀢𑀺 aśnāti to eat
        • Iranian
          • Avestan
            • Avestan kahrkāsa vulture lit. "hen-eater"? but possibly an augmentive suffix instead
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Parthian 𐫀𐫘 ʾs to eat
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱnos hungry, gluttonous
      • Indo-Iranian *Háćnas
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀰𑁆𑀦 aśna gluttonous
        • Finnic *ahnas
          • Finnish ahnas gluttonous
    • Proto-Indo-European h₂eḱh₃ono an eating action noun
      • Germanic *agana
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse agn bait
            • Danish agn bait
            • Icelandic agn bait
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀰𑀦 aśana eating, meal
    • Proto-Indo-European h₂eḱHolos?
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἄκολος ákolos morsel, crumb, small bit of food
      • Phrygian ακκολος akkolos eat?
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥dh₂éḱh₃s bear lit. "bee-eater"
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒄯𒁖𒂵𒀸 ḫar-tág-ga-aš bear
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥dk̑os [1]
        • Pre-Albanian *artsa bear
          • Old Albanian ar bear
            • Albanian ari bear back-formed from Old Albanian plural
        • Old Armenian արջ arǰ bear irregular -ǰ-, possibly contamination from arǰn: "black"
          • Armenian արջ arǰ bear
        • Celtic *artos bear
          • Brythonic *arθ
            • Welsh arth bear
          • Celtiberian
            • Basque hartz bear
          • Gaulish *artos
            • Gaulish *Artio
              • Latin Artio Gaulish bear divinity
          • Old Irish art bear, warrior
          • Noric *Artes
            • Noric 𐌀𐌓𐌕𐌄𐌁𐌖𐌈𐌆 Artebudz Bear-? (personal name) [1]
          • Celtic *Artorīxs Bear-King (personal name)
            • Brythonic *Arθorīɣ
              • Welsh Arthur [2]
                • English Arthur [2]
            • Gaulish *Artorīx
              • Gaulish *Artorīgios (son) of Artorīx
                • Latin Artorius
                  • Welsh Arthur [2]
                    • English Arthur [2]
          • Celtic *Artognọw Bear-Wisdom (personal name)
            • Brythonic Artognou
              • Old Breton Artgnou
        • Hellenic *árktos
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀏 a-ka
            • Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρκᾰ́ς Arkás Arcas, an Arcadian
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀏𐀆 a-ka-de Arcadia
              • Ancient Greek Ἀρκᾰδίᾱ Arkadíā Arcadia
                • Greek Αρκαδία Arkadía
                • Latin Arcadia
                  • English Arcadia
                  • French Arcadie
                    • French Acadie
                      • English Acadia
                      • French Acadien
                        • French Cadien
                          • English Cajun
                • Coptic ⲧⲀⲣⲕⲁⲇⲓⲁ tArkadia Arcadia
            • Byzantine Greek ἀρκούδα arkoúda
              • Greek αρκούδα arkoúda bear
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀳𐀖𐀵 a-te-mi-to Artemis [3]
              • Ancient Greek Ἄρτεμις Ártemis
                • Latin Artemis
                  • English Artemis
                • Ancient Greek ἀρτεμισία artemisía
                  • Latin artemisia mugwort
                    • Western Romance
                      • French armoise mugwort
                    • Translingual Artemisia taxonomic genus of mugwort and related plants
                    • English artemisia
                  • Ancient Greek Ἀρτεμῑσῐ́ᾱ Artemīsíā (woman) of Artemis (personal name)
                    • Greek Αρτεμισία Artemisía
                    • Latin Artemisia
                • Ancient Greek Ἀρτεμῑ́σιον Artemī́sion (place) of Artemis, Artemisium
                  • Greek Αρτεμίσιο Artemísio Artemisium
                  • Latin Artemisium
                    • English Artemisium
                • Ancient Greek Ἀρτεμῑ́σῐος Artemī́sios (month) of Artemis, a month in some ancient Greek calendars, April [4]
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́ρκτος árktos bear, north "north" from the position of Ursa Major in the sky
            • Ancient Greek άρκτος árktos bear
            • Ancient Greek Ἄρκτος Árktos Ursa Major
              • Latin Arctus Ursa Major, north
            • Translingual Ursus arctos taxonomic species name of the brown bear
            • Ancient Greek ἀρκτικός arktikós having to do with Ursa Major, northern
              • Latin arcticus northern, arctic
                • French arctique
                  • English arctic
              • Ancient Greek ἀνταρκτικός antarktikós south, antarctic "away from the bear"
                • Latin antarcticus
                  • English antarctic
                  • Latin Antarctica
                    • English Antarctica
            • Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρκτοῦρος Arktoûros Arcturus (the star) lit. "Bear-Watcher", a star near Ursa Major
              • Greek Αρκτούρος Arktoúros Arcturus
              • Latin Arctūrus Arcturus (the star), Boötes (the constellation) [2]
                • English Arcturus
                  • Japanese アークトゥルス Ākuturusu Arcturus
                • French Arcturus Arcturus
                • Spanish Arturo Arcturus [2]
                • Welsh Arthur [2]
                  • English Arthur [2]
            • Ancient Greek ἄρκῐον árkion burdock lit. "little bear"
              • Translingual Arctium taxonomic genus name of burdock
        • Indo-Iranian *Hŕ̥ćšas
          • Indo-Aryan *Hŕ̥ćṣas
            • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀓𑁆𑀱 ṛ́kṣa bear, ape, constellation, star, astrological mansion
              • Pali 𑀅𑀘𑁆𑀙 accha bear
              • Sauraseni 𑀭𑀺𑀘𑁆𑀙 riccha
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi रीछ rīch bear
              • West Indo-Aryan
                • Romani rish bear
              • Thai ฤกษ์ rə̂ək bear, Ursa Major, star
            • Dardic
              • Kalasha ič̣ bear
          • Iranian *Hŕ̥šah
            • Avestan ​​𐬀𐬭𐬴𐬀 arṣ̌a bear
            • Northern Iranian
              • Saka
                • Khotani arrä bear
              • Sogdian ašša bear
              • Scythian
                • Ossetian арс ars bear
            • Pashto يږ yëģ bear
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish hirç bear
              • Old Persian
                • Persian خرس xers bear
          • Nuristani *írca
            • Kamviri bear
            • Ashkun bear
          • Finnic *karhu
            • Finnish karhu bear
        • Italic *orssos
          • Latin ursus bear
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian urs bear
                • Romanian ursar bear tamer
                  • Vlax Romani Vursari [5]
                  • English Ursari
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • French ours bear
                • Old French urson bear cub
                  • French ourson bear cub
                  • Anglo-Norman Orson Bear Cub (personal name)
                    • English Orson
              • Italian orso bear
              • Spanish oso bear
            • Translingual Ursus taxonomic genus of bears
              • Translingual Ursus arctos taxonomic species name of the brown bear
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ordk̑éh₂ she-bear
          • Albanian arushë she-bear
          • Italic *orssā she-bear
            • Latin ursa she-bear
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian ursă she-bear
              • Western Romance
                • French ourse she-bear
                • Italian orsa she-bear
                • Spanish osa she-bear
              • Latin Ursa Major
                • English Ursa Major
              • Latin Ursula Little She-Bear (personal name)
                • English Ursula
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥tḱwéh₂
          • Balto-Slavic *irśtwā́ˀ
            • East Baltic
              • Lithuanian irštvà bear's den

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

Arthur, Arthur, Arcadia, Acadia, Cajun, Artemis, Artemisia, artemisia, Artemisium, Ursus arctos, arctic, antarctic, Antarctica, Arcturus, Arthur, Arctium, Ursari, Orson, Ursus, Ursus arctos, Ursa Major, Ursula

Footnotes

  1. ^

    The Noric name 𐌀𐌓𐌕𐌄𐌁𐌖𐌈𐌆 Artebudz has a disputed second element. It may be "Bear-Victory", "Bear-Lips", or "Bear-Penis".

  2. ^

    There are many possible sources of the name Arthur, almost all of them derive from *h₂ŕ̥dk̑os: "bear"

    It could derive natively from Brythonic, in which case it is probably from Celtic *Artorīxs: "Bear-King".

    Or it could be from Latin, as there is no evidence of anyone named "Arthur" until the 5th century at the earliest, shortly after the end of the Roman occupation of Brittain. If it is Latin, it could be from the Latin family name Artorius (of indeterminate origin and meaning) which would become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh. Latin Artorius may well derive from the patronymic of the equivalent a Gaulish version of the same "Bear-King" name, *Arto-rīg-ios: "(son) of (the) Bear-King".

    Finally, it could be from Latin Arctūrus, borrowed from Greek "Bear-Watcher, Bear-Guard".

    The folk etymology of Welsh Arth-(g)wr (Brythonic *arθ(o)gwur): "bear-man" is almost certainly wrong. There is a fair amount of evidence from Welsh poetry that the name always rhymed with -ur and not -wr.

  3. ^

    The name Artemis (Ancient Greek Ἄρτεμις Ártemis, Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀳𐀖𐀵 a-te-mi-to) is of unknown origin, but given how often bears show up in the mythology and cultic practices around Artemis suggests there is some kind of connection to ᾰ̓́ρκτος árktos, either original or by folk etymology.

  4. ^

    Ἀρτεμῑ́σῐος Artemī́sios was a month name in some ancient Greek calendars, including the Corinthian and Macedonian calendars. The Corinthian month names, including Artemī́sios, are inscribed on the Antikythera mechanism

  5. ^

    Ursari or Vursari are an ethnic group of Romani, descended from enslaved Romani in Wallachia (now Romania, no relation to Romani). The Usari was among the groups allowed to retain their nomadic lifestyle, and usually worked as travelling performers, including with dancing bears, thus the name borrowed from Romanian ursar: "bear tamer".