Word Family - Loud

Introduction

*ḱel-: "to lean", which gives us *ḱlew-: "to hear". The connection is most explicit in *h₂eus-ḱl̥teh₂ye-ti, literally: "leans an ear", which gives Latin auscultō: "I listen, I hear, I heed, I obey".

There is also *ḱel- and *ḱley- meaning "to shelter, to cover". It's easy to imagine that "lean" and "cover" could be related.

Teaser

scout, cobalt, decline, climate, lean, ladder, loud, Louis, Lutheran, slave, ciao, Cleopatra, Hercules, listen

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *ḱel- to lean, to slope, to incline
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eus-ḱl̥teh₂ye-ti leans an ear
      • Italic *auskultā
        • Latin auscultō I listen, I hear, I heed, I obey
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a asculta to listen, to hear
          • Western Romance
            • Old French escouter to listen
              • French écouter to listen
              • English scout
            • Italian ascoltare to listen
            • Spanish escuchar to listen
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱóltos sloping, inclined
      • Germanic *halþaz sloping, inclined
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *halþs
            • Gothic 𐍅𐌹𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌷𐌰𐌻𐌸𐌴𐌹 wiljahalþei partisanship, bias, partiality
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse hallr slope, hill, rock, stone, leaning over, biased
            • Norwegian hall slope, sloping terrain
        • West Germanic
          • Old English heald bent, inclined
        • Germanic *halþōnã to tilt, to make tilt, to incline
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse halla
              • Icelandic halla to slant, to put down, to go to sleep
        • Germanic *halþijanã to tilt, to make tilt, to incline
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse hella to pour out
              • Icelandic hella to pour
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hieldan to lean, to slope, to push down
              • English heel
            • Frankish *helden
              • Dutch hellen to incline
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱl̥tós sloped, inclined passive participle
      • Germanic *hulþaz inclined, favorable, gracious, loyal
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐍃 hulþs merciful
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse hollr
            • Danish huld faithful, gracious, sweet
            • Icelandic hollur good, wholesome, loyal
        • West Germanic
          • Old English hold gracious, loyal, kind
          • Frankish *hold
            • Dutch hou friendly, favorable
          • Old High German hold
            • German hold friendly
        • Germanic *hulþô friend, confidant
          • West Germanic
            • Frankish *holdo
              • Dutch houd
            • Old High German holdo friend
              • German Holde
            • West Germanic *kobeholdo kobold, goblin [1]
              • Frankish
                • Dutch kabouter goblin, gnome
                • Old French gobelin [1]
                  • French gobelin
                  • English goblin
              • Old High German
                • German Kobold
                  • English kobold
                • English cobalt
                • Translingual Co
        • Germanic *unhulþaz unfriendly, hostile
          • West Germanic
            • Old English unhold
            • Old High German unhold
          • Germanic *unhulþô harmful spirit, monster, devil
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌿𐌽𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐌰 unhulþa devil, evil spirit, monster
            • West Germanic
              • Old English unholda
              • Old High German unholda demon, devil
                • German Unhold monster, fiend
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱól-i-s
      • Balto-Slavic
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian šalìs
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléy- to lean, to slope probably re-analyzed from -éy- or -yé- form verbs
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléyeti leans
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian šlieti to lean against, to rest against
        • Indo-Iranian *ćráyati leans
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit श्रयति śráyati leans, leans on, turns towards
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬀𐬙𐬀 sraiiata leans
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱl̥néyti leans
        • Italic *kl(e)inō
          • Latin *clīno effectively unattested in bare form
            • Western Romance
              • Italian chinare to bend, to bow, to lean
            • Latin clīnātus inclined, leaning
            • Latin clēmēns merciful, gentle, peaceful, compliant
              • Western Romance
                • French clément
                  • English clement
              • Latin Clement
                • Western Romance
                  • French Clément
                    • English Clement
                    • French Clémentine
                      • English Clementine
                    • French clémentine
                      • English clementine
            • Latin dēclīnō
              • English decline
            • Latin inclīnō
              • English incline
            • Latin reclīnō
              • English recline
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlinéwti leans
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬥𐬌𐬯𐬭𐬌𐬥𐬀𐬊𐬨𐬌 ni-srinaomi I lean
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlíneti leans
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian šliñti to lean
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlinyéti leans
        • Hellenic *klinō
          • Ancient Greek κλῑ́νω klī́nō
            • Ancient Greek κλῐ́μᾰ klíma slope, inclination, latitude, clime
              • Greek κλίμα klíma climate, atmosphere, mood, see
              • Arabic إِقْلِيم ʾiqlīm region, climate, territory
                • Hebrew אַקְלִים aklím climate, environment
                • Persian اقلیم eqlim climate
                • Turkish iklim climate
              • Aramaic
                • Classical Syriac ܩܠܝܡܐ qəlīmā clime, region, land
              • Latin clima slope, inclination, climate, region
                • French climat
                  • English climate
                • English clime
            • Ancient Greek κλῖμᾰξ klîmax ladder, staircase, rhetorical climax
              • Latin clīmax
                • English climax
            • Ancient Greek κλιτικός klitikós inflectional
              • English clitic
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlinéh₁ti is leaning stative
        • Germanic *hlinānã
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hlinian to lean, to lie down, to rest
              • English lean
            • Frankish *hlinon
              • Dutch leunen to lean
            • Old High German
              • German lehnen to lean
          • Germanic *hlainijanã causative
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse
                • Danish læne to lean
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléyos sloped, curved, bent adjective
        • Celtic *klēyos left
          • Brythonic *kluɨð
            • Welsh cledd left, left hand
          • Old Irish clé
            • Irish cle left
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱleywós sloped, curved, bent adjective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian šleĩvas bow-legged
        • Italic
          • Latin clīvus hill
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlitós
        • Pre-Albanian *klitā
          • Albanian qetë a rock
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian pašiltas crooked, bent
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἄκλῐτος áklitos indeclinable
            • Greek άκλιτος áklitos uninflected, invariable
        • Indo-Iranian *ćritás
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit श्रित śritá leaning against, attached to, subordinate to, contained in
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬌𐬙𐬀 srita leaned
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱloywóm
        • Germanic *hlaiwã hill, mound, barrow, grave or from *ḱley-: "to cover"
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌹𐍅 hlaiw tomb, grave
          • North Germanic
            • Proto-Norse ᚺᛚᚨᛁᚹᚨ hlaiwa tomb, grave
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hlǣw mountain, barrow, cairn, cave
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléyteh₂ something sloped, something leaning
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlóy-neh
        • Pre-Albanian *klaina
          • Albanian qye peak, summit
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlóydʰrom thing for leaning, leaning tool
        • Germanic *hlaidrijō
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hlǣder
              • English ladder
              • Scots ledder ladder
            • Frankish *lēdara
              • Dutch ladder ladder
            • Old High German hleitra
              • German Leiter ladder
                • Hungarian létra ladder
              • Yiddish לייטער leyter ladder
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlew- to hear
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwt hear perfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *slùti to say, to be said to, to be known for
            • East Slavic слути sluti
              • Russian слыть slytʹ to be said to, to be known for, to pass as
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic слоути sluti to be known as
              • Serbo-Croatian слу̏ти slȕti to call, to speak
            • West Slavic
              • Polish słynąć to be famous
        • Indo-Iranian *Háćrawt
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अश्रोत् áśrot heard, listened
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬙𐬏 sraotū listen, attend, concentrate
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱluyéti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κλύω klúo I hear
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwyeti hears of transitive imperfective
        • Hellenic *kleyyō
          • Ancient Greek κλέω kléō I tell of, I make heard, I make famous, I celebrate
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱl̥néwti
        • Celtic *klinetor to hear
          • Old Irish ro·cluinethar to hear
            • Irish cluin to hear
        • Indo-Iranian *ćr̥náwti listens, hears
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit शृणोति śṛṇóti listens, hears
              • Magadhi 𑀰𑀼𑀡𑁂𑀤𑀺 śuṇedi
                • Bengali শোনা shona to hear, to listen
              • Pali suṇāti to hear
              • Sauraseni 𑀲𑀼𑀡𑁂𑀤𑀺 suṇedi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi सुनना sunnā to listen, to hear, to endure
                • Pahari
                  • Punjabi ਸੁਣਨਾ suṇnā
              • West Indo-Aryan
                • Romani šunel hears
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬥𐬀𐬊𐬌𐬙𐬌 surunaoiti hears
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish stirîn to sing
              • Old Persian
                • Persian سرودن sorudan to sing, to recite
        • Tocharian *klän-
          • Kushean käln- to resound
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱl̥wéh₁ti is heard stative
        • Pre-Albanian *kluaj
          • Albanian quaj I call, I name
        • Indo-Iranian *ćr̥wáHti
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬎𐬌𐬌𐬉 sruiiē I am heard
        • Italic *kluēō
          • Latin clueō I am called, I am reputed, I am named
            • Latin cluēns reputing, naming active participle
              • Latin cliēns customer, follower, retainer, companion, client
                • Western Romance
                  • French client client
                    • English client
                  • Italian cliente client
                  • Spanish cliente client
        • Messapic ΚΛΑΟΗΙ klaohi listen
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlowéyeti causative
        • Indo-Iranian *ćrāwáyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit श्रावयति śrāváyati makes heard, narrates, directs, sets in motion
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬁𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌 srāuuaiieiti recites?
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlutós heard, known, famous
        • Celtic *klutom rumor, fame, reputation
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh clod praise, credit, renown
          • Old Irish cloth
          • Celtic *Klutyos Famous (personal name)
            • Gallaecian 𐌊𐌏𐌋𐌏𐌖𐌕𐌉𐌏𐌔 Koloutios
            • Gaulish *Cloutios
              • Latin Cloutius
        • Germanic *hlūdaz heard, famous, loud
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hlūd loud
              • English loud
            • Frankish *lūd
              • Dutch luid loud
            • Old High German lūt
              • German laut loud
          • Germanic *Hlūdawīg Famous-Battle (personal name)
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish *Hlodowig
                • Dutch Lodewijk
                • Old French
                  • French Louis
                    • English Louis
                  • French Clovis
                    • English Clovis
                  • English Lewis
                  • Italian Luigi
                    • English Luigi
                  • Old Occitan Aloys
                    • Medieval Latin Aloysius
                      • English Aloysius
                  • Spanish Luis
                    • English Luis
                  • Old French
                    • French Louise
                    • English Louisa
                • Basque Koldobika
                • Latin Ludovīcus
                  • Italian Ludovico
              • Old High German Lūdwīg
                • German Ludwig
                  • English Ludwig
          • Germanic *Hlūdahildiz Famous-Battle (personal name)
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish
                • Old French
                  • French Clotilde
                  • English Clotilda
          • Germanic *Hlūdaharjaz Famous-Army (personal name)
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish *Hlothar
                • English Clothar
                • English Lothar
                • French Lothaire
                • Latin Lotharius
                  • Spanish Lothario
                    • English lothario
                • Frankish *Hlotharing belonging to Lothar
                  • Latin Lotharingia Land belonging to Lothar
                    • French Lorraine
                      • English Lorraine
                    • English Lotharingia
              • Old High German Liuther
                • German Luther
                  • English Luther
                    • English Lutheran
        • Hellenic *klutós
          • Ancient Greek κλῠτός klutós renowned, splendid, famed, glorious
            • Ancient Greek δουρικλυτός douriklutós famed for the spear Homeric epithet
            • Ancient Greek Κλυταιμνήστρᾱ Klutaimnḗstrā Clytemnestra, Famous-Plotter
              • Latin Clytaemnēstra
                • English Clytemnestra
        • Indo-Iranian *ćrutás
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit श्रुत śrutá heard, learned (orally), famous, known as
              • Pali suta learning, lore
                • Burmese သုတ suta heard, learned, knowledge, leearning
        • Italic *klutos
          • Italic *enklutos
            • Latin inclitus
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlewetos heard, known, famous
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κλειτός kleitós renowned, famous, excellent
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlówō
        • Balto-Slavic *ślā́ˀwāˀ with unexpected larygneals
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian šlovė̃ fame, honor, halo
          • Slavic *slàva glory, fame
            • East Slavic слава slava
              • Russian сла́ва sláva glory, fame, reputation, rumor
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic слава slava fame, glory
              • Serbo-Croatian сла̏ва slȁva glory, fame, feast
            • West Slavic
              • Polish sława fame, glory, name, celebrity
            • Slavic *Gostislava Guest-Glory (personal name)
              • West Slavic
                • Polish Goscław
                • Old Swedish Gøtstaf
                  • Swedish Gustav
            • Slavic *Stanislava Firm-Glory (personal name)
              • East Slavic
                • Russian Станисла́в Stanisláv
              • West Slavic
                • Polish Stanisław
            • Slavic *Vęťeslavъ More-Glory (personal name)
              • East Slavic
                • Russian Вячесла́в Vjačesláv
              • West Slavic
                • Old Czech Venceslav
                  • Czech Václav
                  • Medieval Latin Wenceslaus
                    • English Wenceslaus
                    • German Wen(t)zel
            • Slavic *Voldislava Ruling-Glory (personal name)
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic владьслава Vladĭslava
                  • Polish Władysław
                    • Russian Vladislav
                  • Hungarian László
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwmn̥ hearing action noun
        • Germanic *hleumô
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌼𐌰 hliuma hearing
        • Indo-Iranian *ćráwma
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬨𐬀𐬥 sraoman hearing
        • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwmn̥to-
          • Germanic *hleumundaz reputation, fame
            • West Germanic
              • Old High German liumunt
                • German Leumund reputation, report, opinion
          • Indo-Iranian *ćráwmatam
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit श्रोमत śrómat fame, renown, glory
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwos fame
        • Balto-Slavic *ślawas
          • Slavic *slȍvo word
            • East Slavic слово slovo
              • Russian сло́во slóvo word, speech
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic слово slovo speech, utterance, word, sermon, book
              • Serbo-Croatian сло̏во slȍvo letter (of the alphabet), speech, sermon
            • West Slavic
              • Polish słowo word
            • Slavic *slověninъ Slav [2]
              • East Slavic словѣнинъ slověninŭ
                • Russian славяни́н slavjanín Slav
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic словѣне slověne
                • Serbo-Croatian Сло̀ве̄н Slòvēn Slav
                • Byznatine Greek Σλαβῆνος Slabênos
                  • Byzantine Greek Σκλᾰ́βος Sklábos Slav
                    • Greek Σλάβος Slávos Slav
                    • Arabic صَقَالِبَة ṣaqāliba Slav
                    • Medieval Latin Sclavus Slav
                      • Romanian șcheau Slav, Bulgarian archaic
                      • Albanian shqa
                      • Western Romance
                        • French slave Slav
                          • English Slav
                        • Italian slavo Slave
                        • Spanish eslavo
                      • Medieval Latin Sclavonia
                        • English Slavonia
                        • Medeical Latin Sclavonicus
                          • English Slavonic
                      • Medieval Latin sclavus slave
                        • Western Romance
                          • Old French sclave
                            • French esclave slave
                            • English slave
                        • Italian schiavo slave
                        • Spanish esclavo slave
                        • Venetian sciavo
                          • Venetian s-ciao vostro your slave [3]
                            • Italian ciao
                              • English ciao
                        • Greek σκλάβος sklávos slave
              • West Slavic
                • Polish Słowianin Slav
              • Slavic *slověninъka Slavic
                • South Slavic
                  • Slovene Slovẹ́nəc Slovene
                    • German Slowene Slovene
                      • English Slovene
                • West Slavic
                  • Slovak Slovák Slovak
                    • English Slovak
        • Celtic *klowos fame, hearing
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh clyw hearing, earshot
          • Old Irish clú fame
            • Irish clú honor, praise, fame
        • Hellenic *kléwos
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀐𐀩𐀺 ke-re-wo
          • Ancient Greek κλέος kléos fame, glory, rumor
            • Greek κλέος kléos fame, honor
            • Ancient Greek Κλειώ Kleiṓ Clio, Divinity of History and Heroic Poetry
              • English Clio
            • Ancient Greek Κλέων Kléon Glory (personal name)
              • Latin Cleōn
                • English Cleon
            • Ancient Greek Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Kleopátrā Glory-of-Father (personal name)
              • Latin Cleopatra
                • English Cleopatra
        • Indo-Iranian *ćráwas fame
          • Indo-Aryan *śráwas
            • Sanskrit श्रवस् śrávas praise, glory, fame
          • Iranian *cráwah fame, word
            • Avestan 𐬯𐬭𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀 srauua word
          • Nuristani *cráwa
            • Kamviri ṣu news, information
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₁némn̥ ḱléwos famous name
          • Tocharian
            • Arshian ñomklyu fame
            • Kushean ñemkälywe fame
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlewēs
        • Hellenic *kléwēs
          • Ancient Greek -κλῆς -klês
            • Ancient Greek Δῐοκλῆς Dioklês Zeus-Fame (personal name)
              • Latin Diocletianus
                • English Diocletian
            • Ancient Greek Δημοκλῆς Dēmoklês People-Fame (personal name)
              • English Damocles
            • Ancient Greek Ἐμπεδοκλῆς Empedoklês Enduring-Fame (personal name)
              • English Empedocles
            • Ancient Greek Ἡρακλῆς Hēraklês Hercules "Hera-Fame"
              • Etruscan 𐌇𐌄𐌓𐌂𐌋𐌄 hercle Hercules
                • Latin Herculēs
                  • English Hercules
              • Ancient Greek Ἡράκλειᾰ Hērákleia Heraclea any of many places named after Hercules
                • Latin Hēraclēa
                  • English Heraclea
                • Turkish Ereğli
            • Ancient Greek Θεμῐστοκλῆς Themistoklês Oracular-Fame (personal name)
              • English Themistocles
            • Ancient Greek Πᾰ́τροκλος Pátroklos Father-Fame (personal name)
              • English Patroclus
            • Ancient Greek Περῐκλῆς Periklês Very-Famous (personal name)
              • English Pericles
            • Ancient Greek Σοφοκλῆς Sophoklês Wisdom-Fame (personal name)
              • English Sophocles
            • Ancient Greek Χᾰρῐκλῆς Khariklês Grace-Fame (personal name)
              • English Charicles
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwtrom instrumental, "thing for hearing"
        • Germanic *hleuþrã noise
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hlēoþor hearing, sound, noise, voice, song
        • Indo-Iranian *ćráwtram
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit श्रोत्र śrótra ear
              • Pali sota ear
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwtom
        • Old Armenian լու lu hearing
          • Old Armenian հլու hlu obedient lit. "well-heard"
            • Armenian հլու hlu obedient
        • Germanic hleuþã listening, sound, silence [4]
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸 hliuþ silence, stillness, peace
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse hljóð silence, hearing, sound, music
              • Danish lyd sound, noise
              • Icelandic hljóð sound, a cry, silence
              • Scots luid sound, tone, tone of voice, mood
              • Old Norse hljóðr silent, taciturn
                • Icelandic hljóður silent
              • Old Norse hljóðfæri musical instrument
                • Icelandic hljóðfæri musical instrument
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlowsteh₂
        • Celtic *kloustā ear
          • Brythonic *klʉst
            • Welsh clust ear
          • Old Irish clúas ear, hearing
            • Irish cluas ear
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlews- root extension
        • Proto-Indo-European *ḱléwsyeti
          • Balto-Slavic
            • East Baltic
              • Lithuanian klausýti to hear, to listen, to obey
          • Celtic *klusīti
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh clywed to hear, to listen
        • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlusnéyeti
          • Germanic *hlusnijaną
            • West Germanic
              • Old English hlysnan to listen
                • English listen
              • Old High German
                • German lauschen to listen, to eavesdrop
        • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlusto-
          • Germanic *hlūstaną to listen
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse
                • Danish lytte to listen
                • Icelandic hlusta to listen
            • Germanic *hlūstrijaną to listen frequentative
              • West Germanic
                • Frankish
                  • Dutch luisteren to listen
        • Proto-Indo-European *ḱlowsos
          • Balto-Slavic *ślaušás
            • Slavic *slȗxъ hearing, rumor
              • East Slavic слоухъ sluxŭ
                • Russian слух slux hearing, ear, rumor, news
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic слоухъ sluxŭ hearing, ear, rumor, news
                • Serbo-Croatian слу̑х slȗh hearing
              • West Slavic
                • Polish słuch hearing

Visual

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Collected English words

scout, heel, goblin, kobold, cobalt, Co, clement, clementine, decline, incline, recline, climate, clime, climax, clitic, lean, ladder, client, loud, lothario, Lutheran, slave, ciao, listen

Proper Names

Clement, Clementine, Louis, Clovis, Lewis, Luigi, Aloysius, Luis, Louisa, Ludwig, Clotilda, Clothar, Lothar, Lorraine, Lotharingia, Luther, Clytemnestra, Wenceslaus, Slav, Slavonia, Slavonic, Slovene, Slovak, Clio, Cleon, Cleopatra, Diocletian, Damocles, Empedocles, Hercules, Heraclea, Themistocles, Patroclus, Pericles, Sophocles, Charicles

Footnotes

  1. ^

    West Germanic *kobeholdo: "kobold, goblin" (German Kobold, Dutch kabouter) may be *kubô + *hulþô: "shed/cove/room/house?" + "friend", indicating a household spirit. The "friend" part may be euphemisitc.

    Old French gobelin is likely a blend of Frankish *kobeholdo and Latin cobalus (from Greek).

    The metal cobalt was called 'kobold ore' (Kobalterz) because coming across a vein of cobalt while mining caused a number of problems.

  2. ^

    The origin of *slověninъ: "Slav" is disputed, but one of the main possibilities is a derivative of *slȍvo: "word", probably along the lines of "people who can speak (our language)". Compare the Slavic word for "foreigner", *němьcь, which literally means "mute, unable to speak (our language)"

  3. ^

    s-ciao vostro: "your slave" was used as a valediction in Venetian. Compare "at your service" or "humbly yours".

  4. ^

    Germanic hleuþã paradoxically means both "sound" and "silence", because both are extensions of the action of listening.

    Icelandic hljóð keeps both meanings, Danish lyd only retains the "sound" meaning. Gothic 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸 hliuþ only records the meaning "silence", being used in the Ulfilas Bible as a translation of New Testament Greek ἡσυχία hesuchia: "peace, silence, stillness".