Word Family - Rex

December theme: Religion 📿

Introduction

This is the #WordFamilyFriday that no matter how long I work on it, it's never done. That's what I get for trying to explore the possibility that two extremely important and productive roots may be connected: *h₂er-, related to cosmic order, and *h₃reǵ-, related to societal order.

This is originally the transitional post between December 2017's Religion theme and January 2018's Noble Titles theme.

Teaser

rational, art, aristocracy, arm, read, ritual, arithmetic, Austria, Henry, royal, The Morrigan, rich

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂er- fit, fix, put together
    • Anatolian
      • Hittite 𒀀𒀀𒊏 āra right, proper
    • Hellenic
      • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́ρᾰ ára then, therefore, consequently
    • Tocharian
      • Arshian yär- to wash
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂réh₁ti to fit, to fix, to put together basic verb form
      • Italic *rēōr
        • Latin reor I reckon, I calculate, I think
          • Latin ratiō calculation, account, explanation, method
            • Western Romance
              • French raison reason [1]
                • English reason
              • Italian ragione reason, motive, right, argument, proportion, rate [1]
              • Spanish razón reason, reasoning, correctness, ratio [1]
            • French ration ration [1]
              • English ration
            • Italian razione ration, share [1]
            • Spanish ración portion, ration [1]
            • English ratio
            • French ratio ratio [1]
            • Spanish ratio ratio [1]
          • Latin rata calculated, considered, fixed, authoritative
            • Western Romance
              • Old French rate
                • English rate
              • Italian rata installment, dose
          • Latin ratiōnālis accounts, rational, reasonable, syllogistic, pertaining to a ratio
            • Western Romance
              • French rationnel rational
                • English rational
                • English rationale
              • Italian razionale rational
          • Latin ratiōnābilis rational, capable of reasoning
            • Western Romance
              • French raisonnable reasonable, just, fair, resigned
                • English reasonable
              • Italian ragionevole reasonable, sensible
              • Spanish razonable reasonable
          • Medieval Latin ratificare
            • French ratifier to ratify
              • English ratify
            • Italian ratificare to approve, to ratify
            • Spanish ratificar to ratify
              • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́ρθρον árthron joint, limb, articulation, connecting word, article
                • Greek άρθρο árthro article
                • English arthro- to do with joints
                  • English arthropod
                  • English arthritis
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥h₁téh₂
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓ρετή aretḗ goodness, excellence, virtue, glory, reputation, miracle
          • Greek αρετή aretí
          • Coptic ⲁⲣⲉⲧⲏ aretē virtue
          • English arete
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥h₂r̥h₁sḱéti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀραρίσκω ararískō
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥téys
      • Italic
        • Latin ars art, skill, craft, power accusative artem
          • Western Romance
            • Old French art art
              • French art
                • Haitian Creole la art
              • Middle English art art
                • English art art
                  • Japanese アート āto art
                • Scots airt art, skill
            • Italian arte art
            • Spanish arte art, skill
          • Vulgar Latin *artefacto "made by art"
            • Western Romance
              • Italian artefatto artificial
                • English artifact
          • Latin iners unskilled, incompetent, lazy "without art"
            • French inerte inert, inactive
              • English inert
            • Latin inertia lack of art, laziness
              • French inertie inertia
                • English inertia
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥tós fitted
      • Indo-Iranian *Hr̥tás
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit ऋत ṛtá order, law, rule, piety, faith, truth, righteousness, oath
        • Iranian
          • Avestan aṣ̌a
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎫 arta
              • Persian ارد‏ ard
              • Old Persian 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaça Artaxerxes (any of 5 Achaemenid monarchs) lit. "rule through truth" or "perfected rule"
                • Ancient Greek Ἀρταξέρξης Artaxérxēs Artaxerxes
                • Hebrew אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא artaḥšásta Artaxerxes
      • Italic
        • Latin artus narrow, fitted, confined, dense
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éristos most fitted, best fitted, fittest
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓́ρῐστος áristos best
            • Ancient Greek ἀριστοκρατίᾱ aristokratíā rule by the best, rule by nobles
              • Medieval Latin *aristocratia
                • French aristocratie aristocracy
                  • English aristocracy
    • Proto-Indo-European h₂r̥mós (the act of) fitting
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *ormę
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian раме rame shoulder
          • West Slavic
            • Polish ramię arm
      • Germanic *armaz arm (body part)
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌼𐍃 arms arm
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse armr arm
            • Danish arm arm
            • Icelandic armur arm
        • West Germanic
          • Old English earm arm
            • English arm
          • Frankish
            • Dutch arm arm, branch
          • Old High German arm arm
            • German Arm arm, branch, sleeve
            • Yiddish אָרעם orem arm
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἁρμός harmós joint, link, bolt, peg
          • Ancient Greek ἁρμόζω harmózō I fit together, I join, I betrothe, I arrange, I govern
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Iranian
          • Avestan arəm correctly, properly
      • Italic
        • Latin arma
          • Latin armo I arm, I equip, I mobilize
            • English armor
            • English arms
            • English armory
            • English armament
            • English armature
            • English armoire
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ermō
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *arьmò yoke
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥monih₂
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἁρμονίᾱ harmoníā a fitting together, a joining
          • Latin harmonia harmony, music, peace
            • Western Romance
              • French harmonie harmony
                • English harmony
                  • English harmonica
                • French harmonium harmonium
                  • English harmonium
              • Italian armonia harmony
              • Spanish armonía harmony
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂értus
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit ऋतु ṛtú a point in time, the right time, season, epoch, period, order, rule
            • Magadhi
              • Bengali ঋতু ritu season
            • Sauraseni
              • Madhya
                • Hindi ऋतु ŕtu season
              • Pali
                • Thai ฤดู rʉ́-duu moment, occasion, opportunity, season, time
            • Maharashtri
              • Sinhala ඍතුව ṛtuva season
            • Telugu ఋతువు r̥tuvu season
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἀρτύω artúō I arrange, I devise, I prepare, I season
      • Italic
        • Latin artus joint, sinew, strength, limbs
          • Latin articulātus jointed, distinct, articulated
            • English articulate
          • Latin articulus joint, knuckle, limb, finger, short clause, word, article
            • Western Romance
              • French orteil toe
              • Italian artiglio talon, claw
              • Spanish artejo knuckle
            • French article article, joint, articulation
              • English article
            • Italian articolo article
            • Spanish artículo article
            • German Artikel article, entry, paragraph, clause
            • Irish airteagal article
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ereh₂ksneh₂ sew together?, order-weaver?
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἀράχνη arákhnē spider, spider web
          • Greek αράχνη spider, spider web
          • Latin Arachne
          • French arachnide arachnid
            • English arachnid
          • Latin arānea spider, spider web, threads [2]
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian râie scab, scabies, itch
            • Western Romance
              • French araignée spider
              • French rogne ringworm, anger
              • Italian aragna spider
              • Italian rogna scabies, mange, bother, trouble
              • Spanish araña spider
                • Western Romance
                  • French rite rite
                    • English rite
                  • Italian rito rite, ritual
                  • Spanish rito rite, ritual
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂reh₁- re-analyzed root
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂reh₁dʰ- to think, to arrange, to accomplish re-analyzed or extended root
        • Proto-Indo-Europeaan *h₂réh₁dʰe-ti primary verb
          • Germanic *rēdaną to decide, to advise
            • English read
            • English riddle
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂roh₁dʰéy-eti causative
          • Balto-Slavic
            • Slavic *raditi to care about, to heed
          • Germanic *rōdijaną to speak, to talk about
          • Indo-Iranian *HraHdʰáyati
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂réh₁dʰos resultative noun
          • Germanic *rēdaz
            • English rede
            • English Alfred
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂rey- to order, to customize, to regulate, to count re-analyzed or extended root
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂réytus
          • Italic
            • Latin rītus rite, ceremony, habit, custom
              • Latin rītuālis related to a rite or repeated set of actions
                • Western Romance
                  • French rituel ritual
                    • English ritual
                  • Italian rituale ritual
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ridʰmós
        • Celtic *rīmā number
          • Brythonic *riβ̃ number
            • Welsh rhif number
          • Old Irish rím number, the act of counting, the act of telling
            • Irish ríomh enumeration, calculation, narration
          • Germanic *rīmą calculation, number
            • West Germanic
              • Old English rīm number, counting, sum, calendar
                • English rhyme [3]
                • Old English rīmcræft arithmetic
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ἀριθμός arithmós number, sum, quantity, rank, rhythm
            • Ancient Greek ἀριθμητική arithmētikḗ arithmetic lit. "number-tech" i.e., "the art/craft of numbers"
              • Greek αριθμητική arithmitikí arithmetic
              • Russian арифме́тика arifmétika arithmeitc
              • Latin arithmētica arithmetic
                • Western Romance
                  • French arithmétique arithmetic
                    • English arithmetic
                    • German Arithmetik arithmetic
                  • Italian aritmetica arithmetic
                  • Spanish aritmética arithmetic
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂erd- re-analyzed or extended root
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ordh₃onh₂
        • Italic
          • Latin ordō methodical series, arrangement, order, series, class, rank, company of soldiers, command of a company of soldiers acc.: ōrdinem
            • Sardinian oldine
            • Eastern Romance
              • Dalmatian jorden order
            • Western Romance
              • French ordre order
                • English order
              • Italian ordine
              • Spanish orden
            • Latin ōrdinō I arrange, I put in order, I rule, I appoint to office
              • Sardinian odrinai
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a urdina to return regularly, to trot, to have diarrhea
              • Western Romance
                • Old French ordiner
                  • French ordonner to organize, to prescribe, to ordain
                  • English ordain
                • Spanish ordeñar to milk
              • Latin ōrdinārius orderly, regular, ordinary
                • Western Romance
                  • French ordinaire
                    • English ordinary
                  • Italian ordinario
                  • Spanish ordinario
              • Latin ōrdinātus arranged, ordered, governed
                • English ordinate
                • English inordinate
                • English subordinate
            • Latin ōrnō I furnish, I equip, I adorn, I decorate, I praise
              • English adorn
              • English ornate
              • English ornament
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- to straighten, to right oneself, right, just
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃réǵeti to be straightening, to be setting upright
        • Celtic *regeti to stretch, to straighten
          • Brythonic
            • Welsh re
          • Old Irish (at·)reig to rise, to get up
            • Irish éirigh to rise, to get up, to start to become
        • Germanic *rekaną to rake up, to pile up, to heap up
          • English rake
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀρέγω orégō I reach, I stretch, I reach out for, I yearn
            • Ancient Greek ὄρεξῐς órexis desire, longing, appetite
              • English anorexia
        • Italic
          • Latin regō I direct, I keep straight, I guide, I rule, I govern
            • English correct
            • English direct
            • English erect
            • English rectangle
            • English rectitude
            • English rectum
            • English regimen
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵdʰleh₂
        • Italic
          • Latin regula
            • English regulate
            • English rule
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃réǵeh₂yéti
        • Germanic *rekanōną to count, to explain
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse reikna to calculate, to compute
              • Icelandic reikna to calculate, to compute
          • West Germanic
            • Old English recenian
              • English reckon
              • Scots rekkin reckon
            • Old High German rehhanōn
              • German rechnen to count, to reckon, to calculate, to compute, to expect
              • Yiddish רעכענען‏ rekhenen to reckon, to figure, to calculate, to plan
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃roǵéyeti to straighten, to make straight
        • Germanic *rakjaną to stretch, to straighten
          • English rake
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit राजयति rājayati
      • Proto-Indo-European h₃r̥neǵti
        • Germanic *rinkaną
          • Germanic ranakz erect, upright
            • English rank
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit ऋञ्जते ṛñjate directs, stretches
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵs chief, king, ruler
        • Celtic *rīxs
          • Brythonic *riɣ king
            • Welsh rhi king
          • Primitive Irish ᚏᚔᚌᚐᚄ rigas of the king only attested in the genitive
            • Old Irish king
              • Irish king
          • Gaulish rīx king
          • Celtiberian reikis king
          • Celtic *Albiyorīxs White-King (personal name)
            • Gaulish Albiorīx personal name
              • English Albiorix moon of Saturn
          • Celtic *Toutorīxs Tribe-King, People-King (personal name)
            • Brythonic *Tʉdörix
              • Welsh Tudur
                • English Tudor
          • Celtic *Verkengetorīxs Over-king of Warriors (personal name)
            • Gaulish Vercingetorīx
          • Germanic *rīks [4]
            • Germanic *rīkiją rulership, authority, realm, kingdom [5]
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌹 reiki dominion
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse ríki realm
                  • Danish rige kingdom, realm
                  • Icelandic ríki kingdom, realm, state
              • West Germanic
                • Old English rīce power, authority, dominion, kingdom
                  • English -ric
                    • English bishopric
                  • Scots rik kingdom, realm, Kingdom of Heaven
                • Old High German rīhhi
                  • German Reich empire, state, realm
                    • English reich a German empire or nation
                    • Russian рейх rejx Reich, a German empire or nation
                  • Old High German Ostarīhhi Austria lit. "Eastern realm/kingdom"
                    • German Österreich Austria
                    • Medieval Latin Austria
                      • English Austria
                • Estonian riik state, country, polity, government
              • Germanic *kuningarīkiją kingdom
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse konungríki kingdom
                    • Danish kongerige kingdom
                    • Icelandic konungsríki kingdom
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English cyningrīce kingdom
                    • Scots kinrik
                  • Old High German kuningrīhhi kingdom
                    • German Königreich kingdom
              • Germanic *aljarīkiją other kingdom
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English *elrīċe
                  • English eldritch
            • Germanic *Albirīks elf-king personal name
              • West Germanic
                • Old English Ælfric
                  • English Elric
                • Frankish
                  • Old French Alberon
                    • English Aubrey
                    • English Oberon
                • Old High German
                  • German Alberich
            • Germanic *Aiwarīks Eternal-King (personal name)
              • English Eric
            • Germanic *Friþurīks Peace-King (personal name)
              • English Frederick
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse Heimríkr
                    • Danish Henrik
                    • Icelandic Heinrekur
                • West Germanic
                  • Frankish Haimrik
                    • Old French Henri
                      • French Henri
                      • English Henry
                      • English Harry
                        • Welsh ap Harry son of Harry/Henry surname
                          • English Perry
                  • Old High German Heimerih
                    • German Heinrich
                    • Italian Amerigo
                      • New Latin America
                        • Spanish América
                          • Spanish americano
                • Latin Henricus
                  • Western Romance
                    • Italian Enrico
                    • Spanish Enrique
            • Germanic *Haimarīks home-king personal name
            • Germanic *Hrōþirīks Fame-King (personal name)
              • English Roderick
              • Spanish Rodrigo
                • English Richard
                  • English dick
                • Spanish Riccardo
            • Germanic *Rīkaharduz King-Hardy (personal name)
            • Germanic *Þeudarīks Tribe-King (personal name) "tribe-king", see also Toutorīxs, but unrelated to Greek Theodore
              • English Derek
              • French Thierry
        • Germanic *rekô [4]
          • Germanic *anudrekô male duck, drake lit. "duck-king"
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse
                • Swedish andrake male duck, drake
            • West Germanic
              • Old English *(an)draca male duck, drake
                • English drake [4]
                • Scots draik male duck, drake
                  • Scottish Gaelic ràc male duck, drake
              • Old High German anutrehho
                • German Enterich male duck, drake
        • Italic *rēks
          • Faliscan 𐌓𐌄𐌗 rex king
          • Latin rēx king
            • Western Romance
              • French roi
              • Italian re
              • Spanish rey
                • Spanish Monterrey King's Mountain
                  • English Monterey
            • Translingual Tyrannosaurus rex
            • Latin rēgālis pertaining to a king, royal, regal
              • English royal
              • English regal
              • Haitian Creole lwa god, spirit, loa
                • English loa
            • Latin rēgnum kingship, royalty, royal power, kingdom, reign
              • Western Romance
                • French règne
                  • English reign
                • Italian regno
                • Spanish reino
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵō king
          • Indo-Iranian *Hrāĵā
            • Sanskrit राजन् rājan king
              • Magadhi
                • Bengali রাজা raja
              • Maharashtri
                • Sinhala රජ raja
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi राजा rājā
                • Pahari
                  • Nepali राजा rājā
                  • Punjabi ਰਾਜਾ rājā
                • Pali rājā king
                  • Pali śrī rājā king's glory
                    • Thai ศรีราชา sǐi-raa-chaa king's glory, Si Racha (town)
                      • English sriracha (sauce)
                • West Indo-Aryan
                  • Romani rai gentleman, lord
              • Dravidian *aracan
                • Telugu అరుసు arusu
                • Tamil அரசன் aracaṉ king, sovereign, prince, Jupiter
                • Kannada ಅರಸು arasu king
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵnih₂ queen
          • Celtic *rīganī queen
            • Brythonic *riɣėn queen
              • Welsh rhiain lady, maiden
              • Brythonic *riɣėntona great queen
                • Welsh Rhiannon
            • Old Irish rígan queen
              • Irish ríon queen, lady
              • Old Irish Morrígan phantom queen
                • Irish Morríghan
                • English The Morrigan
          • Indo-Iranian *Hrā́ĵniH
            • Indo-Aryan *Hrā́ȷ́niH
              • Sanskrit राज्ञी rā́jñī queen
                • Magadhi
                  • Bengali রাণী raṇi queen
                • Sauraseni
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi रानी rānī queen, princess
                      • English rani queen or princess in India
                        • English Rahnee the She-Wolf
                  • Pali rājinī
                    • Thai ราชินี raa-chí-nii queen
                • Telugu రాణి rāṇi queen
          • Italic *rēginā
            • Latin rēgīna queen
              • Western Romance
                • French reine queen
                • Italian regina queen
                • Spanish reina queen
                  • Tagalog reyna queen
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rēǵyos kingly, royal
          • Celtic *rīgyos
            • Germanic *rīkijaz kingly, royal, powerful, rich [5]
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌴𐌹𐍃 reikeis
                  • Spanish rico
                    • Spanish Costa Rica Rich Coast
                      • English Costa Rica
                    • Spanish Puerto Rico Rich Port
                      • English Puerto Rico
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse ríkr rich
                  • Danish rig
                  • Icelandic ríkur
                • Finnic
                  • Finnish rikas rich, opulent
              • West Germanic
                • Old English rīċe powerful, mighty; rich
                  • English rich
                  • Scots rik mighty, great, rich, valuable, splendid
                • Frankish *rīki rich
                  • Dutch rijk rich, abundant
                  • French riche rich [5]
                  • Frankish *lantrīki Surname, land-rich originally used in a handful of villages near Poitiers.
                    • French Landry
                • Old High German rīhhi rich
                  • German reich rich
                  • Yiddish רײַך‏ raykh rich
                  • Lombardic
                    • Italian ricco rich [5]
          • Indo-Iranian
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit राज्य rājyá royalty, kingship, sovereignty, empire
                • Sauraseni 𑀭𑀚𑁆𑀚 rajja
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi राज rāj reign, rule, kingdom, empire, state
                      • English British Raj
                • Telugu రాజ్యము rājyamu rule, government, sovereignty, kingdom, state
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵr̥ kingship, rule
          • Indo-Iranian
            • Iranian
              • Avestan rāzar rule, direction
              • Western Iranian
                • Kurdish rizgar free, independent also a personal name

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

reason, ration, ratio, rate, rational, rationale, reasonable, ratify, arete, arthro-, arthropod, arthritis, art, artifact, inert, inertia, aristocracy, arm, armor, arms, armory, armament, armature, armoire, harmony, harmonica, harmonium, articulate, article, arachnid, read, riddle, rede, Alfred, rite, ritual, rhyme, arithmetic, order, ordain, ordinary, ordinate, inordinate, subordinate, adorn, ornate, ornament, rake, anorexia, correct, direct, erect, rectangle, rectitude, rectum, regimen, regulate, rule, reckon, rake, rank, Albiorix, Tudor, -ric, bishopric, reich, Austria, eldritch, Elric, Aubrey, Oberon, Eric, Frederick, Henry, Harry, Perry, Roderick, Richard, dick, Derek, drake, Monterey, Tyrannosaurus rex, royal, regal, loa, reign, sriracha (sauce), The Morrigan, rani, Rahnee the She-Wolf, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, rich, British Raj

Footnotes

  1. ^

    There are three variants of Latin ratiō in most Romance languages (and English, via French): 1) the native descendant, "reason", 2) the medieval re-borrowing, "ration(al)", and 3) the early modern re-borrowing, "ratio".

  2. ^

    It's unclear if Latin arānea is from Greek arachne, or independently developed from the same source.

  3. ^

    English rhyme is a merger of Old English rīm, "number, series" with Old French ryme, "rhyme". It is unclear if the Old French comes from Latin rhythmus`, "rhythm", or Frankish *rīm, same as the Old English.

  4. ^

    Germanic borrowed *riks from Celtic, which replaced native Germanic *rekô, now only seen in descendants of *anudrekô: "duck-king". (English drake: "male duck", unrelated to dragon/draco/drake, from Ancient Greek δράκων drákōn: "monstrous serpent")

    *riks was mostly replaced in turn by *kuningaz: "king", which we'll cover in a few weeks.

  5. ^

    *rīkiją and *rīkijaz are a doublet pair in Germanic, both meaning "kingly". One with morphology applied before borrowing from Celtic. One borrowed with morphology applied in Celtic, one with the equivalent native morphology applied after borrowing from Celtic.

    Germanic *rīkijaz is the root of the French riche, Italian ricco, and Spanish rico, via the three Germanic peoples which took over each of those Roman provinces: the Franks, the Langobards, and the Visigoths, respectively. Makes sense, but it doesn't usually work like that. (The Italian could also be from Ostrogothic or a conflation of Ostrogothic and Lombardic).