Word Family - Wind

February theme: Weather ⛈️

Teaser

wind, window, nirvana, vent, weather, athlete, fan, atmosphere

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂weh₁- to blow (of wind) [1]
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁(n)-ti to be blowing imperfective
      • Balto-Slavic *wḗˀtei
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian vėtyti to winnow
        • Slavic *vějati to blow (of wind), to winnow
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ве́ять véjatʹ to blow gently, to flutter, to winnow
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ве̏јати vȅjati to winnow, to blow violenty
          • West Slavic
            • Polish wiać to blow (of wind), to run, to escape
      • Germanic *wēaną to blow (of wind)
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽 waian to blow (of wind)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English wāwan to blow (of wind)
          • Old High German wāen
            • German wehen to blow (of wind)
      • Hellenic *awēmi
        • Ancient Greek ἄημι áēmi
      • Indo-Iranian *Hwā́-ti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit वाति vā́ti to blow, to smell, to hurt
            • Sanskrit वान vāna blown past participle
              • Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvāṇa blowing out, cessation, disappearance, emancipation from matter, extinction of individual existence, passion, or desire
                • Magadhi
                  • Bengali নির্বাণ nirbaṇ nirvana, extinguishment
                • Pali nibbāna
                  • Thai นิพพาน níp-paan nirvana, ascendance, death
                  • Middle Chinese
                    • Mandarin 涅槃 nièpán nirvana
                    • Japanese ねはん nehan nirvana, enlightenment, death of the Buddha, death, salvation
                    • Korean 열반 yeolban nirvana
                    • Vietnamese niết bàn nirvana
                • Sinhala නිවන nivana
                • Hindi निर्वाण nirvāṇ extinguished, blown out, nirvana
                • Punjabi ਨਿਰਵਾਣ nirvāṇ
                • English nirvana
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 vāiti
          • Western Iranian
            • Persian وزیدن vazidan to blow, to bluster
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥t-s blowing (adjective), that which blows, wind, air
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒄷𒉿𒀭𒍝 ḫu-wa-an-za
      • Celtic *wintos wind
        • Brythonic *gwɨnt wind
          • Welsh gwynt wind
        • Old Irish fet whistle
      • Germanic *windaz wind
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌳𐍃 winds wind
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse vindr wind
            • Icelandic vindur wind
            • Swedish vind wind, attic, loft
            • Old Norse vindauga window lit. "wind-eye"
              • Danish vindue window
              • Swedish vindöga window (archaic)
              • English window
              • Irish fuinneog window
        • West Germanic
          • Old English wind wind
            • English wind wind
          • Old High German wint wind
            • German Wind wind
            • Yiddish ווינט vint wind
        • Germanic *windwōną to toss into the wind, to throw about, to winnow
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic *𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌾𐌰 *winþjan
              • Gothic 𐌳𐌹𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌾𐌰 diswinþjan to throw (grain) apart, to scatter like chaff
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse vinza to winnow
              • Icelandic vinza to winnow
          • West Germanic
            • Old English windwian to winnow, to blow away, to ventilate
              • English winnow
              • Scots windo winnow
            • Old High German wintōn to fan, to winnow
      • Hellenic *awḗəts
        • Ancient Greek ἀείς aeís blowing
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit वात vā́ta wind, air, God of Wind
            • Sauraseni
              • Pali vāta wind
            • Telugu వాతము vātamu wind, air
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬁𐬙𐬀 vāta
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish با ba weather, wind
            • Persian باد bâd wind
              • Pashto باد bâd wind (archaic)
      • Italic *wentos wind
        • Latin ventus wind
          • Sardinian bentu wind
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian vânt wind
              • Romanian a avânta to rush at
          • Western Romance
            • French vent wind, empty words
              • English vent
              • French ventail leaf (of a door), panel (of a window), ventail (archaic)
                • English ventail
            • Italian vento wind
            • Spanish viento wind, woodwind
              • Spanish aventar to blow, to fan, to throw, to blow away
          • Latin ventulus slight wind, breeze
            • Latin ventilo I toss, I swing, I brandish, I expose to draught, I winnow
              • Sardinian bentulai
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian a vântura to winnow, to fan, to wander
              • Western Romance
                • Spanish beldar to winnow
              • English ventilate
              • French ventiler
              • Italian ventilare
          • Latin ventosus windy
            • Sardinian bentosu
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian vântos windy, breezy
            • Western Romance
              • French venteux windy
                • French ventouse plunger, suction cup, ventouse, sucker
                  • English ventouse
                  • Greek βεντούζα ventoúza plunger, suction cup
                • French Ventôse six month of the French Republican calendar
              • Italian ventoso windy, conceited
              • Spanish ventoso windy
          • Vulgar Latin *ventana
            • Spanish ventana window
              • Tagalog bintana window
          • Latin *exventō I expose to air
            • Sardinian sbintari to air, to aerate, to degas
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian a zvânta to dry, to air, to thrash
            • Western Romance
              • French éventer to air, to ventilate, to expose to wind, to fan, to go stale, to go flat
                • French éventail fan, range, array
                • English vent
              • Italian sventare to foil, to thwart, to baffle
      • Tocharian *wʲente
        • Arshian want wind
        • Kushean yente wind
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂weh₁yu-s
      • Balto-Slavic *wēyas
        • Lithuanian vė́jas wind, God of Wind
          • Sanskrit वायु vāyú wind, God of Wind, the element of air, breath
          • Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬎 vaiiu air, wind, the space between earth and heaven
      • Indo-Iranian
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéhdro-m weather,
      • Proto-Albanian *ŭ(n)dərā
        • Albanian vrëndë light rain
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic
          • East Slavic
            • Russian вёдро vjódro fair weather
      • Germanic *wedrą weather, storm
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse veðr weather
            • Icelandic veður weather, storm
            • Swedish väder weather
        • West Germanic
          • Old English weder sky, weather, season
            • English weather
          • Old High German wetar
            • German Wetter weather, storm
            • Yiddish וועטער veter weather
        • Germanic *unwedrą bad weather, storm
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse óveðr
              • Icelandic óveður storm
              • Swedish oväder storm, bad weather
          • West Germanic
            • Old English unweder bad weather, storm
              • English unweather
            • Old High German unwetar
              • German Unwetter
      • Hellenic *áwethlon
        • Ancient Greek ἆθλον âthlon contest, prize, arena [2]
          • English -athlon
            • English triathlon
          • Greek άθλος áthlos feat, accomplishment, contest, task [2]
          • Ancient Greek ᾱ̓θλέω āthléō I contend, I wrestle, I compete
            • Ancient Greek ἀθλητής athlētḗs contender, combatant, champion, prizefighter
              • Greek αθλητής athlitís athlete, sportsman
              • Latin āthlēta wrestler, athlete
                • Western Romance
                  • French athlète athlete
                    • English athlete
                  • Italian atleta athlete
                  • Spanish atleta athlete, fit person
            • Ancient Greek ἄθλημα áthlēma sport
              • Greek άθλημα áthlima sport
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂wh₁nó-s windy
      • Italic
        • Latin vannus winnowing basket, winnowing fan
          • Western Romance
            • French van winnowing basket
            • Italian vanni wings (poetic)
          • Old English fann winnowing basket, fan
            • English fan
          • Old High German wanna tub [3]
            • German Wanne tub
              • German Badewanne bathtub
            • Yiddish וואַנע vane bathtub
            • Polish wanna bathtub, bath
            • Russian ва́нна vánna bath, bathtub
          • Latin vannō I fan, I winnow
            • Western Romance
              • French vanner to winnow, to shake about, to scrutinize, to stir
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁trih₂-n
      • Balto-Slavic *wetrā
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian vė́tra storm
        • Slavic *vě̀trъ wind
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ве́тер véter wind
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian ве̏тар vȅtar wind
          • West Slavic
            • Polish wiatr wind
    • Proto-Indo-European ?
      • Hellenic *awetmós [4]
        • Ancient Greek ἀτμός atmos vapor, steam, smoke [4]
          • English atmo-
            • English atmosphere
          • Greek ατμός atmós steam, water vapor

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

nirvana, window, wind, winnow, vent, ventail, ventilate, ventouse, vent, weather, unweather, -athlon, triathlon, athlete, fan, atmo-, atmosphere

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Possibly, a relative (of indeterminate degree) with Arabic هَوَاء hawāʔ: "empty space, void, air, atmosphere". In which case, it is an interesting data point in the question of how h₁ and h₂ were pronounced.

    There are two theories about where هَوَاء hawāʔ comes from. Synchronically (that is, in modern morphology, without regard to history), it derives from ه و ي h-w-y: "valley, depression", with the assumption that by extension, it means the empty/airy space in the valley. In which case it would be from Semitic *hVw: "fall upon", from Afro-Asiatic *haw: "fall").

    Less well attested, but more obviously connected is a possible Afro-Asiatic root *haway-: "blow", which appears in Chadic *haway-: "wind", Bachama hawey, Bata haue.

    Orel and Stubolva (Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary, 1995) list Arabic hwy under both *haw and *haway-.

    Side note, if from the "valley"/"fall" option, the Hebrew reflex is הָיָה haya: "to happen, to occur, to be" as in נֵס גָּדוֹל הָיָה שָׁם nés gadól hayá shám: "A great miracle happened there." (the acronym represented by the four letters on a dreidel) and אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה ’ehyeh ’ăšer ’ehyeh: "I will be what I will be" (King James, "I am that I am"). This is thought to also be related to יהוה Yahweh, perhaps meaning either "he who is" or "he who sends down".

  2. ^

    As in οἱ Ἡρακλέους ἆθλοι hoi Hērakleous athloi: "The Labours of Hercules".

  3. ^

    I don't quite follow the semantic leap there, but everyone seems to agree that Old High German wanna comes from vannus. Possibly it was conflated with Latin balneum/Vulgar Latin *baneu/Spanish baño, meaning "bath").

  4. ^

    My sources list ἀτμός from *h₂weh₁- via the given Hellenic form, but not the PIE form. I can't think of a way in either Proto-Indo-European or Greek to get that t in there between the root and the m.