Word Family - Ride

Teaser

original, arboretum, orthodox, run, ride, palfrey, road, ruin

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₃er- to move, to stir, to rise
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥néwti
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒅈𒉡𒊻𒍣 ar-nu-uz-zi to send, to address
      • Old Armenian յառնեմ yaṙnem to rise, to stand, to awake
        • Armenian հառնել haṙnel to get up, to stand up
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ​​ὄρνῡμῐ órnūmi to set in motion, to awaken, to excite, to stir up
      • Indo-Iranian *Hr̥náwti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀡𑁄𑀢𑀺 ṛṇóti to go, to move, to rise
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥yéti ye- intransitive
      • Italic *orjōr
        • Latin orior I rise, I appear, I become visible, I come to exist
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian a urca to rise, to ascend, to mount, to board (a vehicle)
          • Latin ortus risen, made visible, birth, sunrise, east
            • Western Romance
              • Italian orto sunrise, east
              • Spanish oroto sunrise
          • Latin oriēns rising, originating, sunrise, east
            • Western Romance
              • French Orient Orient
                • English Orient
                • French orienter to orient, to set direction, to guide
                  • English orient
                  • French orientation
                    • English orientation
              • Italian oriente east, Orient
              • Spanish oriente east
            • Latin orientālis eastern, rising
              • Western Romance
                • French oriental
                  • English oriental
          • Latin orīgō birth, origin, source oblique stem orīgin-
            • Western Romance
              • Old French orine heritage, breeding
              • Italian origine origin, derivation
              • Spanish origen origin
            • French origine origin
              • English origin
            • Latin orīginālis original
              • Western Romance
                • Old French orinel
                • Italian originale original, authentic, creative
                • Spanish
              • French original original, unique, eccentric
                • English original
              • French originel original, first
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃ernis adjective
      • Germanic *arniz
        • Germanic *ernustuz fight, struggle, strength, seriousness, earnestness
          • West Germanic
            • Old English eornost earnestness, vigour
              • English earnest
            • Frankish *ernust
              • Dutch ernst seriousness
            • Old High German ernust serious
              • German ernst serious
              • Old High German Ernust Serious Boy (personal name)
                • German Ernst
                • Czech Arnošt
                • English Ernest
                  • English Ernie
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃értis movement, disturbance, quarrel noun
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *ortь war, battle
          • East Slavic
            • Russian рать ratʹ army, battle, war archaic/poetic
          • South Slavic
            • Old Church Slavonic рать ratĭ war, battle, enemy army
            • Serbo-Croatian ра̏т rȁt war
          • Slavic *ortьnikъ warrior "battle-nik"
            • East Slavic
              • Russian ра́тник rátnik warrior, soldier archaic
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian ра̏тнӣк rȁtnīk warrior
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἔρῐς éris strife, quarrel, rivalry, discord
          • Greek έριδα érida strife, feud
          • Ancient Greek Ἔρις Éris divinity of strife
            • English Eris
        • Hellenic
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀪𐀝 e-ri-nu
            • Ancient Greek Ἐρῑνῡ́ς Erīnū́s divinity of vengeance, a Fury
              • Latin Erinys
                • English Erinys
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀢𑀺 ṛtí quarrel, strife, attack
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃érmn̥ action or result noun
      • Greco-Armenian *h₃érmn̥ a rising, a plant coming up out of the ground
        • Old Armenian արմն armn root, tree trunk
          • Armenian արմ arm root, tree trunk
          • Old Armenian արմատ armat root, origin, foundation, stock
            • Armenian արմատ armat root (including mathematical and linguistic senses)
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὄρμενος órmenos shoot, sprout, stalk
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰeti resultative verb
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰ- to rise, high, to increase, to grow re-analyzed root
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰsḱéti sḱe- imperfective
          • Tocharian
            • Kushean *ārtk- to be make abundant
              • Kushean artkiye abundance
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰnéwti nw- imperfective
          • Indo-Iranian *Hr̥dʰnáwti
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀥𑁆𑀦𑁄𑀢𑀺 ṛdhnóti
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰyéti ye- imperfective
          • Indo-Iranian *Hr̥dʰyáti
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀥𑁆𑀬𑀢𑀺 ṛdhyáti
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰōs a height, a grown thing
          • Italic *arðōs
            • Latin arbor tree
              • English arbor
                • English Arbor Day
                • English Ann Arbor
              • Latin arborētum
                • English arboretum
              • Latin arboreus
                • English arboreal
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃ŕ̥dʰtis growth abstract action noun
          • Indo-Iranian *Hŕ̥ddʰiṣ
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀤𑁆𑀥𑀺
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós high, grown, upright adjective
          • Celtic *ardwos high
            • Brythonic *arð
              • Welsh ardd high
            • Old Irish ard
              • Irish ard high, tall, loud, ambitious
            • Celtic *ardo-windā? Height-Blessed?, place (forest) name [1]
              • Brythonic
                • English Arden
              • Gaulish Arduenna
                • Latin Arduenna (Silva)
                  • Western Romance
                    • French Ardennes
                      • English Ardennes
          • Hellenic *ortʰwós
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀃𐀵𐀺- o-to-wo-
              • Mycenaean Greek 𐀃𐀵𐀺𐀹𐀋 o-to-wo-wi-je probable personal name
            • Ancient Greek ὀρθός orthós straight, upright, true, correct, prosperous
              • English ortho-
              • Ancient Greek ὀρθόδοξος orthódoxos
                • English orthodox
          • Indo-Iranian *r̥Hdʰwás high, upright metathesis
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀊𑀭𑁆𑀥𑁆𑀯
          • Italic *arðwos
            • Latin arduus high, steep, difficult to reach
              • English arduous
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰtós high, grown, upright adjective
          • Indo-Iranian *Hr̥ddʰás
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀋𑀤𑁆𑀥
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰros risen adjective
          • Hellenic *ortʰros
            • Ancient Greek ὄρθρος órthros dawn, sunrise, morning twilight
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃ryéti transitive or deponent verb
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃reyH- to move, to set in motion, to flow re-analyzed root
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rinéHti
          • Albanian rij to humidify, to moisten
          • Balto-Slavic
            • Slavic rìnõti
          • Germanic *rinnanã to run, to rush
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍂𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 rinnan to run, to flow
                • Gothic *runna runner, walker, traveller
                  • Gothic *haljōrunna witch, sorceress assumed to be lit. "hell-walker"
                    • Latin haliurunna Gothic witch
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse rinna to flow, to run, to hurry, to melt
                • Danish rinde to flow, to secrete
                • Icelandic renna to flow, to slide, to slip, to melt
            • West Germanic
              • Old English rinnan to run
                • English run
              • Frankish *rinnan
                • Dutch rennen to run, to hurry, to flow, to leak, to combine
              • Old High German rinnan
                • German rinnen to flow, to leak, to trickle
          • Hellenic
            • Ancient Greek ὀρῑ́νω orī́nō
          • Indo-Iranian *HrináHti
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃réy(H)tis
          • Germanic *rīþiz
          • Indo-Iranian *HriHtíš
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃riHtós adjective
          • Italic *rītos
            • Italic *enrītos
            • Latin irrītō I incite, I instigate, I provoke, I irritate
              • English irritate
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃riHnós adjective
          • Albanian ren clouds, mist
          • Celtic *rēnos river
          • Messapian ῥινός cloud
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃riHwós adjective
          • Italic *rīwos
            • Latin rīvus a small stream, brook, channel, gutter [2]
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian râu river
              • Western Romance
                • French ru small stream
                • Italian rio
                • Italian rivo
                • Spanish río
              • Latin rīvulus
                • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • English rivulet [2]
                • Italian rivolo
              • Latin rīvālis related to a small stream, competitor for water rights
                • English rival [2]
              • Latin rīvō
                • Latin dērīvō I divert (as a stream of water), I draw off, I derive
                  • English derive [2]
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃reyHdʰh₁éti resultative
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃réy(H)dʰh₁- re-analyzed root
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₃réy(H)dʰh₁eti moves imperfective
            • Celtic *rēdeti
            • Germanic *rīdanã to ride
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse ríða to ride
                  • Danish ride to ride
                  • Icelandic ríða to ride
              • West Germanic
                • Old English rīdan to ride
                  • English ride
                • Old High German rītan to ride
                  • German reiten to ride
                • Frankish rīdan to ride
                  • Dutch rijden to ride, to drive
              • Finnic *raććas
                • Finnish ratsastaa to ride
          • Proto-Indo-European h₃roydʰh₁éyeti sets in motion, sends causative
            • Balto-Slavic *ráidīˀtei
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rey(H)dʰh₁éh₁ti stative?
            • Balto-Slavic *reidḗˀtei
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rey(H)dʰh₁-os action/result noun
            • Celtic *rēdos a ride
              • Gaulish reda chariot
              • Old Irish ríad journey, ride
              • Celtic *uɸorēdos horse lit. "under-ride"
                • Brythonic *gworuɨð
                  • Welsh gorwydd horse
                • Gaulish *werēdos
                  • Latin verēdus fast or light breed of horse
                    • Byzantine Greek βέρεδος posthorse
                      • Arabic بَرِيد barīd mail, postal service
                    • Latin verēdārius courier, horse-mounted messenger
                      • Western Romance
                        • Spanish veredero courier
                    • Latin paraverēdus
                      • Western Romance
                        • Old French palafrei small riding horse, palfrey
                          • French palefroi palfrey
                          • English palfrey
                        • Old Occitan
                          • Italian palafreno palfrey
                          • Spanish palafrén
                      • West Germanic *parafred horse
                        • Frankish *parifrid
                          • Dutch paard
                        • Old High German pfarifrit
                          • German Pferd
                          • Yiddish פֿערד ferd
                • Celtiberian *werēda
                  • Vulgar Latin
                    • Spanish vereda path, lane, horsepath, sidewalk
          • Proto-Indo-European *h₃roy(H)dʰh₁eh₂ collective, action, or abstract noun
            • Germanic *raidō ride, journey, the rune ᚱ
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐍂𐌴𐌳𐌰 rēda the letter 𐍂
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse reið the rune ᚱ
                  • Danish red
                  • Icelandic reið ride, chariot
              • West Germanic
                • Old English rād journey, ride, expedition, the rune ᚱ
                  • English road
                  • Scots raid expedition, raid
                    • English raid
                • Old High German reita
              • Finnic
                • Finnish raide track, railroad
              • Samic *rājδō
                • Northern Sami ráidu line of reindeer
              • English raido the rune ᚱ
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rwós moving, fast adjective
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rew- to run, to hurry re-analyzed root
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃reweti hurries primary verb
          • Italic *rowō
            • Latin ruō I hurry, I rush, I fall down, I fail
              • Sardinian ruere
              • Western Romance
                • French ruer to struggle, to fight, to kick (of a horse)
                • Spanish ruir to collapse
              • Latin ruīna a falling down, a collapse, ruins, debris
                • Western Romance
                  • French ruine
                    • English ruin
                  • Italian rovina destruction, collapse, bane, ruins, debris, mess
                  • Spanish ruina ruin, decay, decline, ruins
              • Latin corruō
                • Western Romance
                  • French crouler
                    • French écrouler
                  • Italian crollàre
              • Latin dīruō
                • Western Romance
                  • Spanish derruir
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃róweti hurries o-stem verb
          • Hellenic *orówō
            • Ancient Greek ὀρούω oroúō to rush, to spring forward
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₃rowsos rush, movement action noun
          • Balto-Slavic *raušas
            • Slavic *rȗxъ movement
              • East Slavic
                • Ukrainian рух rux movement, traffic
              • West Slavic
                • Polish ruch movement, traffic
              • Slavic *ruxnǫti to move
                • East Slavic
                  • Russian ру́хнуть rúxnutʹ to collapse, to crash, to fall

Visual

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Collected English words

Orient, orient, orientation, oriental, origin, original, earnest, Ernest, Ernie, Eris, Erinys, arbor, Arbor Day, Ann Arbor, arboretum, arboreal, Arden, Ardennes, ortho-, orthodox, arduous, run, irritate, rivulet, rival, derive, ride, palfrey, road, raid, raido, ruin

Footnotes

  1. ^

    In Celtic *ardo-windā?: "Height-Blessed?, place (forest) name"—the presumed ancestor of both the English Forest of Arden and the French Forest of Ardennes—the *ardo-: "height" part is fairly certain; the *windos: "blessed, fair, white" is much less certain.

  2. ^

    The Latin rīvus: "a small stream, brook, channel, gutter" gives Spanish río: "river", as well as English rivulet, rival (originally someone you are feuding with over water rights), and derive (originally to divert a stream of water); but not river! river is from Latin rīpa instead, from PIE *h₁reyp-: "to tear" (PIE *h₁reyp- gives English "riven", but not English rip!)