Word Family - Yesterday


In which yes- and -day in yesterday are the same root.

  • PIE *dʰǵʰes-tero-dʰoǵʰes
  • Germ. *(d)ges-tera-dagaz
  • OE ġes-ter-dæġ
  • English yes-ter-day

"The day that’s the other day"

Germanic *dagaz is often explained as being from *dʰegʷʰ-: "to burn", but the loss of labialization would be irregular, and the semantic connection is questionable. But if you assume that *dʰǵʰes-: "yesterday" (widely attested) is the zero-grade of a mostly unattested *dʰeǵʰ-es-, then there would be an expected o-grade *dʰogʰ-es, which is a perfect fit for Germanic *dagaz. (I'm working from the van den Oever/Kloekhorst/Klimp theory of *dagaz.)


day, daisy, yesterday, Camelops hesternus

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeǵʰ- day?, repeat?
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeǵʰnos daily?, repeating?
      • Balto-Slavic
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian dãžnas frequent
        • West Baltic
          • Old Prussian *desnai
            • Old Prussian kudesnammi periodically, every so often
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeǵʰ-es
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰoǵʰ-es
        • Germanic *dagaz day, the rune ᛞ
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 dags day, the letter 𐌳
              • Crimean Gothic tag day
              • Gothic *Dagisþius Day-People? (personal name)
                • Greek Δαγισθαῖος Dagisthaîos
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse dagr
              • Danish dag
              • Icelandic dagur
          • West Germanic
            • Old English dæġ day, the rune ᛞ
              • English day
              • Old English dæġes ēage daisy lit. "day's eye"
                • English daisy
            • Frankish
              • Dutch dag
            • Old High German tag
              • German Tag
              • Yiddish טאָג tog day
          • English dagaz the rune ᛞ
          • Germanic *gesteradagaz yesterday see below
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰes- petrified genitive singular?
        • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeǵʰesr̥ r/n stem noun
          • Indo-Iranian *áȷ́ʰr̥ loss of *dʰ- by influence from a zero-grade form?
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀳𑀭𑁆 áhar day
                • Sanskrit 𑀲𑀧𑁆𑀢𑀸𑀳 saptāhá seven-day, week
                  • Pali 𑀲𑀢𑁆𑀢𑀸𑀳 sattāha seven-day, week
                    • Khmer សត្តាហៈ sattaahaʼ week
                  • Sauraseni
                    • Pahari
                      • Nepali साता sātā week
                  • Hindi सप्ताह saptāh week
                  • Tamil ஸப்தாஹம் saptāham week
                  • Thai สัปดาห์ sàp-daa week
            • Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬀𐬭 aiiar day
          • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰéni locative
            • Indo-Iranian *áȷ́ʰani
              • Indo-Aryan
                • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀳𑀦𑀺 áhani
        • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰési locative
          • Albanian dje yesterday
          • Celtic *gdesi
            • Brythonic
              • Welsh ddoe yesterday
            • Celtic *sindos gdesi this yesterday
              • Old Irish indé
                • Irish inné yesterday
          • Hellenic *kʰtʰés
            • Ancient Greek χθές khthés yesterday
              • Greek χθες chthes yesterday, the past
          • Italic *hezī
            • Latin heri yesterday
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian ieri yesterday
              • Western Romance
                • French hier yesterday
                  • Haitian Creole yesterday
                • Italian ieri
                • Spanish ayer yesterday
              • Latin abante heri day before yesterday
                • Western Romance
                  • French avant-hier day before yesterday
                  • Italian avantieri day before yesterday
                  • Spanish anteayer day before yesterday
        • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰesteros with contrastive *-teros
          • Germanic *gesteraz yesterday
            • West Germanic
              • Old English ġiestran
                • English yester-
              • Frankish
                • Dutch gisteren yesterday
              • Old High German gesteren
                • German gestern yesterday
            • Germanic *gesteradagaz yesterday
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐌲𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍂𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌲𐌹𐍃 gistradagis tomorrow
              • West Germanic
                • Old English ġiestrandæġ yesterday
                  • English yesterday
              • North Germanic
                • Old Norse
                  • Swedish gårdag yesterday
          • Italic *hesternos
            • Latin hesternus related to yesterday, yesterday's
              • Translingual Camelops hesternus Yesterday's Camel (species name)
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰyes-
        • Germanic *gēz yesterday
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse gær yesterday
              • Old Norse í gær yesterday "at yesterday" compare locative *dʰǵʰés-i
                • Danish i går yesterday
                • Icelandic í gær yesterday, last night
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ġeāra long ago [1]
              • English yore [1]
        • Indo-Iranian *ȷ́ʰyás
          • Indo-Aryan *źʰyás
            • Sanskrit 𑀳𑁆𑀬𑀲𑁆 hyás yesterday
              • Elu
                • Sinhala ඊයේ īyē yesterday
              • Pali hiyyō
              • Sauraseni 𑀳𑀺𑀚𑁆𑀚𑁄 hijjo
                • Nepali हिजो
              • West Indo-Aryan
                • Romani idž yesterday
          • Iranian *ȷ́yáh
            • Avestan 𐬰𐬫𐬋 zyō
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish duhî yesterday
              • Old Persian 𐎮𐎹𐎣 di-ya-ka
                • Persian دی di yester, yesterday
                  • Persian دیروز diruz yesterday
                  • Persian دیشب dišab last night
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek χθιζός khthizós related to yesterday, yesterday's


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Collected English words

day, daisy, dagaz, yester-, yesterday, Camelops hesternus, yore


  1. ^

    Old English merges Germanic *je- and *ge- both to ġe-. Most likely the Old English "ġeāra" represents Germanic *je-, and "yore" is connected "year". But if it represents Germanic *ge-, then it strongly resembles Old Norse "gær": "yesterday". Either options is semantically plausible.