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  1. Word Family - Hard

    Introduction

    Democracy is Hard.

    Teaser

    Hippocratic Oath, democracy, hard, Richard

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *kret- strength, power
      • Proto-Indo-European *krétus
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κρατύς kratús
        • Indo-Iranian *krátuš power, capability, intelligence
          • Indo-Aryan *krátuṣ
            • Sanskrit क्रतु krátu intelligence, plan, power, ability
          • Iranian *xrátuh
          • Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎 xratu intelligence, thought, guidance
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian …
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  2. Word Family - Gossamer

    Introduction

    Now often called "Indian summer", the period of unseasonably hot weather after an initial autumn cooling was previously called in English "goose summer" because it generally corresponds with the beginning of goose hunting season. Compare Irish fómhar beag na ngéanna: "warm period in Autumn (Indian summer)"

    Then the word …

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  3. Word Family - Text

    August theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    subtle, text, dachshund, city, haunt, opponent

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *teḱ- to beget, to bring forth, to generate
      • Proto-Indo-European *téḱnom begotten
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τέκνον téknon child, descendant, young animal
            • Greek τέκνο tékno offspring, child
      • Proto-Indo-European *títḱe-ti Reduplicated thematic verb form
        • Hellenic *tíktō
          • Ancient Greek τίκτω tíktō …
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  4. Word Family - Beirut

    Introduction

    Beirut in my thoughts today.

    Beirut, "memory", "epicenter"

    Full Text

    • Semitic *biʔr- well, spring
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic
          • Classical Arabic بِئْر biʾr well, spring
            • Classical Arabic بُؤْرَة buʾra focus, epicenter
          • Egyptian Arabic بير bīr well, shaft, manhole
          • Maghrebi Arabic
            • Maltese bir well
          • Peninsular Arabic
            • Hijazi …
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  5. Word Family - Gold

    Introduction

    The colors white, gold, yellow, yellow-green, green, sky blue, and navy blue in various languages. And the chemical elements chlorine, gold and arsenic in English.

    Teaser

    chlorine, yellow, cholera, Glasgow, lapis lazuli, gold, yield, guild, arsenic

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- yellow, green
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃yeti becomes yellow-green
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic …
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  6. Word Family - Justice

    Introduction

    June is for Justice. Justice is Life. ✊🏿✊🏽✊🏼 🏳️‍🌈🏳️‍⚧️

    Teaser

    forever, young, rejuvenate, June, injury, justice

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ey- life, age, vital, eternal
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂óyu
        • Old Armenian այո ayo yes "on my life??"
          • Armenian այո ayo yes
        • Indo-Iranian *Hā́yu lifetime, life
          • Indo-Aryan *Hā́yu
            • Sanskrit आयु ā́yu
              • Pali …
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  7. Word Family - Vicinity

    Teaser

    vicinity, village, New York, sandwich, economy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ- settlement, to settle
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiḱéti settles, joins settlement
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian viešė́ti to visit [1]
        • Indo-Iranian *wićáti
          • Indo-Aryan *wiśáti
            • Sanskrit विशति viśáti enters
      • Proto-Indo-European *wewóyḱe is settled, is part of a settlement stative
        • Indo-Iranian *wawáyća
          • Indo-Aryan …
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  8. Word Family - Four

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Note: I haven't written in the definitions for words meaning "four", "four-", or "forty" if they're in the respective section.

    Teaser

    four, tesseract, square, squadron, quarter, Tetris, quarantine

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *kʷetwóres oblique stem *kʷetwr-, feminine stem *kʷétesr- [1]
      • Albanian katër
      • Anatolian *gʷetʷóres
        • Lycian 𐊗𐊁𐊗𐊁𐊕𐊆 teteri
      • Old Armenian …
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  9. Word Family - Pandemic

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Demon Pandemic Zeitgeist Time

    Teaser

    democracy, pandemic, zeitgeist, time, demon

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂- to share, to divide
      • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂yéti divides
        • Albanian daj I divide
        • Hellenic *dayomai
          • Ancient Greek δαίομαι daíomai to divide, to distribute
        • Indo-Iranian *dáyatay
          • Indo-Aryan *dáyatay
            • Sanskrit दयते dáyate to divide, to take part in …
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  10. Word Family - Isolate

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Celtic, Greek, and Latin each have words for "island" that involve /n/ and /s/ and cannot be completely explained. One possibility is that they are all borrowings from the same non-Indo-European source.

    Even if those three are all connected, it would still be beyond credibility for Malayo-Polynesian *nusa …

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  11. Word Family - Singh

    New Years theme: Lions 🦁

    Teaser

    Singh, Sinhala, Singapore, shih tzu

    Full Text

    • Central Asian substrate *sVrng-??
      • Late Indo-European dialect *sinǵʰos
        • Armenian ինձ inj panther
          • Armenian ընձառյուծ ənjaṙyuc leopard
        • Indo-Aryan *sinȷ́ʰás [1]
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit सिंह sĩhá lion, hero [2]
              • Maharashtri 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀖 sĩgha
                • Marathi
                • Tamil சிங்கம் ciṅkam lion, Leo …
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