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  1. Word Family - Hard

    Introduction

    Democracy is Hard.

    Teaser

    Hippocratic Oath, democracy, hard, Richard

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *kret- strength, power
      • Proto-Indo-European *krétus
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κρατύς kratús
        • Indo-Iranian *krátuš power, capability, intelligence
          • Indo-Aryan *krátuṣ
            • Sanskrit क्रतु krátu intelligence, plan, power, ability
          • Iranian *xrátuh
          • Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎 xratu intelligence, thought, guidance
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Medean *xratu
                • Old Persian …
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  2. Word Family - Gossamer

    Introduction

    The period of unseasonably hot weather after an initial autumn cooling—now often called "Indian summer"—was previously called "goose summer" in English because it corresponds with the beginning of goose hunting season. Compare Irish fómhar beag na ngéanna: "warm period in Autumn (Indian summer)", literally "little autumn of …

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  3. Word Family - Tunic

    Teaser

    cotton, chitin, tunic

    Full Text

    • Anatolian substrate
      • Eastern substrate *kito flax
        • Sumerian 𒃰 gada flax
        • Sumerian 𒆤 kid cloth mat
        • Akkadian 𒃰 kitu flax
          • Old Armenian կտաւ ktaw flax
            • Armenian Կտավ ktav flax, linen, canvas
        • Ugaritic 𐎖𐎉 qṭ flax, linseed
        • Central substrate *kito-na
          • Aramaic כּיתָּנָא kittānā linen, flax
            • Aramaic כִּיתּוּנָא kittōnā linen garment, tunic, shirt, layer, shell …
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  4. Word Family - Beirut

    Introduction

    Beirut in my thoughts today.

    Beirut, "memory", "epicenter"

    Full Text

    • Semitic *biʔr- well, spring
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic
          • Classical Arabic بِئْر biʾr well, spring
            • Classical Arabic بُؤْرَة buʾra focus, epicenter
          • Egyptian Arabic بير bīr well, shaft, manhole
          • Maghrebi Arabic
            • Maltese bir well
          • Peninsular Arabic
            • Hijazi Arabic بير bīr well
              • Hijazi Arabic …
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  5. Word Family - Navy

    Introduction

    For the UN Interntaional Day of the Seafarer (June 25)

    Teaser

    naiad, astronaut, nausea, navy, navigate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₂- to float, to swim
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)néh₂ti floats, swims
        • Celtic *snāti
          • Old Irish snaid swims
        • Hellenic
          • Classical Greek νᾱ́ω nā́ō I flow
            • Classical Greek Νᾱϊᾰ́ς Nāïás naiad
              • English …
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  6. Word Family - Justice

    Introduction

    June is for Justice. Justice is Life. ✊🏿✊🏽✊🏼 🏳️‍🌈🏳️‍⚧️

    Teaser

    forever, not, age, young, rejuvenate, June, injury, justice

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ey- life, age, vital, eternal
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂óyu
        • Old Armenian այո ayo yes "on my life??"
          • Armenian այո ayo yes
        • Indo-Iranian *Hā́yu lifetime, life
          • Indo-Aryan *Hā́yu
            • Sanskrit 𑀆𑀬𑀼 ā́yu …
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  7. Word Family - Pandemic

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Demon Pandemic Zeitgeist Time

    Teaser

    democracy, pandemic, zeitgeist, time, demon

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂- to share, to divide
      • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂yéti divides
        • Albanian daj I divide
        • Hellenic *dayomai
          • Ancient Greek δαίομαι daíomai to divide, to distribute
        • Indo-Iranian *dáyatay
          • Indo-Aryan *dáyatay
            • Sanskrit दयते dáyate to divide, to take part in, to …
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  8. Word Family - Isolate

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Celtic, Greek, and Latin each have words for "island" that involve /n/ and /s/ and cannot be completely explained. One possibility is that they are all borrowings from the same non-Indo-European source.

    Even if those three are all connected, it would still be beyond credibility for Malayo-Polynesian *nusa …

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  9. Word Family - Singh

    January theme: Lions 🦁

    Teaser

    Singh, Sinhala, Singapore, shih tzu

    Full Text

    • Central Asian substrate *sVrng-??
      • Late Indo-European dialect *sinǵʰos
        • Armenian ինձ inj panther
          • Armenian ընձառյուծ ənjaṙyuc leopard
        • Indo-Aryan *sinȷ́ʰás [1]
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀳 sĩhá lion, hero [2]
              • Maharashtri 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀖 sĩgha
                • Tamil சிங்கம் ciṅkam lion, Leo
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi सिंघ sĩgh lion
              • Pali …
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