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  1. Word Family - Bleak

    January theme: 98, 99, 100! 💯

    Teaser

    blue, beluga, flame, bleach, black

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- to shine
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoltós
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian báltas white
          • Latin Balthae
            • Medieval Latin Balticus
              • English Baltic
        • Illyrian balta swamp
          • Albanian baltë mud
          • Balto-Slavic *balta
            • Latin Balthae
            • Slavic *bolto swamp, mud
              • East Slavic болото boloto
                • Russian боло …
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  2. Word Family - Arbiter

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Europe, Maghreb, Arabia, Erebus

    Full Text

    • Semitic *[ʕ/ġ]rb to depart, to set
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic ġaraba
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic ערובה ʿrōbā sunset, evening, (Sabbath) eve
          • Canaanite
            • Phoenician *'irōb
              • Homeric Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē Western shore of the Aegean,\nmainland Greece\n(as opposed to …
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  3. Word Family - Moon

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, modem, accommodate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
      • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁 framīmaθā set the limits of, assign, authorize
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
        • Celtic *māros …
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  4. Word Family - Night

    October theme: Night time 🌃

    Teaser

    naga, naked, gym, night, nocturnal

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *negʷ- bare
      • Proto-Indo-European *nogʷó-s naked thing, naked one noun
        • Balto-Slavic *nōˀgás naked
          • Lithuanian núogas naked
          • Slavic *nȃgъ naked
            • East Slavic
              • Russian наго́й nagój naked
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian наг nag naked
            • West Slavic
              • Polish nagi naked
        • Indo-Iranian …
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  5. Word Family - Community

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    municipal, common, communicate, Mithra, mix, mutant, miss

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *mey- to exchange, to intermingle
      • Proto-Indo-European *moyno-s
        • Italic *moinos
          • Latin mūnus service, duty, obligation, public office
            • Latin mūniceps citizen (duty-taker)
              • Latin mūnicipium township, town
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian municipo town council, town hall, government office
              • Latin mūnicipālis …
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  6. Word Family - Guest

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    guest and host, hospitality and hostility

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European gʰes- to eat
      • Proto-Indo-European gʰese-ti primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit घसति ghásati to eat
          • Iranian
            • East Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬵 gah to eat, to gorge
      • Northwest Indo-European gʰóst-is guest, stranger ~"eater"
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *gȏstь guest
            • East Slavic
              • Russian …
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  7. Word Family - Daughter

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter

    Full Text

    • Teaser: female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter
    • startbody
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰewgʰ- to produce, to be strong, to be fruitful, to give milk
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéwgʰ-ti primary verb form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τεύχω teúkhō
        • Indo-Iranian *dáwgdʰi to milk
          • Iranian *dáwgdi
            • Western Iranian …
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  8. Word Family - Taran

    February theme: Weather ⛈️

    Teaser

    Thor, thunder, astonish, tornado, detonate, Tarquinia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tenh₂- thunder [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)ténh₂e-ti to thunder
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian steneti
          • Slavic *stenàti to groan, to moan
            • East Slavic стенати stenati
              • Russian стена́ть stenátʹ to groan, to moan (archaic)
            • South Slavic
              • Bulgarian сте́на sténa …
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  9. Word Family - Rex

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This is the #WordFamilyFriday that no matter how long I work on it, it's never done. That's what I get for trying to explore the possibility that two extremely important and productive roots may be connected: *h₂er-, related to cosmic order, and *h₃reǵ-, related to societal …

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  10. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, which is an unusually high amount of variation, and with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    1. It's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, but still awfully similar.
    2. Looking at any …
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  11. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do these two …

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  12. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds to Germanic t …

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  13. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be …
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  14. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Ethiopia, ether, ethereal, Hugh, O'Hea, Hayes, Aidan, Enya, Egan, MacEgan, Keegan, Maddoc, Mogue, Kenneth, edify, edifice, anneal, mareel, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰe-ti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit एधते édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic …
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  15. Word Family - Ignite

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Agni, ignite, wonga

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis fire animate, elemental fire as opposed to <*péh₂wr̥>: fire as an inanimate/contained substance
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • Lithuanian ugnìs fire
        • Slavic *õgnjь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ого́нь ogónʹ fire, light, weapons fire
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̀гањ òganj fire …
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  16. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Introduction

    August and September will be element themed, starting with two "earth" families.

    Teaser

    chthonic, Demeter, George, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
      • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
        • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
          • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother …
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  17. Word Family - Easter

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    Easter, air, Austria, Australia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old …
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