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  1. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    • While it's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, they're all still awfully similar.
    • Looking at any two of "pour …
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  2. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do …

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  3. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds …

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  4. Word Family - Nectar

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    innocent, noxious, necromancer, nectar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- to perish, to disappear
      • Proto-Indo-European *néḱy-eti perishes, disappears imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *náĉyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit नश्यति naśyati to be lost, to perish, to disappear, to be gone
          • Iranian
            • Avestan nasiieiti
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian nʾsyd
      • Proto-Indo-European …
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  5. Word Family - Death

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Introduction

    A root meaning "to run, to depart" can be reconstructed from Hellenic and Indo-Iranian. But in Northwest branches, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly Italic, there is a phonologically identical root meaning "to die". So it's probably a euphemism coined in a Late Northwest Indo-European …

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  6. Word Family - Mummy

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    mu, mummy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *maʾ-
      • Berber
        • Tashelhit aman water
        • Tuareg ⵎⵏ aman water
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale am water
      • Egyptian 𓈖 mw water, rain, sea, lake
        • Demotic Egyptian mw
          • Coptic ⲙⲟⲟⲩ moou water
          • Egyptian Arabic امبو ʾumbū water, drink childish
          • Ancient Greek μῦ
            • Greek μι mi
            • English mu
              • English …
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  7. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    Tulips and lilies from Egyptian

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷:𓂋-𓂋:𓏏-𓆰 ḥrrt flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹-𓁷:𓂋-𓂋:𓏏-𓆰 jrj-ḥrrt to blossom lit. "make-flower" or "do-flower"
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Classical Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily …
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  8. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱 ābu elephant, ivory usually with determiner suffix 𓃰 or 𓌟 to distinguish between "elephant" and "ivory"
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Sanskrit …
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  9. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be warm, be hot
        • Proto-Indo-European *tep-eti …
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  10. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    ether, Aidan, edifice, anneal, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰ-eti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀏𑀥𑀢𑁂 édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic
          • Classical Greek αἴθω aíthō To kindle, to light, to burn
            • Classical Greek …
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  11. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass …
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  12. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sewer, sober

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic *aβon
          • Cumbric *avon
            • Cumbric *Ir Avon Fresh-Water …
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  13. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    chthonic, algorithm, humus, Demeter, Gaea, George, geometry, chameleon, camomile, humility, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰm̥ earth singular
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán / tēkan earth
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰōm the earth, the lands collective
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite *tagān
          • Hittite ta-ga-an-zi-pa-aš earth-goddess …
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  14. Word Family - Edge

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, tear, edge, axe, hammer, hear, acoustic, coin, cuneiform

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros …
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  15. Word Family - Avatar

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    avatar, trans-, tradition, nectar, thorough

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- to cross over, pass through, overcome
      • Proto-Indo-European *térh₂eti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *tárHati
          • Indo-Aryan *tárHati
            • Sanskrit तरति tarati pass over, float, swim
              • Sauraseni *tiradi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तैरना tairnā to float
          • Iranian *tárHatī
            • Avestan titarat̰ overcame
            • Northern …
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  16. Word Family - Queer

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    torque, torch, queer, intricate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷ- to turn
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷti
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒋻𒆪𒉿𒀭𒍣 tarku-zi performs a round dance, dances in twisting manner
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷeti
        • Albanian tjerr I spin
        • Hellenic
          • Mycenaean Greek *to-ro-qe
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀵𐀫𐀤𐀍𐀕𐀜 to-ro-qe-jo-me-no ?
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀵𐀫𐀣𐀲 e-to-ro-qa-ta oar holder, twisted …
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  17. Word Family - Two

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    two, neodymium, duet, biceps, bi-, biscuit, duplicate, Maldives, doppelganger, icosahedron, twin, nonbinary

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ two
      • Old Armenian երկու erku two [1]
        • Old Armenian կրկին krkin double, doubled, iterated
          • Armenian կրկին krkin double, again, once more
        • Armenian երկու erku two
      • Italic *duō two
        • Umbrian 𐌕𐌖𐌚 tuf two
        • Latin …
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  18. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic …
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  19. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ S …
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  20. Word Family - Cloth

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    clay, glue, cloth, cloud, child

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *gleh₁- ball up, amass
      • Proto-Indo-European *gleh₁y- to smear, to stick, to glue
        • Proto-Indo-European *gléh₁iti
          • Proto-Albanian *en-gleita
            • Albanian ngjit stick, glue, adhere
        • Proto-Indo-European *gloh₁iyós sticky
          • Germanic *klajjaz clay
            • Old English clǣġ clay
              • English clay
              • English clog …
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  21. Word Family - Easter

    Teaser

    Eärendil, Easter, air, soar, east, Austria, Australia, early

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old English Ēarendel …
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  22. Word Family - Cat

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    cat,caterpillar

    Full Text

    • Egyptian *Caw [1]
      • Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau cat dialectic
      • Egyptian *Cawt female cat with regular feminine -t
        • Aramaic qaṭṭu cat
          • Arabic قِطّ qiṭṭ cat
          • Hebrew חָתוּל khatúl cat
          • Old Armenian կատու katu cat
            • Armenian կատու katu cat
          • Georgian კატა ḳaṭa cat
          • Byzantine Greek …
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  23. Word Family - Cavalry

    March theme: Horses

    Teaser

    capercaillie, chivalry, cavalier, cavalry

    Full Text

    • ??
      • Turkic
        • Old Turkish käväl horse? [1]
        • Persian ?
        • Proto-Slavic *kobyla mare (female horse)
          • Russian кобы́ла kobýla mare
          • Polish kobyła mare
      • Saka kabä
      • Ancient Greek καβάλλης kabállēs nag, pony
      • Proto-Celtic *capallos
        • Brythonic *kappilos horse
          • Welsh ceffyl horse
            • English Cavall [2]
            • English Cabal …
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  24. Word Family - Equus

    March theme: March of Horses 🐎

    Teaser

    hippopotamus, equestrian, zebra

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁eḱ- swift, fast [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₁oh₁ḱus a *o-∅-us reduplicative adjective form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὠκῠ́ς ōkús fast, swift
            • Ancient Greek ποδώκης podṓkēs swift-footed
            • Ancient Greek ὠκῠ́ροος ōkúroos swift-flowing
              • Ancient Greek Ὠκυρόη Ōkuróē Swift-Flowing (personal name), river divinity …
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  25. Word Family - Smile

    Teaser

    mirror, admire, miracle, Miranda, smile

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *smey- to laugh, to be glad
      • Proto-Indo-European *sméyeti primry verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian smiêt to laugh
          • Slavic *smьjàti to laugh
            • East Slavic
              • Russian смеяться smejátʹsja to laugh, to mock
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian смѝјати smìjati to laugh
            • West Slavic
              • Polish śmiaćsię to …
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