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  1. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    • While it's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, they're all still awfully similar.
    • Looking at any two of "pour", "cry", "libate", "invoke" they …
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  2. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do these two …

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  3. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds to Germanic t …

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  4. Word Family - Nectar

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    innocent, noxious, necromancer, nectar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- to perish, to disappear
      • Proto-Indo-European *néḱy-eti perishes, disappears imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *náĉyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit नश्यति naśyati to be lost, to perish, to disappear, to be gone
          • Iranian
            • Avestan nasiieiti
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian nʾsyd
      • Proto-Indo-European …
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  5. Word Family - Death

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Introduction

    A root meaning "to run, to depart" can be reconstructed from Hellenic and Indo-Iranian. But in Northwest branches, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly Italic, there is a phonologically identical root meaning "to die". So it's probably a euphemism coined in a Late Northwest Indo-European …

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  6. Word Family - Quick

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    quick, biology, vitamin, zoology, hygiene

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷeyh₃- to live
      • Proto-Indo-European *gʷíh₃weti to be alive
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian gyventi to live, to inhabit
          • Slavic *žiti
            • East Slavic
              • Russian жить žitʹ to live, to reside
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic жити žiti to live
              • Serbo-Croatian …
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  7. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    lily

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 ḥrr-t flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 jrj ḥrr-t to blossom
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Ancient Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily plural …
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  8. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱(𓃰,𓌟) ābu elephant, ivory
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀩𐀞 e-re-pa
        • Sanskrit इभ ibha …
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  9. Word Family - Cane

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Introduction

    Sumerians and reeds were very influential! (Cuneiform was written with a sharpened reed stylus and was the first writing system, with Egyptian hieroglyphs possibly tied for first.)

    I love that "canon" and "cannon" are related.

    Teaser

    cane, cannon, channel, canister, canon

    Full Text

    • Sumerian …
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  10. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be …
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  11. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Ethiopia, ether, ethereal, Hugh, O'Hea, Hayes, Aidan, Enya, Egan, MacEgan, Keegan, Maddoc, Mogue, Kenneth, edify, edifice, anneal, mareel, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰe-ti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit एधते édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic …
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  12. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass
              • Polish …
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  13. Word Family - Ignite

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Agni, ignite, wonga

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis fire animate, elemental fire as opposed to <*péh₂wr̥>: fire as an inanimate/contained substance
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • Lithuanian ugnìs fire
        • Slavic *õgnjь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ого́нь ogónʹ fire, light, weapons fire
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̀гањ òganj fire …
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  14. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sober

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic *aβon
          • Welsh afon river
          • English Avon
            • English Stratford-upon-Avon
        • Old Irish …
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  15. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Introduction

    August and September will be element themed, starting with two "earth" families.

    Teaser

    chthonic, Demeter, George, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
      • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
        • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
          • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother …
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  16. Word Family - Edge

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, tear, edge, axe, hammer, hear, acoustic, coin, cuneiform

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros a …
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  17. Word Family - Avatar

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    avatar, trans-, tradition, nectar, thorough

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- to cross over, pass through, overcome
      • Proto-Indo-European *térh₂eti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *tárHati
          • Indo-Aryan *tárHati
            • Sanskrit तरति tarati pass over, float, swim
              • Sauraseni *tiradi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तैरना tairnā to float
          • Iranian *tárHatī
            • Avestan titarat …
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  18. Word Family - Queer

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    torque, torch, queer, intricate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷ- to turn
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷti
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒋻𒆪𒉿𒀭𒍣 tarku-zi performs a round dance, dances in twisting manner
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷeti
        • Albanian tjerr I spin
        • Hellenic
          • Mycenaean Greek *to-ro-qe
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀵𐀫𐀤𐀍𐀕𐀜 to-ro-qe-jo-me-no ?
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀵𐀫𐀣𐀲 e-to-ro-qa-ta oar holder …
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  19. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse dafna thrive …
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  20. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ …
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  21. Word Family - Text

    August theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    subtle, text, dachshund, city, haunt, opponent

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *teḱ- to beget, to bring forth, to generate
      • Proto-Indo-European *téḱnom begotten
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τέκνον téknon child, descendant, young animal
            • Greek τέκνο tékno offspring, child
      • Proto-Indo-European *títḱe-ti Reduplicated thematic verb form
        • Hellenic *tíktō
          • Ancient Greek τίκτω tíktō …
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  22. Word Family - Easter

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    Easter, air, Austria, Australia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old …
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  23. Word Family - Cavalry

    March theme: Horses

    Teaser

    capercaillie, chivalry, cavalier, cavalry

    Full Text

    • ??
      • Turkic
        • Old Turkish käväl horse? [1]
        • Persian ?
        • Proto-Slavic *kobyla mare (female horse)
          • Russian кобы́ла kobýla mare
          • Polish kobyła mare
      • Saka kabä
      • Ancient Greek καβάλλης kabállēs nag, pony
      • Proto-Celtic *capallos
        • Brythonic *kappilos horse
          • Welsh ceffyl horse
            • English Cavall [2]
            • English …
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  24. Word Family - Equus

    March theme: Horses 🐎

    Teaser

    hippopotamus, equestrian, zebra, Afghanistan

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European h₁éḱwos horse [1]
      • Anatolian *ʔeḱu-
        • Hittite 𒀲𒆳𒊏𒍑 ekkus horse
      • Armenian էշ
        • Latin asinus donkey
          • Old English assen donkey, ass
            • English ass
          • Latin assellus small/young donkey
            • Germanic *asiluz donkey
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐌰𐍃𐌹𐌻𐌿𐍃 asilus donkey
              • Slavic *osilu donkey
                • East …
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  25. Word Family - Smile

    Teaser

    mirror, admire, miracle, Miranda, smile

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *smey- to laugh, to be glad
      • Proto-Indo-European *sméyeti primry verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian smiêt to laugh
          • Slavic *smьjàti to laugh
            • East Slavic
              • Russian смеяться smejátʹsja to laugh, to mock
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian смѝјати smìjati to laugh
            • West Slavic
              • Polish śmiaćsię to laugh …
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