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  1. Word Family - Mummy

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    mu, mummy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *maʾ-
      • Berber
        • Tashelhit aman water
        • Tuareg ⵎⵏ aman water
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale am water
      • Egyptian 𓈖 mw water, rain, sea, lake
        • Demotic Egyptian mw
          • Coptic ⲙⲟⲟⲩ moou water
          • Egyptian Arabic امبو ʾumbū water, drink childish
          • Ancient Greek μῦ …
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  2. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    lily

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 ḥrr-t flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 jrj ḥrr-t to blossom
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Ancient Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily plural …
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  3. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱(𓃰,𓌟) ābu elephant, ivory
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Sanskrit इभ ibha elephant rare; `हस्त …
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  4. Word Family - Cane

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    cane, cannon, canon

    Full Text

    • Sumerian 𒄀𒈾 gi.na reed
      • Akkadian 𒄀 qanû reed
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀒𐀜𐀛𐀠 ko-no-ni-pi cross bar?
        • Hebrew קָנֶה kané cane, stick, reed, windpipe
        • ? Pre-Greek substrate?
          • Ancient Greek κάννα kánna reed, reed mat
            • Latin canna reed, cane, pipe, flute …
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  5. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be …
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  6. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Aidan, edify, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰe-ti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit एधते édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek αἴθω aíthō To kindle, to light, to burn
            • Ancient Greek Αἰθίοψ Aithíops Ethiopian
              • Ancient …
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  7. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass
              • Polish …
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  8. Word Family - Ignite

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Agni, ignite, wonga

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis fire animate, elemental fire as opposed to <*péh₂wr̥>: fire as an inanimate/contained substance
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • Lithuanian ugnìs fire
        • Slavic *õgnjь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ого́нь ogónʹ fire, light, weapons fire
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̀гањ òganj fire …
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  9. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, Jersey, Scandinavia, aquarium, inebriate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water passive, standing water as opposed to active, elemental water: <*wed->
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic …
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  10. Word Family - Water

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    vodka, water, hydrogen, otter

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *wed- water animate, elemental water as opposed to passive, standing water: <*h₂ep->
      • Proto-Indo-European *wódr water oblique form: <*udén->
        • Pre-Albanian *udrijā
          • Albanian ujë water
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉿𒀀𒋻 wa-a-tar water
        • Balto-Slavic *wandō water
          • Lithuanian vanduõ water, flow, current
            • Lithuanian …
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  11. Word Family - Human

    Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    chthonic, Demeter, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
      • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
        • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
          • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother goddess
          • Lithuanian žemýnas continent
        • Slavic *zemljà earth, soil, land
          • East Slavic
            • Russian земля́ zemljá earth, soil …
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  12. Word Family - Edge

    July theme: Miscellaneous 🔨

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, axe, hammer, hear

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros a witty saying …
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  13. Word Family - Seven

    July Miscellaneous

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic
      • Berber
        • Amazigh satti
        • Northern Berber
          • Kabyle sebea
          • Atlas Berber
            • Taselhit ? sa
          • Zenati
            • Riffian sa
        • Tuareg ? essa
      • Egyptian śfḫ
        • Demotic Egyptian sáfxe
          • Coptic šašf
      • Semitic *s-b-'tu
        • Central Semitic
          • Arabic سَبْع sabʿ
            • Maltese sebgħa
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Aramaic ܫܒܥ‎‎ šbaʕ
            • Canaanite
              • Hebrew שֶׁבַע‎‎ sheva …
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  14. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse dafna thrive …
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  15. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ …
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  16. Word Family - Mare

    March theme: Horses 🐎

    Teaser

    marshal, mare

    Full Text

    • Botai?
      • Sino-Tibetan *k-m-raŋ
        • Old Chinese *mrāʔ
          • Middle Chinese
            • Mandarin horse also the chess piece
          • Taiwanese horse
          • Tai *maːᶜ horse
            • Thai ม้า máa horse also the chess piece
            • Lao ມ້າ horse
        • Tibeto-Burman *mrāŋ horse
          • Tibetan ར …
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