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  1. Word Family - Phoenix

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝️

    Teaser

    Punic, phoenix, Phoenicia, Tisiphone, bane

    Full Text

    • Egyptian fnḫ carpenter, woodcutter
      • Egyptian fnḫw woodcutters, Canaanites, Syrians
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀡𐀛𐀑𐀍 po-ni-ki-jo trade commodity of some sort
          • Ancient Greek φοῖνῐξ phoînix Phoenician, purple or crimson, date palm, a guitar-like instrument from Phoenicia, phoenix
            • Latin Poenus a Phoenician …
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  2. Word Family - Egypt

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝️

    Teaser

    Egypt, Hephaestus

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ptḥ to create?, to begin?
      • Egyptian ptḥ Ptah, self-created divinity of craft and creation
        • English Ptah
        • Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ Temple of the Soul of Ptah, Memphis
          • Mycenaean Greek *ai-ku-pi-to
            • Ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος Aíguptos Egypt, the Nile
              • Latin Aegyptus Egypt
                • Western Romance …
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  3. Word Family - Attercop

    November theme: Spiders 🕷

    Teaser

    Oedipus, oat, attercop

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eyd- to swell, abcess, tumor
      • Proto-Indo-European h₂oydéy-eti
        • Old Armenian այտնում aytnum to swell, to be inflamed, to be bloated
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek οἰδέω to swell, to become swollen
            • Ancient Greek οἴδημᾰ oídēma a swelling, a tumor
              • English edema
      • Proto-Indo-European h₂oydro-s …
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  4. Word Family - Witch

    Halloween Bonus Family

    Teaser

    witch, , victim

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyk- to separate, to choose, to consecrate
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiknéh₂-ti
        • Germanic *wikkōną
          • West Germanic *wikkōną
            • Old English wiċċian
              • English (be)witch
            • Frankish *wikkon
            • Old High German *wikkōn
              • German wicken
            • West Germanic *wikkô
              • Old English wiċċa
                • English witch
                • Scots wich witch
                • English …
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  5. Word Family - Moon

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃🎂

    Teaser

    measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, mode, moderate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
      • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
        • Celtic *māros big, great
          • Brythonic *mọr
            • Welsh mawr large …
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  6. Word Family - Star

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    arid, star disaster, ash

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁s- to be dry, to burn, ashes, hearth
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁seh₁(ye)-ti stative
        • Italic *āzēō
          • Latin āreō I am dry, I am parched, I am withered
            • Latin āridus dry, withered, arid, shrivelled, uninspired
              • Western Romance
                • Italian arido arid, barren …
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  7. Word Family - Sleep

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    sleep, avalanche, lip, lobe

    Full Text

    • ?
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂b- to hang loosely, to be weak, lip, to lick
        • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂be-ti to fall down? to relax? primary verb
          • Germanic *slēpaną to sleep
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍃𐌻𐌴𐍀𐌰𐌽 slēpan to sleep
                • Crimean Gothic schlipen to sleep
            • West Germanic …
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  8. Word Family - Persimmon

    Holiday Bonus: Indigenous Peoples Day

    Teaser

    Saskatoon, persimmon

    Full Text

    • Algic *mene
      • Yurok menomen Juneberry
      • Algonquian *mi·na berry
        • Central Algonquian
          • Cree ᒦᓂᐢ miinis (wild) berry or fruit
            • Cree ᒥᓵᐢᑲᐧᑑᒥᐣ misa˙skwato˙min saskatoon berry
              • English saskatoon
                • English Saskatoon
          • Menominee -men- fruit, berry, grain
          • Ojibwe -min berry
            • Ojibwe niibiminaa high-bush …
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  9. Word Family - Community

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    municipal, common, communicate, Mithra, mix, mutant, miss

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *mey- to exchange, to intermingle
      • Proto-Indo-European *moyno-s
        • Italic *moinos
          • Latin mūnus service, duty, obligation, public office
            • Latin mūniceps citizen (duty-taker)
              • Latin mūnicipium township, town
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian municipo town council, town hall, government office
              • Latin mūnicipālis …
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  10. Word Family - Folk

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    complete, supply, full, poly-, folk

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁ to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁-ti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πλῆτο plêto
      • Proto-Indo-European pleh₁st sigma perfective
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥-pleh₁st in-fill (perfective)
          • Indo-Iranian *HápraHt
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit अप्रात् áprāt to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pípleh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πίμπλημι pímplēmi …
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  11. Word Family - Guest

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    guest and host, hospitality and hostility

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European gʰes- to eat
      • Proto-Indo-European gʰese-ti primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit घसति ghásati to eat
          • Iranian
            • East Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬵 gah to eat, to gorge
      • Northwest Indo-European gʰóst-is guest, stranger ~"eater"
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *gȏstь guest
            • East Slavic
              • Russian …
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  12. Word Family - Android

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    droid, androgynous, Nero, Andrew

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr (adult/married) man
      • Proto-Albanian *nera
        • Old Albanian njer
          • Albanian njeri man
      • Hellenic *anḗr
        • Ancient Greek ἀνήρ anḗr (adult) man, husband, mortal
          • Greek άνδρας ándras (adult) man, husband
          • Ancient Greek ἀνδρο- andro-
            • English andro-
              • English android
                • English droid …
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  13. Word Family - Robot

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    orphan, robot

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erbʰ- to be part of (a group or family)?, to owe allegiance to?, to change owernship?
      • Hittite ḫarp- to associate with, to go over to, to change allegiance
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃orbʰyo-m inheritance? plural: <*h₃orbʰyéh₂>
        • Celtic *orbyom inheritance plural: <*orbyā>
          • Old Irish …
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  14. Word Family - Daughter

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter

    Full Text

    • Teaser: female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter
    • startbody
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰewgʰ- to produce, to be strong, to be fruitful, to give milk
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéwgʰ-ti primary verb form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τεύχω teúkhō
        • Indo-Iranian *dáwgdʰi to milk
          • Iranian *dáwgdi
            • Western Iranian …
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  15. Word Family - Moa

    April Theme: Birds 🐦

    Teaser

    moa, manuk

    Full Text

    • Sino-Austronesian?
      • Proto-Austronesian *manuk bird
        • Malayo-Polynesian
          • Bajau memanuk bird
          • Javanese ꦩꦤꦸꦏ꧀ manuk bird
          • Malayic *manuk
            • Malay manuk bird, chicken
          • Phillipine
            • Tagalog manók chicken
          • Oceanic
            • Micronesian
              • Chuukese machang bird
              • Kiribati man bird
            • Polynesian *manu bird
              • Tongan manupuna bird
              • Nuclear Polynesian
                • Samoan manu bird …
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