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  1. Word Family - Text

    August theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    subtle, text, dachshund, city, haunt, opponent

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *teḱ- to beget, to bring forth, to generate
      • Proto-Indo-European *téḱnom begotten
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τέκνον téknon child, descendant, young animal
            • Greek τέκνο tékno offspring, child
      • Proto-Indo-European *títḱe-ti Reduplicated thematic verb form
        • Hellenic *tíktō
          • Ancient Greek τίκτω tíktō …
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  2. Word Family - Beirut

    Introduction

    Beirut in my thoughts today.

    Beirut, "memory", "epicenter"

    Full Text

    • Semitic *biʔr- well, spring
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic
          • Classical Arabic بِئْر biʾr well, spring
            • Classical Arabic بُؤْرَة buʾra focus, epicenter
          • Egyptian Arabic بير bīr well, shaft, manhole
          • Maghrebi Arabic
            • Maltese bir well
          • Peninsular Arabic
            • Hijazi …
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  3. Word Family - Gold

    Introduction

    The colors white, gold, yellow, yellow-green, green, sky blue, and navy blue in various languages. And the chemical elements chlorine, gold and arsenic in English.

    Teaser

    chlorine, yellow, cholera, Glasgow, lapis lazuli, gold, yield, guild, arsenic

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- yellow, green
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰélh₃yeti becomes yellow-green
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic …
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  4. Word Family - Justice

    Introduction

    June is for Justice. Justice is Life. ✊🏿✊🏽✊🏼 🏳️‍🌈🏳️‍⚧️

    Teaser

    forever, young, rejuvenate, June, injury, justice

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ey- life, age, vital, eternal
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂óyu
        • Old Armenian այո ayo yes "on my life??"
          • Armenian այո ayo yes
        • Indo-Iranian *Hā́yu lifetime, life
          • Indo-Aryan *Hā́yu
            • Sanskrit आयु ā́yu
              • Pali …
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  5. Word Family - Vicinity

    Teaser

    vicinity, village, New York, sandwich, economy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ- settlement, to settle
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiḱéti settles, joins settlement
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian viešė́ti to visit [1]
        • Indo-Iranian *wićáti
          • Indo-Aryan *wiśáti
            • Sanskrit विशति viśáti enters
      • Proto-Indo-European *wewóyḱe is settled, is part of a settlement stative
        • Indo-Iranian *wawáyća
          • Indo-Aryan …
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  6. Word Family - Four

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Note: I haven't written in the definitions for words meaning "four", "four-", or "forty" if they're in the respective section.

    Teaser

    four, tesseract, square, squadron, quarter, Tetris, quarantine

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *kʷetwóres oblique stem *kʷetwr-, feminine stem *kʷétesr- [1]
      • Albanian katër
      • Anatolian *gʷetʷóres
        • Lycian 𐊗𐊁𐊗𐊁𐊕𐊆 teteri
      • Old Armenian …
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  7. Word Family - Pandemic

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Demon Pandemic Zeitgeist Time

    Teaser

    democracy, pandemic, zeitgeist, time, demon

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂- to share, to divide
      • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂yéti divides
        • Albanian daj I divide
        • Hellenic *dayomai
          • Ancient Greek δαίομαι daíomai to divide, to distribute
        • Indo-Iranian *dáyatay
          • Indo-Aryan *dáyatay
            • Sanskrit दयते dáyate to divide, to take part in …
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  8. Word Family - Isolate

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Celtic, Greek, and Latin each have words for "island" that involve /n/ and /s/ and cannot be completely explained. One possibility is that they are all borrowings from the same non-Indo-European source.

    Even if those three are all connected, it would still be beyond credibility for Malayo-Polynesian *nusa …

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  9. Word Family - Singh

    New Years theme: Lions 🦁

    Teaser

    Singh, Sinhala, Singapore, shih tzu

    Full Text

    • Central Asian substrate *sVrng-??
      • Late Indo-European dialect *sinǵʰos
        • Armenian ինձ inj panther
          • Armenian ընձառյուծ ənjaṙyuc leopard
        • Indo-Aryan *sinȷ́ʰás [1]
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit सिंह sĩhá lion, hero [2]
              • Maharashtri 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀖 sĩgha
                • Marathi
                • Tamil சிங்கம் ciṅkam lion, Leo …
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  10. Word Family - Lion

    New Years theme: Lions 🦁

    Introduction

    It has long been noted that the Ancient Greek λέων léon: "lion" (whence the word for lion in nearly all Balto-Slavic, Germanic, and Italic languages, as well as a few others) looks almost like it comes from Semitic *labu, but not quite. Pre-Classical Greek would …

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  11. Word Family - Check

    Introduction

    All English meanings of "check" derive from the chess term:

    checklist, checkup, checks and balances, checkers, checking account, checkered past, …

    All of them.

    Teaser

    check, chess, checkers, shah, Xerxes

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *tek- to reach for, to take, to obtain, to receive
      • Proto-Indo-European *téketi primary imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic *tektei
          • Lithuanian …
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  12. Word Family - Path

    Introduction

    Find the Path

    A few weeks ago, I picked up my phone to look up the etymology of "Pontic", but got distracted and looked up the etymology of "path" first. And it turned out they were the same! But wait, how does that work, cause Grimm's Law?

    *paþaz is …

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  13. Word Family - Crystal

    Dark Crystal 🔮 bonus family

    Teaser

    crystal, crust, custard, crustacean, cryo-

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *krews- to harden, to freeze
      • Proto-Indo-European *krustós hardened, frozen adjective
        • Hellenic *krustós
          • Ancient Greek κρύσταλλος krústallos ice, rock crystal [1]
            • Greek κρύσταλλο krýstallo crystal, ice
            • Latin crystallus
              • Western Romance
                • French cristal crystal
                • Spanish cristal crystal, glass, window …
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  14. Kalevakirjat

    (Tegurala introduction: I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language consistency without having to create a bunch of new ConLangs. Giants use Uralic languages)

    The …

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  15. Word Family - Camel

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Teaser

    camel, gamma

    Full Text

    • Semitic *gamal- camel
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic جمل jámal camel
          • Maltese ġemel camel
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic
            • Classical Syriac ܓܡܠܐ gamlā’ camel
          • Canaanite
            • Hebrew גמל gamal camel
            • Phoenician
              • Ancient Greek κάμηλος kámēlos camel
                • Greek καμήλα kamíla camel
                • Latin camēlus camel
                  • Old French
                    • English …
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  16. Word Family - Swine

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Introduction

    I present two families for "pig" here, partly because Armenian խոզ xoz is derivable from either family (see footnote [1])

    Family 1, Indo-European *suH- pig, sow?", possibly related to Akkadian 𒊺𒄷𒌑 še-hu-u₂ and Sumerian 𒋚 šah; and family 2, Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰóryos: "pig", probably central PIE …

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  17. Word Family - Canine

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Introduction

    I get a little speculative here, if not downright provocative. There are words for dog all over Eurasia that recall each other. These could be onomatopoeic, but they do not much resemble the common forms you find in words that actually used as dog sound …

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  18. Word Family - Olive

    May theme: Plants 🌱

    Introduction

    In which "olive oil" is redundant.

    The Greek and Armenian words are often interpreted as being from a Mediterranean substrate word. But then there's the Slavic *lȏjь: "tallow, suet". And then the Old Chinese lɯw: "oil, grease", which is plausibly from the Tocharian equivalent of Slavic …

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  19. Word Family - Pterodactyl

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Pterodactyl. Two cool realizations about Greek "pter-". 1) "Helicopter" is so strongly segmented as "heli-copter" in English, it's fun to realize that the Greek construction is actually "helico-pter": "twisting (helix) wing". 2) More recently I realized it's an awesome example of Grimm's Law: apply …

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  20. Word Family - Ankylosaurus

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Ankylosaurus! And as an unexpected bonus, I found Azhdarchid pterosaurs deep in the family, too. Pterosaurs are probably my very favorite Mesozoic animals (stay tuned for next week!). Also in this family: various spiders and snakes and fears and sins in various languages.

    I … read more
  21. Word Family - Centum

    January theme: 98, 99, 100! 💯

    Introduction

    This is the 100th Word Family Friday in 100 weeks, and the last before I take a break for a few weeks to work on infrastructure and pad my buffer. I originally had a different idea, but then I realized I of course had …

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  22. Word Family - Weasel

    Teaser

    virus, weasel, bison

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weys- slime, poison, flow, melt
      • Proto-Indo-European *wisós action noun, zero-grade variant
        • Hellenic *wihós
          • Ancient Greek ῑ̓ός īós poison, venom
            • Greek ιός iós venom, virus
        • Indo-Iranian *wišás
          • Indo-Aryan *wíṣas
            • Dardic *biṣá
              • Kalasha biṣ poison
            • Sanskrit विष viṣá poison, venom, bane
              • Sauraseni 𑀯𑀺𑀲 visa …
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  23. Word Family - Egypt

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Ptah, Egypt, Hephaestus

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ptḥ to create?, to begin?
      • Egyptian ptḥ Ptah, self-created divinity of craft and creation
        • English Ptah
        • Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ Temple of the Soul of Ptah, Memphis
          • Mycenaean Greek *ai-ku-pi-to
            • Ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος Aíguptos Egypt, the Nile
              • Latin Aegyptus Egypt
                • Western …
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  24. Word Family - Phoenix

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Punic, phoenix, Phoenicia, Tisiphone, bane

    Full Text

    • Egyptian fnḫ carpenter, woodcutter
      • Egyptian fnḫw woodcutters, Canaanites, Syrians [1]
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀡𐀛𐀑𐀍 po-ni-ki-jo trade commodity of some sort [2]
          • Ancient Greek φοῖνῐξ phoînix Phoenician, purple or crimson, date palm, a guitar-like instrument from Phoenicia, phoenix
            • Latin Poenus …
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  25. Word Family - Venom

    November theme: Spiders 🕷

    Teaser

    win, wean, wish, wont, Venus, venereal, venerate, Edwin, Baldwin, Winfred, venom, wonder, winsome, venial

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- to love
      • Proto-Indo-European *wn̥h₁néw-ti? variant ne imperfective
        • Germanic *winnaną to strive, to work, to gain, to win
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic
              • Ostrogothic 𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 winnan to suffer
          • North Germanic …
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  26. Word Family - Witch

    Halloween Bonus Family

    Introduction

    Bonus word family for Halloween by special request from my 4 year old: "witch".

    Teaser

    witch, , victim

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyk- to separate, to choose, to consecrate
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiknéh₂-ti
        • Germanic *wikkōną
          • West Germanic *wikkōną
            • Old English wiċċian
              • English (be)witch
            • Frankish *wikkon
            • Old High German …
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  27. Word Family - Moon

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, modem, accommodate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
      • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁 framīmaθā set the limits of, assign, authorize
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
        • Celtic *māros …
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  28. Word Family - Star

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    arid, star, disaster

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁s- to be dry, to burn, ashes, hearth
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁seh₁(ye)-ti stative
        • Italic *āzēō
          • Latin āreō I am dry, I am parched, I am withered
            • Latin āridus dry, withered, arid, shrivelled, uninspired
              • Western Romance
                • Italian arido arid, barren, insensitive …
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  29. Word Family - Sleep

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    sleep, avalanche, lip, lobe

    Full Text

    • ?
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂b- to hang loosely, to be weak, lip, to lick
        • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂be-ti to fall down? to relax? primary verb
          • Germanic *slēpaną to sleep
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍃𐌻𐌴𐍀𐌰𐌽 slēpan to sleep
                • Crimean Gothic schlipen to sleep
            • West Germanic …
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  30. Word Family - Persimmon

    October theme: Indigenous Peoples Day

    Teaser

    Saskatoon, persimmon

    Full Text

    • Algic *mene berry
      • Yurok menomen Juneberry
      • Algonquian *mi·na berry
        • Central Algonquian
          • Cree ᒦᓂᐢ miinis (wild) berry or fruit
            • Cree ᒥᓵᐢᑲᐧᑑᒥᐣ misa˙skwato˙min saskatoon berry
              • English saskatoon
                • English Saskatoon
          • Menominee -men- fruit, berry, grain
          • Ojibwe -min berry
            • Ojibwe niibiminaa …
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  31. Word Family - Night

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    naga, naked, gym, night, nocturnal

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *negʷ- bare
      • Proto-Indo-European *nogʷó-s naked thing, naked one noun
        • Balto-Slavic *nōˀgás naked
          • Lithuanian núogas naked
          • Slavic *nȃgъ naked
            • East Slavic
              • Russian наго́й nagój naked
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian наг nag naked
            • West Slavic
              • Polish nagi naked
        • Indo-Iranian *nāgás …
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  32. Word Family - Community

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    municipal, common, communicate, Mithra, mix, mutant, miss

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *mey- to exchange, to intermingle
      • Proto-Indo-European *moyno-s
        • Italic *moinos
          • Latin mūnus service, duty, obligation, public office
            • Latin mūniceps citizen (duty-taker)
              • Latin mūnicipium township, town
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian municipo town council, town hall, government office
              • Latin mūnicipālis …
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  33. Word Family - Downtown

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    down-town Donegal

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰewH-?
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰuHnom enclosure
        • Celtic *dūnom stronghold, rampart
          • Brythonic *din hill fort, hill
            • Welsh din fort
          • Old Irish dún fort, fortress
            • Irish dún fort, fortress, refuge, haven
              • Irish Dún na nGall Fort of Foreigners, Donegal
                • English Donegal
          • Gaulish dunum hill …
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  34. Word Family - Folk

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    complete, supply, full, poly-, folk

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁ to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁-ti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πλῆτο plêto
      • Proto-Indo-European pleh₁st sigma perfective
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥-pleh₁st in-fill (perfective)
          • Indo-Iranian *HápraHt
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit अप्रात् áprāt to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pípleh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πίμπλημι pímplēmi …
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  35. Word Family - Guest

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    guest and host, hospitality and hostility

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European gʰes- to eat
      • Proto-Indo-European gʰese-ti primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit घसति ghásati to eat
          • Iranian
            • East Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬵 gah to eat, to gorge
      • Northwest Indo-European gʰóst-is guest, stranger ~"eater"
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *gȏstь guest
            • East Slavic
              • Russian …
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  36. Tengwar for Te Reo (Māori)

    Tengwar for Te Reo

                      

    "My language is my awakening, my language is the window to my soul."

    I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language …

    read more
  37. Word Family - Android

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    android, Andromeda, Nero

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr (adult/married) man
      • Proto-Albanian *nera
        • Old Albanian njer
          • Albanian njeri man
      • Hellenic *anḗr
        • Ancient Greek ἀνήρ anḗr (adult) man, husband, mortal
          • Greek άνδρας ándras (adult) man, husband
          • Ancient Greek ἀνδρο- andro-
            • English andro-
              • English android
                • English droid
            • Ancient …
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  38. Word Family - Robot

    August theme: Science fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    orphan, robot

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erbʰ- to be part of (a group or family)?, to owe allegiance to?, to change owernship?
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite ḫarp- to associate with, to go over to, to change allegiance
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃orbʰyo-m inheritance? plural: *h₃orbʰyéh₂
        • Celtic *orbyom inheritance plural: *orbyā
          • Old …
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  39. Word Family - Architecture_small

    Introduction

    I was preparing a family this week that I thought included the English word wall. But as I researched it, I found that Germanic *waigaz: "wall" connects to that family, but English "wall" is from the unrelated Germanic *wallą from Latin vallum: "wall, rampart".

    I took the opportunity to …

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  40. Word Family - Column

    July theme: Architecture 🏛️

    Teaser

    excel, column, hill

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European kelH- to rise, to be tall
      • Proto-Indo-European *kl̥néH-ti ne- imperfective
        • Italic *kelnō
          • Latin *cellō to rise
            • Latin excellō I elevate, I raise up, I rise, I exult, I excel
              • Western Romance
                • French exceller to excel
                  • English excel
                • Italian eccellere …
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  41. Word Family - Celts

    June theme: Celtic Iron Age

    Introduction

    June's theme is linguistic effects of the Celtic Hegemony of the early Iron Age. The rest of the month will focus on words that were borrowed from Gaulish into Latin (things like very iconic Latin word gladius being borrowed from Gaulish, which appears in …

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  42. Word Family - Daughter

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter

    Full Text

    • Teaser: female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter
    • startbody
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰewgʰ- to produce, to be strong, to be fruitful, to give milk
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéwgʰ-ti primary verb form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τεύχω teúkhō
        • Indo-Iranian *dáwgdʰi to milk
          • Iranian *dáwgdi
            • Western Iranian …
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  43. Word Family - Mother

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    mother, matrix, material, Manchester, mammal

    Full Text

    • Proto-World? ma Or, more likely, convergent development from onamatopoeia of nursing sounds.
      • Proto-Bantu mama mother
      • Basque ama mother
      • Proto-Dravidian *amma mother
      • Proto-Mon-Khmer *meeʔ mother
      • Old Japanese omo mother
      • Mayan mamah
      • Quecha mama mother
      • Proto-Semitic …
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  44. Word Family - Moa

    April Theme: Birds 🐦

    Teaser

    moa, manuk

    Full Text

    • Sino-Austronesian?
      • Proto-Austronesian *manuk bird
        • Malayo-Polynesian
          • Bajau memanuk bird
          • Javanese ꦩꦤꦸꦏ꧀ manuk bird
          • Malayic *manuk
            • Malay manuk bird, chicken
          • Phillipine
            • Tagalog manók chicken
          • Oceanic
            • Micronesian
              • Chuukese machang bird
              • Kiribati man bird
            • Polynesian *manu bird
              • Tongan manupuna bird
              • Nuclear Polynesian
                • Samoan manu bird …
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  45. Why "wh-"? Why not?

    In English, constituent question words are often called wh-words: what, when, where, which, why, whether. All these are spelled with a w and pronounced with a w (the h is pronounced in some dialects and not others). This is not coincidence.

    The primary interrogative particle in Proto-Indo-European is *kʷ- …

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  46. Word Family - Taran

    February theme: Weather ⛈️

    Teaser

    Thor, thunder, astonish, tornado, detonate, Tarquinia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tenh₂- thunder [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)ténh₂e-ti to thunder
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian steneti
          • Slavic *stenàti to groan, to moan
            • East Slavic стенати stenati
              • Russian стена́ть stenátʹ to groan, to moan (archaic)
            • South Slavic
              • Bulgarian сте́на sténa …
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  47. Word Family - Duke

    January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

    Introduction

    Germanic really went to town with this root, creating a bunch of morphological forms that aren't attested in any other branches, and in a few cases I can't even relate them to any standard derivational forms I know in either PIE or Proto-Germanic.

    Teaser

    wanton …

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  48. Word Family - King

    January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

    Teaser

    engine, nature, genre, king

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁- to produce, to beget, to give birth
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁ti produce, beget, give birth present
        • Celtic *gniyeti
          • Old Irish gníid to do, to work
            • Old Irish do-gní to do, to make
              • Irish déan do, make
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit …
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  49. Word Family - Count

    January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

    Teaser

    count, constable, itinerary, January

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey- to go (imperfective) possibly suppletive
      • Indo-Iranian *hai
        • Iranian
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish -ê- comes
            • Persian آی ây comes, arrives suppletive present of âmadan
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₁éyti goes primary verb [1]
        • Proto-Albanian *eika
          • Albanian iki I go, I leave, I …
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  50. Word Family - Rex

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This is the #WordFamilyFriday that no matter how long I work on it, it's never done. That's what I get for trying to explore the possibility that two extremely important and productive roots may be connected: *h₂er-, related to cosmic order, and *h₃reǵ-, related to societal …

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  51. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, which is an unusually high amount of variation, and with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    1. It's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, but still awfully similar.
    2. Looking at any …
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  52. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do these two …

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  53. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds to Germanic t …

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  54. Word Family - Nectar

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    innocent, noxious, necromancer, nectar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- to perish, to disappear
      • Proto-Indo-European *néḱy-eti perishes, disappears imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *náĉyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit नश्यति naśyati to be lost, to perish, to disappear, to be gone
          • Iranian
            • Avestan nasiieiti
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian nʾsyd
      • Proto-Indo-European …
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  55. Word Family - Death

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Introduction

    A root meaning "to run, to depart" can be reconstructed from Hellenic and Indo-Iranian. But in Northwest branches, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly Italic, there is a phonologically identical root meaning "to die". So it's probably a euphemism coined in a Late Northwest Indo-European …

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  56. Word Family - Quick

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    quick, biology, vitamin, zoology, hygiene

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *gʷeyh₃- to live
      • Proto-Indo-European *gʷíh₃weti to be alive
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian gyventi to live, to inhabit
          • Slavic *žiti
            • East Slavic
              • Russian жить žitʹ to live, to reside
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic жити žiti to live
              • Serbo-Croatian …
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  57. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    lily

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 ḥrr-t flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 jrj ḥrr-t to blossom
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Ancient Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily plural …
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  58. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱(𓃰,𓌟) ābu elephant, ivory
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Sanskrit इभ ibha elephant rare; `हस्त …
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  59. Word Family - Cane

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    cane, cannon, canon

    Full Text

    • Sumerian 𒄀𒈾 gi.na reed
      • Akkadian 𒄀 qanû reed
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀒𐀜𐀛𐀠 ko-no-ni-pi cross bar?
        • Hebrew קָנֶה kané cane, stick, reed, windpipe
        • ? Pre-Greek substrate?
          • Ancient Greek κάννα kánna reed, reed mat
            • Latin canna reed, cane, pipe, flute …
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  60. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be …
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  61. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Ethiopia, ether, ethereal, Hugh, O'Hea, Hayes, Aidan, Enya, Egan, MacEgan, Keegan, Maddoc, Mogue, Kenneth, edify, edifice, anneal, mareel, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰe-ti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit एधते édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic …
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  62. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass
              • Polish …
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  63. Word Family - Ignite

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Agni, ignite, wonga

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis fire animate, elemental fire as opposed to <*péh₂wr̥>: fire as an inanimate/contained substance
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • Lithuanian ugnìs fire
        • Slavic *õgnjь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ого́нь ogónʹ fire, light, weapons fire
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̀гањ òganj fire …
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  64. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sober

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic *aβon
          • Welsh afon river
          • English Avon
            • English Stratford-upon-Avon
        • Old Irish …
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  65. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Introduction

    August and September will be element themed, starting with two "earth" families.

    Teaser

    chthonic, Demeter, George, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
      • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
        • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
          • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother …
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  66. Word Family - Edge

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, tear, edge, axe, hammer, hear, acoustic, coin, cuneiform

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros a …
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  67. Word Family - Avatar

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    avatar, trans-, tradition, nectar, thorough

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- to cross over, pass through, overcome
      • Proto-Indo-European *térh₂e-ti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *tárHati
          • Indo-Aryan *tárHati
            • Sanskrit तरति tarati pass over, float, swim
              • Sauraseni *tiradi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तैरना tairnā to float
          • Iranian *tárHatī
            • Avestan titarat …
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  68. Word Family - Queer

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    torque, torch, queer, intricate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷ- to turn
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷti
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒋻𒆪𒉿𒀭𒍣 tarku-zi performs a round dance, dances in twisting manner
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷeti
        • Albanian tjerr I spin
        • Hellenic
          • Mycenaean Greek *to-ro-qe
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀵𐀫𐀤𐀍𐀕𐀜 to-ro-qe-jo-me-no ?
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀵𐀫𐀣𐀲 e-to-ro-qa-ta oar holder …
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  69. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse dafna thrive …
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  70. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ …
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  71. Word Family - Easter

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    Easter, air, Austria, Australia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old …
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  72. Word Family - Cavalry

    March theme: Horses

    Teaser

    capercaillie, chivalry, cavalier, cavalry

    Full Text

    • ??
      • Turkic
        • Old Turkish käväl horse? [1]
        • Persian ?
        • Proto-Slavic *kobyla mare (female horse)
          • Russian кобы́ла kobýla mare
          • Polish kobyła mare
      • Saka kabä
      • Ancient Greek καβάλλης kabállēs nag, pony
      • Proto-Celtic *capallos
        • Brythonic *kappilos horse
          • Welsh ceffyl horse
            • English Cavall [2]
            • English …
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  73. Word Family - Equus

    March theme: Horses 🐎

    Teaser

    hippopotamus, equestrian, zebra, Afghanistan

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European h₁éḱwos horse [1]
      • Anatolian *ʔeḱu-
        • Hittite 𒀲𒆳𒊏𒍑 ekkus horse
      • Armenian էշ
        • Latin asinus donkey
          • Old English assen donkey, ass
            • English ass
          • Latin assellus small/young donkey
            • Germanic *asiluz donkey
              • East Germanic
                • Gothic 𐌰𐍃𐌹𐌻𐌿𐍃 asilus donkey
              • Slavic *osilu donkey
                • East …
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