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  1. Word Family - Beryl

    Teaser

    Pavuluri Ganitamu, beryl, brilliant

    Full Text

    • Dravidian *ūr village, settlement
      • Central Dravidian
        • Kolami ūr village
      • Northern Dravidian
        • Brahui ارآ urā house [1]
      • Southern Dravidian
        • Kannada ಊರು ūru town, city, dwelling
        • Tamil ஊர் ūr town, village, dwelling, place
      • South-Central Dravidian
        • Telugu ఊరు ūru village, town
          • Telugu ఊరేగు ūrēgu to parade, to go in procession lit …
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  2. Word Family - Emerald

    Introduction

    Both Classical Sanskrit 𑀫𑀭𑀓𑀢 marakata: "emerald" and Classical Greek μᾰ́ραγδος máragdos: "emerald" appear to be borrowed from a source like *maraktV.

    This is presumably a form closely related to the Phoenician brqt and Hebrew baréket: "emerald", from *b-r-ḳ: "shining, sparkling". Akkadian cognate baraqu: "shine" instead might have had an equivalent -t …

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  3. Living Languages of the Americas

    Living Languages of the Americas

    The American Indigenous languages from the US and Canada are mostly extinct, dying, or spoken by relatively tiny remaining communities. It is easy to assume the same about Central and South America, and to think of some of the well-known historical peoples—like "Incas", "Aztecs …

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  4. Word Family - Turtle

    Introduction

    Turtledoves are not named after turtles, in fact "turtle" has meant the bird for longer than it meant the reptile.

    In Middle English tortu meant "turtle" (from Latin tortuca) and turtel mean "turtledove" (from Latin turtur), then they collapsed into "turtle". The modern meaning of "turtle" won out, and …

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  5. Word Family - Scarab

    Introduction

    A whole pile of words for things with shells and exoskeletons built on something like *kar-

    Some of these are probably each of

    1. Wander words for crabs from an unknown substrate
    2. Derivations from possible Proto-Indo-European roots *krew-, *kh₂er-, (s)ker-, and/or *(s)kerp- with meanings related to …
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  6. Word Family - Combust

    Introduction

    In which we go from Latin ūrō: "I burn" to English bust: "upper torso", with very little semantic or phonological similarity.

    Latin ūrō: "I burn" picks up an extra b- in many inflected forms based on re-analysis of amb-ūrō, leading to Latin bustum: "place for fires".

    Then semantically Latin …

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  7. Word Family - Violet

    Introduction

    A Mediterranean/Caucasian substrate word approximately like *wion: "violet (flower)", was borrowed into Hellenic, Iranian, and Italic.

    Greek Ionia is probably not related, since the Mycenaean shows 𐀂𐀊𐀺𐀚 i-ja-wo-ne for "Ionians" with digamma in a different position than the *wion expected for "violet" , and Egyptian 𓇌𓅱𓈖𓏭𓉻𓂝𓏛 ywnj-ꜥꜣ supports that.

    But it's …

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  8. Word Family - Bikini

    Teaser

    Bikini, Niue

    Full Text

    • Austronesian ñiuʀ coconut [1]
      • Malayo-Polynesian *niuʀ coconut
        • Bornean
          • Barito
            • Malagasy voanio coconut compound with "fruit"
        • Chamorro niyok
        • Malayo-Sumbawan
          • Chamic *laʔur
            • Acehnese u coconut
            • Tsat lu³³ coconut
          • Malayic *ñiur
            • Malay nyiur coconut
        • Philippine
          • Central Philippine
            • Tagalog niyog coconut
          • Ilokano niog coconut
          • Sangir niuhe' coconut
        • Timoric …
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  9. Word Family - Arctic

    Introduction

    Here I'm following Blažek's compelling argument (2017) to derive *h₂ŕ̥Tk̑os from *h₂r̥dh₂éḱh₃-s: "bee-eater", similar to many later words for bear that mean things like "honey eater", "honey pig", "thief of bees", "bee bear", "bee wolf", … . This instead of the traditional connection …

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  10. Word Family - Five

    Introduction

    I've been doing Word Families for 5 years! In that time, I have made 150 families! So this week is *pénkʷe: "five".

    The *p-kʷ sequence in *pénkʷe leads to a set highly divergent forms. *kʷ is a highly variable sound on its own, becoming /kw/, /w/, /ʍ/, /k …

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  11. Word Family - Yesterday

    Introduction

    In which yes- and -day in yesterday are the same root.

    • PIE *dʰǵʰes-tero-dʰoǵʰes
    • Germ. *(d)ges-tera-dagaz
    • OE ġes-ter-dæġ
    • English yes-ter-day

    "The day that’s the other day"

    Germanic *dagaz is often explained as being from *dʰegʷʰ-: "to burn", but the loss of labialization would …

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  12. Word Family - Nebula

    Teaser

    nephology, Niflheim, Nibelungenlied, nebula

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *nebʰ- cloudy, misty, damp [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *nébʰos cloud, mist, moisture
        • Anatolian *nébos
          • Hittite 𒉈𒂊𒁉𒅖 nēpis sky, heaven
          • Luwic
            • Cuneiform Luwian 𒋫𒀊𒉺𒀸𒊭 tappassa sky, heaven
            • Lycian 𐊗𐊀𐊂𐊀𐊛𐊀𐊈𐊀 tabahaza
        • Pre-Armenian *m̥bʰos
          • Old Armenian ամպ amp cloud
            • Armenian ամպ amp cloud
        • Balto-Slavic *nébas cloud, sky
          • East Baltic …
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  13. Word Family - Aloha

    Introduction

    Love, compassion, and pity to Tonga and the city of Nuku'alofa.

    Full Text

    • Austronesian *ʔalep to beckon, to wave
      • Pazeh m-arep to beckon
      • Malayo-Polynesian
        • Chamorro alof to beckon
        • Philippine
          • Tagalog ayap to call, to summon
        • Oceanic *ʔalop
          • Fijian yalo
          • Polynesian *ta-ʔalo
            • Tongan ta-'alo to beckon
            • Nuclear Polynesian
              • Samoan …
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  14. Word Family - Mlk

    Introduction

    MLK is King

    (Martin Luther King Jr. Day Holiday Bonus)

    Full Text

    • Semitic *m-l-k-
      • Semitic *malk-
        • Central Semitic
          • Arabic مَلِك malik king, monarch
            • Pashto ملک malik king
            • Persian ملک malek king
            • Arabic مَلِك Malik King (personal name)
              • English Malik
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Aramaic מַלְכָּא malkā king
              • Arabic مَلِك malik king, monarch possible borrowing from Aramaic, to …
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  15. Word Family - Year

    Introduction

    The PIE word *yóh₁r̥: "year" becomes both the native English "year" and also the Latinate "hour". Fascinatingly, Greek ὥρᾱ hṓrā (whence the Latin) is also borrowed, post-Alexander, into Classical Sanskrit along with the Hellenistic-Babylonian astronomy/astrology, eventually giving such descendants as Thai โหร hǒon: "astrologer, prophet, magician"!

    Teaser

    year …

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  16. Word Family - Fee

    Teaser

    fee, feudal, cyclops, peculiar, fight, Shadowfax

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *peḱ- wool, livestock, wealth
      • Proto-Indo-European *péḱu
        • Old Armenian ասու asu fleece, wool
          • Armenian ասր asr fine fleece
        • Balto-Slavic *péku
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian pẽkus
          • West Baltic
            • Old Prussian pecku cattle
        • Germanic *fehu wealth, cattle, the rune ᚠ
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿 faihu property …
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  17. Word Family - Heron

    Introduction

    I've been thinking about herons and egrets a lot recently. For the past year or so, our morning walk goes by a half mile of drainage ditch with an amazing variety of water birds. We regularly see 4 different species of heron: great blue heron, great egret, snowy egret …

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  18. Word Family - Tangata

    Teaser

    Taiwan, Kanak

    Full Text

    • Austronesian *tsau person, human
      • Basay tau person, human
      • Paiwan tsau-tsau person, human
      • Puyuma ṭau person, human
      • Siray tau person, human
        • Siray Tayuan
          • Dutch Tayouan Taiwan archaic
            • English Tayuan
            • Hokkien 臺灣 Tâi-oân Taiwan, Tainan
              • Mandarin 臺灣 Táiwān Taiwan
                • English Taiwan
              • Mandarin 臺南 Tainan …
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  19. Word Family - Hard

    Introduction

    Democracy is Hard.

    Teaser

    Hippocratic Oath, democracy, hard, Richard

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *kret- strength, power
      • Proto-Indo-European *krétus
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κρατύς kratús
        • Indo-Iranian *krátuš power, capability, intelligence
          • Indo-Aryan *krátuṣ
            • Sanskrit क्रतु krátu intelligence, plan, power, ability
          • Iranian *xrátuh
          • Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎 xratu intelligence, thought, guidance
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Medean *xratu
                • Old Persian …
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  20. Word Family - Gossamer

    Introduction

    The period of unseasonably hot weather after an initial autumn cooling—now often called "Indian summer"—was previously called "goose summer" in English because it corresponds with the beginning of goose hunting season. Compare Irish fómhar beag na ngéanna: "warm period in Autumn (Indian summer)", literally "little autumn of …

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  21. Word Family - Tunic

    Teaser

    cotton, chitin, tunic

    Full Text

    • Anatolian substrate
      • Eastern substrate *kito flax
        • Sumerian 𒃰 gada flax
        • Sumerian 𒆤 kid cloth mat
        • Akkadian 𒃰 kitu flax
          • Old Armenian կտաւ ktaw flax
            • Armenian Կտավ ktav flax, linen, canvas
        • Ugaritic 𐎖𐎉 qṭ flax, linseed
        • Central substrate *kito-na
          • Aramaic כּיתָּנָא kittānā linen, flax
            • Aramaic כִּיתּוּנָא kittōnā linen garment, tunic, shirt, layer, shell …
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  22. Word Family - Beirut

    Introduction

    Beirut in my thoughts today.

    Beirut, "memory", "epicenter"

    Full Text

    • Semitic *biʔr- well, spring
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic
          • Classical Arabic بِئْر biʾr well, spring
            • Classical Arabic بُؤْرَة buʾra focus, epicenter
          • Egyptian Arabic بير bīr well, shaft, manhole
          • Maghrebi Arabic
            • Maltese bir well
          • Peninsular Arabic
            • Hijazi Arabic بير bīr well
              • Hijazi Arabic …
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  23. Word Family - Navy

    Introduction

    For the UN Interntaional Day of the Seafarer (June 25)

    Teaser

    naiad, astronaut, nausea, navy, navigate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₂- to float, to swim
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)néh₂ti floats, swims
        • Celtic *snāti
          • Old Irish snaid swims
        • Hellenic
          • Classical Greek νᾱ́ω nā́ō I flow
            • Classical Greek Νᾱϊᾰ́ς Nāïás naiad
              • English …
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  24. Word Family - Justice

    Introduction

    June is for Justice. Justice is Life. ✊🏿✊🏽✊🏼 🏳️‍🌈🏳️‍⚧️

    Teaser

    forever, not, age, young, rejuvenate, June, injury, justice

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ey- life, age, vital, eternal
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂óyu
        • Old Armenian այո ayo yes "on my life??"
          • Armenian այո ayo yes
        • Indo-Iranian *Hā́yu lifetime, life
          • Indo-Aryan *Hā́yu
            • Sanskrit 𑀆𑀬𑀼 ā́yu …
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  25. Word Family - Vicinity

    Teaser

    vicinity, village, New York, sandwich, economy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ- settlement, to settle
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiḱéti settles, joins settlement
        • Balto-Slavic
          • East Baltic
            • Lithuanian viešė́ti to visit [1]
        • Indo-Iranian *wićáti
          • Indo-Aryan *wiśáti
            • Sanskrit विशति viśáti enters
      • Proto-Indo-European *wewóyḱe is settled, is part of a settlement stative
        • Indo-Iranian *wawáyća
          • Indo-Aryan …
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  26. Word Family - Pandemic

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Demon Pandemic Zeitgeist Time

    Teaser

    democracy, pandemic, zeitgeist, time, demon

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *deh₂- to share, to divide
      • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂yéti divides
        • Albanian daj I divide
        • Hellenic *dayomai
          • Ancient Greek δαίομαι daíomai to divide, to distribute
        • Indo-Iranian *dáyatay
          • Indo-Aryan *dáyatay
            • Sanskrit दयते dáyate to divide, to take part in, to …
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  27. Word Family - Isolate

    Theme: 🦠

    Introduction

    Celtic, Greek, and Latin each have words for "island" that involve /n/ and /s/ and cannot be completely explained. One possibility is that they are all borrowings from the same non-Indo-European source.

    Even if those three are all connected, it would still be beyond credibility for Malayo-Polynesian *nusa …

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  28. Word Family - Singh

    January theme: Lions 🦁

    Teaser

    Singh, Sinhala, Singapore, shih tzu

    Full Text

    • Central Asian substrate *sVrng-??
      • Late Indo-European dialect *sinǵʰos
        • Armenian ինձ inj panther
          • Armenian ընձառյուծ ənjaṙyuc leopard
        • Indo-Aryan *sinȷ́ʰás [1]
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀳 sĩhá lion, hero [2]
              • Maharashtri 𑀲𑀺𑀁𑀖 sĩgha
                • Tamil சிங்கம் ciṅkam lion, Leo
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi सिंघ sĩgh lion
              • Pali …
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  29. Word Family - Lion

    December theme: Lions 🦁

    Introduction

    It has long been noted that the Ancient Greek λέων léon: "lion" (whence the word for lion in nearly all Balto-Slavic, Germanic, and Italic languages, as well as a few others) looks almost like it comes from Semitic *labu, but not quite. Pre-Classical Greek would be expect …

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  30. Word Family - Check

    Introduction

    All English meanings of "check" derive from the chess term:

    checklist, checkup, checks and balances, checkers, checking account, checkered past, …

    All of them.

    Teaser

    check, chess, checkers, shah, Xerxes

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *tek- to reach for, to take, to obtain, to receive
      • Proto-Indo-European *téketi primary imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic *tektei
          • Lithuanian …
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  31. Word Family - Path

    Introduction

    Find the Path

    A few weeks ago, I picked up my phone to look up the etymology of "Pontic", but got distracted and looked up the etymology of "path" first. And it turned out they were the same! But wait, how does that work, cause Grimm's Law?

    *paþaz is …

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  32. Word Family - Crystal

    Dark Crystal 🔮 bonus family

    Teaser

    crystal, crust, custard, crustacean, cryo-

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *krews- to harden, to freeze
      • Proto-Indo-European *krustós hardened, frozen adjective
        • Hellenic *krustós
          • Ancient Greek κρύσταλλος krústallos ice, rock crystal [1]
            • Greek κρύσταλλο krýstallo crystal, ice
            • Latin crystallus
              • Western Romance
                • French cristal crystal
                • Spanish cristal crystal, glass, window pane
              • Old …
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  33. Kalevakirjat

    (Tegurala introduction: I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language consistency without having to create a bunch of new ConLangs. Giants use Uralic languages)

    The …

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  34. Word Family - Camel

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Teaser

    camel, gamma

    Full Text

    • Semitic *gamal- camel
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic جمل jámal camel
          • Maltese ġemel camel
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic
            • Classical Syriac ܓܡܠܐ gamlā’ camel
          • Canaanite
            • Hebrew גמל gamal camel
            • Phoenician
              • Ancient Greek κάμηλος kámēlos camel
                • Greek καμήλα kamíla camel
                • Latin camēlus camel
                  • Old French
                    • English camel
                    • French chameau camel
                      • Haitian …
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  35. Word Family - Cow

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Introduction

    Proto-Indo-European has *gʷṓws: "cow, cattle" and *woḱéh₂: "(female) cow". The expected feminine of the *gʷṓws would be something like **gʷow(s)éh₂. *woḱéh₂ looks similar, but not quite there.

    Sino-Tibetan *ŋwa: "cattle, ox" is also highly reminiscent of *gʷṓws …

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  36. Word Family - Swine

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Introduction

    I present two families for "pig" here, partly because Armenian խոզ xoz is derivable from either family (see footnote [1])

    Family 1, Indo-European *suH- pig, sow?", possibly related to Akkadian 𒊺𒄷𒌑 še-hu-u₂ and Sumerian 𒋚 šah; and family 2, Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰóryos: "pig", probably central PIE dialect (Greek …

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  37. Word Family - Canine

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Introduction

    I get a little speculative here, if not downright provocative. There are words for dog all over Eurasia that recall each other. These could be onomatopoeic, but they do not much resemble the common forms you find in words that actually used as dog sound …

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  38. Word Family - Olive

    May theme: Plants 🌱

    Introduction

    In which "olive oil" is redundant.

    The Greek and Armenian words are often interpreted as being from a Mediterranean substrate word. But then there's the Slavic *lȏjь: "tallow, suet". And then the Old Chinese lɯw: "oil, grease", which is plausibly from the Tocharian equivalent of …

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  39. Word Family - Pterodactyl

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Pterodactyl. Two cool realizations about Greek "pter-". 1) "Helicopter" is so strongly segmented as "heli-copter" in English, it's fun to realize that the Greek construction is actually "helico-pter": "twisting (helix) wing". 2) More recently I realized it's an awesome example of Grimm's Law: apply …

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  40. Word Family - Ankylosaurus

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Ankylosaurus! And as an unexpected bonus, I found Azhdarchid pterosaurs deep in the family, too. Pterosaurs are probably my very favorite Mesozoic animals (stay tuned for next week!). Also in this family: various spiders and snakes and fears and sins in various languages.

    I … read more
  41. Word Family - Stegosaurus

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Teaser

    steganography, detect, Stegosaurus, thug, thatch, deck

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)teg- to cover s-mobile root
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tég-eti primary verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian stíegti to roof, to thatch
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek στέγω stégō to cover, to wrap, to make watertight
            • Ancient Greek στέγη stégē roof, cover, shelter …
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  42. Word Family - Triceratops

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Teaser

    horn, unicorn, cheer, migraine, carrot, Triceratops

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic
      • Egyptian *qar- horn
        • Egyptian qr.tj horns (dual)
      • Semitic *qarn- horn
        • Central Semitic
          • Arabic قَرْن qarn horn, century
            • Maltese qarn horn
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Aramaic קַרְנָא
            • Canaanite
              • Hebrew קֶרֶן qéren horn, antler, light beam, corner, keratin
                • Hebrew חַד קֶרֶן ẖad-qéren unicorn …
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  43. Word Family - Weasel

    Teaser

    virus, weasel, bison

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weys- slime, poison, flow, melt
      • Proto-Indo-European *wisós action noun, zero-grade variant
        • Hellenic *wihós
          • Ancient Greek ῑ̓ός īós poison, venom
            • Greek ιός iós venom, virus
        • Indo-Iranian *wišás
          • Indo-Aryan *wíṣas
            • Dardic *biṣá
              • Kalasha biṣ poison
            • Sanskrit विष viṣá poison, venom, bane
              • Sauraseni 𑀯𑀺𑀲 visa
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi …
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  44. Word Family - Arbiter

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Europe, Maghreb, Arabia, Erebus

    Full Text

    • Semitic *[ʕ/ġ]rb to depart, to set [1]
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic ġaraba
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic ערובה ʿrōbā sunset, evening, (Sabbath) eve
          • Canaanite
            • Phoenician *'irōb
              • Homeric Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē Western shore of the Aegean,\nmainland Greece\n(as opposed to Pelopennese …
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  45. Word Family - Egypt

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Ptah, Egypt, Hephaestus

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ptḥ to create?, to begin?
      • Egyptian ptḥ Ptah, self-created divinity of craft and creation
        • English Ptah
        • Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ Temple of the Soul of Ptah, Memphis
          • Mycenaean Greek *ai-ku-pi-to
            • Ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος Aíguptos Egypt, the Nile
              • Latin Aegyptus Egypt
                • Western …
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  46. Word Family - Phoenix

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝️

    Introduction

    Next week, the sister of Phoenix.

    Teaser

    Phoenicia, phoenix, Tisiphone

    Full Text

    • Egyptian fnḫ carpenter, woodcutter
      • Egyptian fnḫw woodcutters, Canaanites, Syrians [1]
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀡𐀛𐀑𐀍 po-ni-ki-jo trade commodity of some sort [2]
          • Ancient Greek φοῖνῐξ phoînix Phoenician, purple or crimson, date palm, a guitar-like instrument from …
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  47. Word Family - Greek

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝️

    Teaser

    Greek, Charles, corn, grain, grenade

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *ǵerh₂- to grow old, to mature
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵerh₂e-ti primary verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *zьrěti to ripen
            • East Slavic
              • Russian зреть zretʹ to ripen, to mature
              • Ukrainian зрі́ти zríty to ripen, to grow, to form
            • South Slavic …
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  48. Word Family - Attercop

    November theme: Spiders 🕷

    Teaser

    edema, Oedipus, oat, atter, attercop

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eyd- to swell, abcess, tumor
      • Proto-Indo-European h₂oydéy-eti
        • Old Armenian այտնում aytnum to swell, to be inflamed, to be bloated
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek οἰδέω I swell, I become swollen
            • Ancient Greek οἴδημᾰ oídēma a swelling, a tumor
              • English edema
      • Proto-Indo-European …
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  49. Word Family - Venom

    November theme: Spiders 🕷️

    Teaser

    win, wish, Venus, vanadium, venom, wonder, winsome

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- to love
      • Proto-Indo-European *wn̥h₁néw-ti? variant ne imperfective
        • Germanic *winnanã to strive, to work, to gain, to win
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 winnan to suffer
              • Gothic 𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰 winna suffering, passion, the letter 𐍅
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse …
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  50. Word Family - Witch

    Halloween Bonus Family

    Introduction

    Bonus word family for Halloween by special request from my 4 year old: "witch".

    Teaser

    witch, , victim

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weyk- to separate, to choose, to consecrate
      • Proto-Indo-European *wiknéh₂-ti
        • Germanic *wikkōną
          • West Germanic *wikkōną
            • Old English wiċċian
              • English (be)witch
            • Frankish *wikkon
            • Old High …
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  51. Word Family - Moon

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, modem, accommodate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
      • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁 framīmaθā set the limits of, assign, authorize
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
        • Celtic *māros big …
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  52. Word Family - Star

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    arid, star, disaster

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁s- to be dry, to burn, ashes, hearth
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁seh₁(ye)-ti stative
        • Italic *āzēō
          • Latin āreō I am dry, I am parched, I am withered
            • Latin āridus dry, withered, arid, shrivelled, uninspired
              • Western Romance
                • Italian …
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  53. Word Family - Sleep

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    sleep, avalanche, lip, lobe

    Full Text

    • ?
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂b- to hang loosely, to be weak, lip, to lick
        • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂be-ti to fall down? to relax? primary verb
          • Germanic *slēpaną to sleep
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍃𐌻𐌴𐍀𐌰𐌽 slēpan to sleep
                • Crimean Gothic schlipen to sleep
            • West …
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  54. Word Family - Persimmon

    October theme: Indigenous Peoples Day

    Teaser

    Saskatoon, persimmon

    Full Text

    • Algic *mene berry
      • Yurok menomen Juneberry
      • Algonquian *mi·na berry
        • Central Algonquian
          • Cree ᒦᓂᐢ miinis (wild) berry or fruit
            • Cree ᒥᓵᐢᑲᐧᑑᒥᐣ misa˙skwato˙min saskatoon berry
              • English saskatoon
                • English Saskatoon
          • Menominee -men- fruit, berry, grain
          • Ojibwe -min berry
            • Ojibwe niibiminaa high-bush cranberry …
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  55. Word Family - Night

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    naga, naked, gym, night, nocturnal

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *negʷ- bare
      • Proto-Indo-European *nogʷó-s naked thing, naked one noun
        • Balto-Slavic *nōˀgás naked
          • Lithuanian núogas naked
          • Slavic *nȃgъ naked
            • East Slavic
              • Russian наго́й nagój naked
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian наг nag naked
            • West Slavic
              • Polish nagi naked …
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  56. Word Family - Community

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    municipal, common, communicate, Mithra, mix, mutant, miss

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *mey- to exchange, to intermingle
      • Proto-Indo-European *moyno-s
        • Italic *moinos
          • Latin mūnus service, duty, obligation, public office
            • Latin mūniceps citizen (duty-taker)
              • Latin mūnicipium township, town
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian municipo town council, town hall, government office
              • Latin mūnicipālis …
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  57. Word Family - Downtown

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Introduction

    The Celtic word *dūnom: "hill fort" was borrowed into Germanic twice, once as "hill" and once as "fort".

    The first time was borrowed before the completion of Grimm's Law, so Grimm's Law changed the *d to *t for Germanic *tūną: "enclosure", which eventually gave English "town …

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  58. Word Family - Folk

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    complete, supply, full, poly-, folk

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁ to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁-ti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πλῆτο plêto
      • Proto-Indo-European pleh₁st sigma perfective
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥-pleh₁st in-fill (perfective)
          • Indo-Iranian *HápraHt
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit अप्रात् áprāt to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pípleh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πίμπλημι pímplēmi …
    read more
  59. Word Family - Guest

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Introduction

    This word for "guest"/"host" is restricted to the Late Northwest Indo-European languages, appearing—as far as I know—only in Balto-Slavic, Germanic, and Italic, plus a single personal name in Lepontic (Celtic). It seems to be cognate to a word for "to eat" which is …

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  60. Tengwar for Te Reo (Māori)

    Tengwar for Te Reo

                      

    "My language is my awakening, my language is the window to my soul."

    I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language …

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  61. Word Family - Android

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    android, Andromeda, Nero

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr (adult/married) man
      • Proto-Albanian *nera
        • Old Albanian njer
          • Albanian njeri man
      • Hellenic *anḗr
        • Ancient Greek ἀνήρ anḗr (adult) man, husband, mortal
          • Greek άνδρας ándras (adult) man, husband
          • Ancient Greek ἀνδρο- andro-
            • English andro-
              • English android
                • English droid …
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  62. Word Family - Robot

    August theme: Science fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    orphan, robot

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erbʰ- to be part of (a group or family)?, to owe allegiance to?, to change owernship?
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite ḫarp- to associate with, to go over to, to change allegiance
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃orbʰyo-m inheritance? plural: *h₃orbʰyéh₂
        • Celtic …
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  63. Word Family - Architecture_small

    Introduction

    I was preparing a family this week that I thought included the English word wall. But as I researched it, I found that Germanic *waigaz: "wall" connects to that family, but English "wall" is from the unrelated Germanic *wallą from Latin vallum: "wall, rampart".

    I took the opportunity to …

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  64. Word Family - Column

    July theme: Architecture 🏛️

    Teaser

    excel, column, hill

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European kelH- to rise, to be tall
      • Proto-Indo-European *kl̥néH-ti ne- imperfective
        • Italic *kelnō
          • Latin *cellō to rise
            • Latin excellō I elevate, I raise up, I rise, I exult, I excel
              • Western Romance
                • French exceller to excel
                  • English excel
                • Italian eccellere …
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  65. Word Family - Door

    July theme: Architecture 🏛️

    Teaser

    door, hors d'oeuvre, foreign, forum, Dvorak

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰwer- door, gate
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr door
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite *durza
          • Hittite 𒀭𒄙𒍝 an-dur-za indoors
        • Armenian
          • Old Armenian դուռն duṙn door, entrance, mountain pass, palace, court, retinue
            • Armenian դուռ duṙ door, exit, court (of a monarch)
        • Balto-Slavic *dwir- …
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  66. Word Family - Embassy

    June theme: Celtic Iron Age

    Introduction

    Apologies for the sketchy nature. This one exploded on me in several different ways.

    1. Prior to working on this family, I knew that "ambassador"/"embassy" was from Gaulish via Latin, and I had connected that to the story Livy tells about the Battle of …
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  67. Word Family - Celts

    June theme: Celtic Iron Age

    Introduction

    June's theme is linguistic effects of the Celtic Hegemony of the early Iron Age. The rest of the month will focus on words that were borrowed from Gaulish into Latin (things like very iconic Latin word gladius being borrowed from Gaulish, which appears in …

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  68. Word Family - Father

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    pastor, Pan, food, pants, father, pattern

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *peh₂- to protect, to watch over, to shepherd
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂-ti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *pā́ti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀧𑀸𑀢𑀺 pā́ti to watch, to keep, to protect, to rule
          • Iranian *pāta-
            • Avestan 𐬞𐬁𐬝 pāt̰ protects
            • Western Iranian …
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  69. Word Family - Mother

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    mother, matrix, material, Manchester, mammal

    Full Text

    • Proto-World? ma Or, more likely, convergent development from onamatopoeia of nursing sounds.
      • Proto-Bantu mama mother
      • Basque ama mother
      • Proto-Dravidian *amma mother
      • Proto-Mon-Khmer *meeʔ mother
      • Old Japanese omo mother
      • Mayan mamah
      • Quecha mama mother
      • Afro-Asiatic …
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  70. Word Family - Moa

    Teaser

    moa,manuk

    Full Text

    • Sino-Austronesian
      • Austronesian *manuk bird
        • Malayo-Polynesian
          • Bajau memanuk bird
          • Javanese manuk bird
          • Malayic *manuk
            • Malay manuk bird, chicken
          • Philippine
            • Tagalog manók chicken
          • Oceanic
            • Micronesian
              • Chuukese machang bird
              • Kiribati man bird
            • Polynesian *manu bird
              • Tongan manupuna bird
              • Nuclear Polynesian
                • Samoan manu bird
                • Eastern Polynesian
                  • Rapa Nui manu …
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  71. Word Family - Avian

    Introduction

    Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwis: "bird" and Proto-Indo-European *h₂ówis: "sheep" appear to be umlaut variants, presumably through the more sparsely attested root *h₂ew-: "to put on clothes, to cover". *h₂éwis: "bird" would be from a passive participle, "a clothed (in feathers)". *h₂ówis: "sheep" from an active participle …

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  72. Why "wh-"? Why not?

    In English, constituent question words are often called wh-words: what, when, where, which, why, whether. All these are spelled with a w and pronounced with a w (the h is pronounced in some dialects and not others). This is not coincidence.

    The primary interrogative particle in Proto-Indo-European is *k …

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  73. Word Family - Snow

    February theme: Weather ⛈️

    Teaser

    Nevada, snow

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *sneygʷʰ- to snow
      • Proto-Indo-European *snigʷʰe-ti (it) snows imperfective [1]
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek νίφω níphō to snow, to rain
      • Proto-Indo-European *snéygʷʰe-ti (it) snows imperfective [1]
        • Germanic *snīwaną to snow
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse snjófa
              • Icelandic snjóa to snow
          • West Germanic
            • Old …
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  74. Word Family - Duke

    January theme: Aristocratic Titles 👑

    Introduction

    Germanic really went to town with this root, creating a bunch of morphological forms that aren't attested in any other branches, and in a few cases I can't even relate them to any standard derivational forms I know in either PIE or Proto-Germanic.

    Teaser

    wanton …

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  75. Word Family - Rex

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This is the family that no matter how long I work on it, it's never done. That's what I get for trying to explore the possibility that two extremely important and productive roots may be connected: *h₂er-, related to cosmic order, and *h₃reǵ-, related …

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  76. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    • While it's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, they're all still awfully similar.
    • Looking at any two of "pour …
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  77. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do …

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  78. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds …

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  79. Word Family - Nectar

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    innocent, noxious, necromancer, nectar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- to perish, to disappear
      • Proto-Indo-European *néḱy-eti perishes, disappears imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *náĉyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit नश्यति naśyati to be lost, to perish, to disappear, to be gone
          • Iranian
            • Avestan nasiieiti
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian nʾsyd
      • Proto-Indo-European …
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  80. Word Family - Death

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Introduction

    A root meaning "to run, to depart" can be reconstructed from Hellenic and Indo-Iranian. But in Northwest branches, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly Italic, there is a phonologically identical root meaning "to die". So it's probably a euphemism coined in a Late Northwest Indo-European …

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  81. Word Family - Mummy

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    mu, mummy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *maʾ-
      • Berber
        • Tashelhit aman water
        • Tuareg ⵎⵏ aman water
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale am water
      • Egyptian 𓈖 mw water, rain, sea, lake
        • Demotic Egyptian mw
          • Coptic ⲙⲟⲟⲩ moou water
          • Egyptian Arabic امبو ʾumbū water, drink childish
          • Ancient Greek μῦ
            • Greek μι mi
            • English mu
              • English …
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  82. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    Tulips and lilies from Egyptian

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷:𓂋-𓂋:𓏏-𓆰 ḥrrt flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹-𓁷:𓂋-𓂋:𓏏-𓆰 jrj-ḥrrt to blossom lit. "make-flower" or "do-flower"
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Classical Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily …
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  83. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱 ābu elephant, ivory usually with determiner suffix 𓃰 or 𓌟 to distinguish between "elephant" and "ivory"
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Sanskrit …
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  84. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be warm, be hot
        • Proto-Indo-European *tep-eti …
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  85. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    ether, Aidan, edifice, anneal, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰ-eti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit 𑀏𑀥𑀢𑁂 édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic
          • Classical Greek αἴθω aíthō To kindle, to light, to burn
            • Classical Greek …
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  86. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass …
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  87. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sewer, sober

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic *aβon
          • Cumbric *avon
            • Cumbric *Ir Avon Fresh-Water …
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  88. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    chthonic, algorithm, humus, Demeter, Gaea, George, geometry, chameleon, camomile, humility, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰm̥ earth singular
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán / tēkan earth
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰōm the earth, the lands collective
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite *tagān
          • Hittite ta-ga-an-zi-pa-aš earth-goddess …
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  89. Word Family - Edge

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, tear, edge, axe, hammer, hear, acoustic, coin, cuneiform

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros …
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  90. Word Family - Avatar

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    avatar, trans-, tradition, nectar, thorough

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- to cross over, pass through, overcome
      • Proto-Indo-European *térh₂eti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *tárHati
          • Indo-Aryan *tárHati
            • Sanskrit तरति tarati pass over, float, swim
              • Sauraseni *tiradi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तैरना tairnā to float
          • Iranian *tárHatī
            • Avestan titarat̰ overcame
            • Northern …
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  91. Word Family - Queer

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    torque, torch, queer, intricate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷ- to turn
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷti
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒋻𒆪𒉿𒀭𒍣 tarku-zi performs a round dance, dances in twisting manner
      • Proto-Indo-European *terkʷeti
        • Albanian tjerr I spin
        • Hellenic
          • Mycenaean Greek *to-ro-qe
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀵𐀫𐀤𐀍𐀕𐀜 to-ro-qe-jo-me-no ?
            • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀵𐀫𐀣𐀲 e-to-ro-qa-ta oar holder, twisted …
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  92. Word Family - Two

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    two, neodymium, duet, biceps, bi-, biscuit, duplicate, Maldives, doppelganger, icosahedron, twin, nonbinary

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ two
      • Old Armenian երկու erku two [1]
        • Old Armenian կրկին krkin double, doubled, iterated
          • Armenian կրկին krkin double, again, once more
        • Armenian երկու erku two
      • Italic *duō two
        • Umbrian 𐌕𐌖𐌚 tuf two
        • Latin …
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  93. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic …
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  94. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ S …
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  95. Word Family - Cloth

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    clay, glue, cloth, cloud, child

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *gleh₁- ball up, amass
      • Proto-Indo-European *gleh₁y- to smear, to stick, to glue
        • Proto-Indo-European *gléh₁iti
          • Proto-Albanian *en-gleita
            • Albanian ngjit stick, glue, adhere
        • Proto-Indo-European *gloh₁iyós sticky
          • Germanic *klajjaz clay
            • Old English clǣġ clay
              • English clay
              • English clog …
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  96. Word Family - Text

    March theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    subtle, text, technology, dachshund, city, haunt, position

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *teḱ- to beget, to bring forth, to generate
      • Proto-Indo-European *téḱnom begotten
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τέκνον téknon child, descendant, young animal
            • Greek τέκνο tékno offspring, child
      • Proto-Indo-European *títḱe-ti Reduplicated thematic verb form
        • Hellenic *tíktō
          • Ancient Greek τίκτω tíktō …
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  97. Word Family - Easter

    Teaser

    Eärendil, Easter, air, soar, east, Austria, Australia, early

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old English Ēarendel …
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  98. Word Family - Cat

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    cat,caterpillar

    Full Text

    • Egyptian *Caw [1]
      • Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau cat dialectic
      • Egyptian *Cawt female cat with regular feminine -t
        • Aramaic qaṭṭu cat
          • Arabic قِطّ qiṭṭ cat
          • Hebrew חָתוּל khatúl cat
          • Old Armenian կատու katu cat
            • Armenian կատու katu cat
          • Georgian კატა ḳaṭa cat
          • Byzantine Greek …
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  99. Word Family - Cavalry

    March theme: Horses

    Teaser

    capercaillie, chivalry, cavalier, cavalry

    Full Text

    • ??
      • Turkic
        • Old Turkish käväl horse? [1]
        • Persian ?
        • Proto-Slavic *kobyla mare (female horse)
          • Russian кобы́ла kobýla mare
          • Polish kobyła mare
      • Saka kabä
      • Ancient Greek καβάλλης kabállēs nag, pony
      • Proto-Celtic *capallos
        • Brythonic *kappilos horse
          • Welsh ceffyl horse
            • English Cavall [2]
            • English Cabal …
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  100. Word Family - Equus

    March theme: March of Horses 🐎

    Teaser

    hippopotamus, equestrian, zebra

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁eḱ- swift, fast [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₁oh₁ḱus a *o-∅-us reduplicative adjective form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὠκῠ́ς ōkús fast, swift
            • Ancient Greek ποδώκης podṓkēs swift-footed
            • Ancient Greek ὠκῠ́ροος ōkúroos swift-flowing
              • Ancient Greek Ὠκυρόη Ōkuróē Swift-Flowing (personal name), river divinity …
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  101. Word Family - Smile

    Teaser

    mirror, admire, miracle, Miranda, smile

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *smey- to laugh, to be glad
      • Proto-Indo-European *sméyeti primry verb
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian smiêt to laugh
          • Slavic *smьjàti to laugh
            • East Slavic
              • Russian смеяться smejátʹsja to laugh, to mock
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian смѝјати smìjati to laugh
            • West Slavic
              • Polish śmiaćsię to …
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